Knockdown of PD genes induces a wing position phenotype in adult flies. A-C, Ubiquitous knockdown of PD genes in flies induces an abnormal wing position phenotype (i.e. held up or drooped wing). A. Wild-type wing position in flies carrying only the tub-GAL4 driver. B, A park knockdown fly (i.e. a fly carrying both the tub-GAL4 driver and UAS-park-RNAi transgene). The "held-up" wing position phenotype was observed when UAS-park-RNAi was ubiquitously expressed under control of the tub-GAL4 driver. C, The "drooped" wing phenotype was observed in a Pink1 knockdown fly (i.e. a fly carrying both the tub-GAL4 driver and UAS-Pink1-RNAi transgene). D, Survival curves of park knockdown flies (solid line) and control flies (i.e. flies carrying only the UAS-park transgene) (dashed line). The experiments were performed at 25°C (green) and 29°C (red). Numbers in brackets represent sample numbers. Error bars represent SEM.