Ultrastructural changes in astrocytes derived from D-HD-iPSC. A: Numerous electron clear vacuoles were observed within the cytoplasm of astrocytes. B, C: A few autophagocytic vacuoles with myelin whorls (arrows) in astrocytes. D: Sample image of an astrocyte with many empty cytoplasmic vacuoles. Higher magnification revealed an autophagocytic vacuole with myelin whorls (E) and large spherical cytoplasmic granules representing lipid droplets (F). G, H, I: Chloroquine treated astrocytes exhibited numerous cytoplasmic vacuolation and proliferation of lysosomes. Scale bars: 2 μm (A-D, G, H) or 500 nm (E, F, I).