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Table 4 Behaviors of male BTBR mice treated with vehicle (VEH) or dopamine (DA). *p < 0.05, paired t-tests compared to VEH. #p < 0.05, paired t-tests compared to the empty cup exploration within the same group. †p < 0.05, one-sample t-tests compared to 0. Values are shown as mean ± SEM. Note: in the object-based attention test, although the preference for the novel over old object was moderate (p = 0.063), the object-recognition index of the DA-treated group remained positive

From: Altered dopaminergic pathways and therapeutic effects of intranasal dopamine in two distinct mouse models of autism

Elevated plus maze VEH DA
distance (cm) 863.63 ± 78.81 1036.18 ± 114.71
center entry (counts) 36.00 ± 4.41 38.75 ± 4.34
open-arms entry (counts) 14.38 ± 2.17 13.75 ± 2.02
closed-arms entry (counts) 23.38 ± 2.01 27.00 ± 2.56 *
center time (seconds) 51.05 ± 9.31 46.60 ± 5.74
open-arms time (seconds) 42.10 ± 7.07 42.23 ± 6.67
closed-arms time (seconds) 206.85 ± 14.32 211.19 ± 11.35
head-dips (seconds) 8.28 ± 3.02 8.85 ± 1.11
Open field   
 distance 0–5 min (cm) 1451.73 ± 175.70 1831.94 ± 122.04
 distance 5–10 min (cm) 1137.80 ± 233.01 1184.25 ± 106.78
 distance 10–15 min (cm) 980.48 ± 158.01 1148.89 ± 155.66
 thigmotaxis 0–5 min (% by distance) 76.99 ± 3.95 64.68 ± 4.33 *
 thigmotaxis 5–10 min (% by distance) 66.20 ± 2.98 58.51 ± 2.97
 thigmotaxis 10–15 min (% by distance) 67.12 ± 4.13 63.13 ± 5.42
 grooming 0–5 min (seconds) 9.33 ± 2.51 6.43 ± 1.85
 grooming 5–10 min (seconds) 21.09 ± 13.57 17.90 ± 4.83
 grooming 10–15 min (seconds) 31.64 ± 12.88 30.43 ± 10.10
 center time 0–5 min (seconds) 4.00 ± 1.60 7.94 ± 2.99
 center time 5–10 min (seconds) 4.45 ± 2.00 7.46 ± 2.18
 center time 10–15 min (seconds) 8.04 ± 4.04 10.13 ± 5.61
 rearing 0–5 min (counts) 6.00 ± 1.85 8.13 ± 1.67
 rearing 5–10 min (counts) 7.00 ± 2.54 6.00 ± 1.41
 rearing 10–15 min (counts) 10.71 ± 3.61 11.88 ± 3.77
 rearing 0–5 min (seconds/count) 0.61 ± 0.08 0.77 ± 0.07
 rearing 5–10 min (seconds/count) 0.65 ± 0.10 0.69 ± 0.10
 rearing 10–15 min (seconds/count) 0.74 ± 0.15 0.81 ± 0.08
Object-based attention
 total exploration (seconds)_learning 22.06 ± 3.40 20.40 ± 1.12
 old object (seconds)_test 10.18 ± 2.78 6.15 ± 1.11
 novel object (seconds)_test 8.61 ± 1.54 13.90 ± 3.77
 index −0.05 ± 0.12 0.31 ± 0.10 †
 total exploration (seconds)_test 18.79 ± 3.24 20.05 ± 4.31
Three-chamber
 stranger exploration (seconds) 45.90 ± 8.23 60.69 ± 9.07 #
 empty cup exploration (seconds) 37.43 ± 7.21 25.88 ± 3.81
 index 0.12 ± 0.06 0.39 ± 0.06 †
 total exploration (seconds) 83.33 ± 14.64 86.56 ± 11.81