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Fig. 1 | Molecular Brain

Fig. 1

From: Insulin and IGF1 signalling pathways in human astrocytes in vitro and in vivo; characterisation, subcellular localisation and modulation of the receptors

Fig. 1

Schematic of the insulin/IGF1R signalling pathway. A simplified representation of the insulin/IGF1 signalling pathway depicting the downstream activation of Akt and p44-42 MAPK through binding of insulin or IGF1 to their respective receptors. Furthermore insulin can bind to IGF1R and IGF1 to IR and IR α-subunits/ β-subunits can form heterodimers with IGF1R α-subunits /β-subunits adding further complexity at the level of the receptors. There are also numerous downstream feedback loops within this and other signalling pathways which act to regulate signalling through this pathway at multiple levels

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