Basic organization of synaptic cargo transport in the axon and dendrites. The neuronal plasma membrane features major functional specializations - presynaptic terminals along the axon, which release neurotransmitters, and postsynaptic terminals along the dendrites, which contains neurotransmitter receptors and associated scaffolding proteins. Transport and delivery of synaptic constituents is of key importance for synaptic functioning. Long distance transport through the dendritic or axonal shaft is mainly mediated by microtubule based motors whereas transport over shorter distances is myosin based. Most likely multiple motor proteins, myosin, kinesin and dynein, are bound to the same synaptic cargo. It has recently been shown that dynamic microtubules enter the actin-rich dendritic spine, allowing for both microtubule and actin dependent synaptic cargo transport. Activity regulated transport and targeting of synaptic components has become an attractive model for the regulation of the synapse specific membrane composition. TrkB, tyrosine receptor kinase B; PTV, Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicles; APOER2, Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2; Kv1, Axonal voltage gated potassium channel; SVP, Synaptic vesicle precursor; Mito, Mitochondria; NMDAR, NMDA receptor; AMPAR, AMPA receptor; RE, Recycling endosome; CaMK, Calcium calmodulin dependent kinase; GlyR, Glycine receptor.