Enhancement of cell survival in the injured spinal cord by suppression of Rho and Rac activity. (A) Distribution of transplanted stem cells expressing both RhoDN and RacDN 7 days after transplantation. Cells expressing both RhoDN and RacDN (green) survived in the injured spinal cord (arrow). The sections were stained with anti-neurofilament-200 antibody (red). Arrowhead indicates the site of transection. Bar, 200 μm. (B) Quantification of cells present in the injured spinal cords 7 days after transplantation of NSPCs expressing RhoDN and RacDN. There was a significant increase of surviving cell numbers after transplantation of DN forms of Rho and Rac (control; 179.7 ± 28.6 cells (n = 6), RhoDN and RacDN; 420.6 ± 72.2 cells (n = 5), t-test p < 0.01).