pre-HD subjects and stage I HD patients showed lower percentage of TGF-β1-producing (TGF-β1+) monocytes compared to healthy control subjects and late stage HD patients. A and B, Bar histograms showing the percentage of TGF-β1-producing lymphocytes and granulocytes in HD individuals (grey bars) and healthy control subjects (white bar). C, Bar histograms showing reduced percentage of TGF-β1+ monocytes in pre-manifested (pre-HD) subjects and stage I HD patients with respect to healthy controls (CTRL) and late stage HD patients (HD). D, Bar histograms showing similar intracellular TGF-β1 content (MFU) in monocytes from HD individuals (grey bars) and healthy control subjects (white bar). Data are shown as mean ± s.d. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.001 (ANOVA, Tukey post-hoc test).