GRP78 may activate autophagy through AMPK-mTOR pathway. (A), (B) The PC12 cells were incubated with BAPTA 60 min before the onset of IPC. Then the cells were harvested 12 h after IPC and subjected to Western blotting analysis. (A) BAPTA reduced p-AMPK/AMPK ratio. (B) BAPTA increased p-mTOR/mTOR ratio. B (L) = BAPTA 0.125 μM; B (M) = BAPTA 0.5 μM; B (H) = BAPTA 2 μM. (C)-(E) The control, LV-vector, LV-GRP78-PC12 cells were harvested and subjected to Western blotting analysis. (C) p-AMPK/AMPK ratio was upregulated in LV-GRP78-PC12 cells. (D) p-mTOR/mTOR ratio was downregulated in LV-GRP78-PC12 cells. (E) p-P70S6K/P70S6K ratio was downregulated in LV-GRP78-PC12 cells. n = 3. *P < 0.05 compared with the control group; # P < 0.05 compared with the IPC group; $$ P < 0.01 compared with LV- vector.