Impaired astrocytes were subsequently recovered in the LPS-injected SNpc. (A-D) LPS (5 μg/2 μl) was injected into the SNpc. Sections obtained at the indicated times after LPS injection were labeled with antibodies specific for GFAP (A), S100β (B), EAAT1 (C), and Kir 4.1 (D), and visualized with peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies. Lower panels (SNpc and SNr) are higher magnification images of boxed areas (SNpc and SNr) in upper panels. Arrows indicate GFAP+ (A), S100β+ (B) EAAT1+ (C) and Kir4.1+ (D) cells. Contralateral (Contra) sides of LPS-injected animals and PBS-injected animals were used as controls. Asterisks (*) indicate injection sites. Scale bars, 1 mm (upper panels in A), 200 μm (upper panels in C-E), 50 μm (lower panels in A), 20 μm (lower panels in C-E). (E-H) GFAP-, S100β-, EAAT1-, and Kir 4.1-negative areas in every sixth brain section were quantified using Axiovision image analysis software, as described in “Materials and Methods”. Values are means ± SEMs of at least three samples (*p < 0.01; **p < 0.001; Student’s t-test). Three or more animals were used for each time point. All data presented in this study are representative of at least three independent experiments unless indicated.