Transplantation of hGal1-hNSPCs promoted better functional recovery after brain ischemia than hNSPCs alone. A: Cognitive function was analyzed by the T-maze test before and after the induction of ischemia. Before ischemia, gerbils showed around a 80% preference for left choices (day - 4). After ischemia, both groups showed equivalent recovery. Black line: hNSPCs (n = 6), dotted line: hGal1-hNSPCs (n = 7). B. Sensory function was examined using the BAT. Both group showed similar recovery across the observation period. The hGal1-hNSPCs group (dotted line: n = 7) showed a tendency toward better recovery (reduced time to remove tape attached to forelimbs) on day 30 compared to the hNSPCs group (black line: n = 6). C. EBST was performed to examine motor function. After brain ischemia, gerbils showed a tendency to swing their bodies towards the non-ischemic side (day 0). Motor function gradually improved in both groups after transplantation. The hGal1-hNSPCs group (dotted line: n = 7) showed better recovery overall compared to the hNSPCs group (black line: n = 6) (**p < 0.005).