Iba-1+/CD45+round cells in LPS-injected SNpc were alternatively activated. (A, B) At the indicated times after LPS or PBS injection, brain tissue blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm) were obtained, and the levels of TNF-α, iNOS, TGF-β1, and MR mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR (A). Band intensities in (A) were analyzed and plotted (B). Intact (Int) SNpc was used as a control. (C-G) Sections were obtained at the indicated times after LPS injection and labeled with combinations of markers of microglia/monocytes (CD11b, CD45, Iba-1), neutrophils (MPO, myeloperoxidase), proinflammatory mediators (iNOS and IL-1beta), and alternative activation and phagocytosis (MR, CD68, and LAMP2). iNOS was detected in neutrophils and IL-1beta in ramified cells, respectively. All of MR, CD68, and LAMP2 were detected in round cells but not in ramified cells. Values in (B) are means ± SEMs of more than three samples (*p < 0.05; **, p < 0.001 for PBS vs. LPS; Student’s t-test). Data shown in (A and C-G) are representative of more than three samples. Intact SN region (Int) and PBS injection were used as controls. Scale bars, 20 μm (C-G).