Transplantation of hGal1-hNSPCs reduced infarct volume after brain ischemia to a greater extent than hNSPCs alone. A: hNSPCs were cultured in vitro for more than 10 weeks (a, transmitted light image, b, GFP-filtered image under fluorescent light) and induced to express hGal1 using lentivirus (c, transmitted light image, d, GFP-filtered image under fluorescent light). (Scale bar: 50 μm) B. After transplantation, hNSPCs-derived cells (Green) survived, with some expressing a mature neuronal marker, NeuN (Red)(Arrows). (Scale bar: 10 μm). B' and B", z-stack images. C. Representative images of Nissl staining of hNSPCs- or hGal1-hNSPCs-transplanted gerbil brains. (Scale bar: 500 μm). Ischemia was induced unilaterally (on the left side). Note the enlargement of the LV and marked neuronal loss particularly evident in neuronal-dense areas such as the hippocampus (arrow) in the hNSPCs group, which were recovered the in hGal1-hNSPCs group. LV, lateral ventricle. D. The volume of the ischemic area was significantly reduced in the hGal1-hNSPCs group (n = 7) compared to the hNSPCs group (n = 6)(*p < 0.05).