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Fig. 2 | Molecular Brain

Fig. 2

From: Ascending noradrenergic excitation from the locus coeruleus to the anterior cingulate cortex

Fig. 2

Noradrenaline facilitates the spontaneous glutamatergic transmitter release in layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the adult mice ACC via β receptor. a Raw trace of sEPSCs in baseline and NA (10 μM) after 15 min application. b The histogram showing the frequency of sEPSCs of neuron in a. c Cumulative probability histogram and averaged results showing the frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs before and after NA (10 μM) application. *, p < 0.05; ns, p > 0.05. n = 8, Paired t-test. d Averaged results showing the frequency of sEPSCs are increased after NA (10, 50 or 100 μM) application (10 μM: 277 ± 20% of baseline, n = 8; 50 μM: 253 ± 18% of baseline, n = 8; 100 μM: 359 ± 83% of baseline, n = 7). *P < 0.05, Baseline vs. NA (10 μM or 50 μM), **P < 0.01, Baseline vs. NA (100 μM), One-way ANOVA. e Sample traces of sEPSCs by NA (10 μM) after 15 min in the presence of an α1 receptor antagonist prazosin (1 μM), α2 receptor antagonist yohimbine (1 μM) or β receptor antagonist propranolol (1 μM). f The β receptor antagonist, but not α1 receptor antagonist nor α2 receptor antagonist blocks NA-induced enhanced frequency of sEPSCs (yohimbine: 7.75 ± 0.56 Hz; yohimbine + NA: 12.83 ± 1.40 Hz, n = 12; prazosin: 5.86 ± 0.71 Hz; prazosin + NA: 12.21 ± 1.48 Hz, n = 10; propranolol: 6.69 ± 0.42 Hz; propranolol + NA; 9.13 ± 1.03 Hz, n = 10). *P < 0.05, yohimbine vs. yohimibine + NA; prazosin vs. prazosin + NA (left panel). NS indicates no statistical significance between propranolol and propranolol + NA. Receptor antagonists do not change the averaged amplitude of sEPSCs (yohimbine: 7.77 ± 0.17 pA; yohimbine + NA: 7.06 ± 0.06 pA, n = 12; prazosin: 7.77 ± 0.35 pA; prazosin + NA: 7.44 ± 0.28 pA, n = 10; propranolol: 7.57 ± 0.17 pA; propranolol + NA; 7.96 ± 0.29 pA, n = 10) (right panel). Paired t-test. g Sample traces of sIPSCs in baseline (left) and NA (10 μM, right) after 15 min application. h Averaged frequency (Baseline: 7.73 ± 2.30 Hz; NA: 6.44 ± 1.88 Hz, n = 5; left panel) and amplitude (Baseline: 25.84 ± 2.56 pA; NA: 21.63 ± 2.18 pA, n = 5; right panel) of sIPSCs before and after NA application. NS indicates no statistical significance among the groups. Paired t-test

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