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Fig. 5 | Molecular Brain

Fig. 5

From: Ascending noradrenergic excitation from the locus coeruleus to the anterior cingulate cortex

Fig. 5

Activation of LC or application of NA enhances neuronal activities in the ACC in vivo.a Scheme showing the extracellular recording from ACC neurons with electric stimulation in the LC or with the microinjection of NA into the ACC. a Sample trace showing electric stimulation of LC enhances the frequency of spikes in the ACC. a Sample trace showing microinjection of NA into the ACC increases the frequency of spikes in the ACC neurons. d Time course of spikes and bursting duration of the ACC neurons after electric stimulation of the LC in b or microinjection of NA in c. e-f, Sample traces showing local application of a β receptor agonist Isoproterenol (37 μg/0.5 μL) or α1 receptor agonist Phenylephrine (5 μg/0.5 μL) increased the frequency of spikes in the ACC. g Time course of spikes and bursting duration induced by microinjection of Isoproterenol (left) or Phenylephrine (right). h Relative frequency of spikes of ACC neurons induced by LC electric stimulation or microinjection into ACC with NA, Isoproterenol or Phenylephrine (LC stimulation: 226 ± 23% of baseline, n = 7; NA injection; 143 ± 12% of baseline, n = 5; Isoproterenol: 220 ± 33% of baseline, n = 12). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, compared with baseline. Paired t-test

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