Changes in infarct volume and mortality. (A) 2% 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining of ischemic infarct regions in alpha-lipoic acid (aLA) and control animals following artificial occlusion of the left MCA at 1, 3, and 7 days after the occlusion. (B) Infarct volume was quantified and compared between the three groups. Infarct volume significantly decreased in the aLA group 7 days after occlusion (†P < 0.01 as compared to the control; Student’s unpaired t test). Data represents mean ± SEM (n = 10 rats/day in aLA, control, and HNMPA groups, n = 1 rat/day in the sham group). (C) Kaplan–Meier survival curves for aLA (n = 71), control (vehicle alone, n = 71), and HNMPA (n = 49) groups over 56 days following left MCAO.