Expression of mutated Rho GTPases in NSPCs. (A) Design of expression constructs of recombinant adenoviruses. DNA fragments coding three CA forms of Rho GTPases (G12V mutant of cdc42, G12V mutant of rac1, G14V mutant of rhoA) were placed under the control of a CAG promoter in combination with the reporter gene lacZ. DNA fragments coding three DN forms of Rho GTPases (T17N mutant of cdc42, T17N mutant of rac1, T19N mutant of rhoA) were also placed under the control of a CAG promoter in combination with the reporter gene GFP. Intervening internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) support the expression of reporter genes lacZ and GFP in these constructs. (B and C) Infection of cultured NSPCs with recombinant adenoviruses of CA forms (B) or DN forms (C) of Rho GTPases. Nestin-positive NSPCs expressed comparative amounts of β-galactosidase/GFP 2 days after infection. Bar, 20 μm.