Presence of miR-134 in Xenopus neural tissues. (A) Taqman stem-loop real-time PCR assays on the expression of three miRNAs, miR-103, miR-134, and miR-191 in rat brain, whole Xenopus embryos, and Xenopus neural tube tissues. Please note that both Xenopus samples were total RNAs, whereas the rat brain sample was processed for microRNA enrichment using a mirVana miRNA isolation kit (see Methods). As a result, the microRNA level in the rat brain sample was much higher and merely serves as a positive control. The relative miRNA levels are plotted in logarithmic scale. The error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Asterisk: p < 0.01 Student's t-test. (B) Whole mount in situ analysis of miR-134 expression in Xenopus embryos (stage 24) using a LNA probe against miR-134 or a scrambled probe. Cross sections of the spinal cord are shown on the right side. Dotted red lines depict the boundary of miR-134 positive and negative regions.