Percentage of TGF- β1+macrophages was reduced in pre-manifested subjects (pre-HD) and stage I HD patients. A, Bar histograms showing reduced percentage of TGF-β1+ macrophages in pre-symptomatic (pre-HD) and stage I HD individuals compared to healthy controls (CTRL) and late stage HD patients (HD). B, Bar histograms showing increased intracellular TGF-β1 content, MFU, in macrophages from HD individuals (grey bars) and healthy control subjects (white bar). C, Bar histograms showing increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 in pre-HD subjects compared to healthy controls (CTRL) and HD patients. Data are shown as mean ± s.d. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.001 (ANOVA, Tukey post-hoc test).