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Fig. 5 | Molecular Brain

Fig. 5

From: Insulin and IGF1 signalling pathways in human astrocytes in vitro and in vivo; characterisation, subcellular localisation and modulation of the receptors

Fig. 5

Immunohistochemistry showing the localisation of phospho-IRS1 in human brain (control and Alzheimer’s disease cases [n = 3]). Each panel is a representative figure from either 3 control or 3 AD cases. a-f pIRS1 S616 labelled temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus [DG]). Positive neuronal nuclei (black arrows) and small cells (white arrows) are evident in control brain (a-c). In AD brain (d-f) a large proportion of nuclei are negative (black asterix) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) (green arrows) and neuritic plaques (green stars) are immunopositive for pIRS1 S616. g-i pIRS1 S636/639 stained TCx and CA1, a similar pattern of staining to pIRS1 S616 is evident in control TCx (g) although there is little nuclear immunoreactivity in control CA1 (h) and there are immunopositive NFTS (green arrow) and dot like structures resembling granulovacular degeneration (GVD) (green star) in AD CA1 region (i). j-l pIRS1 Y612 staining was predominantly nuclear in control DG (j) (neuronal = black arrow, small cells = white arrow) and was both cytoplasmic and nuclear in control CA1. In AD brain (l) pIRS1 Y612 labelled NFTS (green arrow) and GVD (green arrow). m-o demonstrates colocalisation of GFAP-positive astrocytes (red) with pIRS1 S616 (brown) (CA1 region, AD brain)

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