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Fig. 3 | Molecular Brain

Fig. 3

From: Neuronal excitatory-to-inhibitory balance is altered in cerebral organoid models of genetic neurological diseases

Fig. 3

Genetic defects altered the expression levels and functions of synaptic markers that are essential for synapse formation. a A heatmap displaying the Z-scores of the total protein levels of essential synaptic proteins in 6–10-month-old HC and dCOs (PRNPE200K1, PRNPE200K2, T21, and LRRK2G2019S). See Additional file 13 for the representative images and quantifications. b A heatmap displaying the Z-scores of the active levels of essential synaptic proteins in HC and genetic defect organoids. See Additional file 14 for the representative images and quantifications. a, b Protein levels in the mutants were compared with the HC by One-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s correction multiple comparisons. c A heatmap displaying the Z-scores of the Delta Ct from the qRT-PCR analysis of various neurotransmitter receptors of HC, PRNPE200K1 and T21 organoids. The mRNA levels in the organoids with genetic defects were compared to the HC by Two-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s correction for multiple comparisons. See Additional file 15 for additional data. d Representative confocal immunofluorescence images displaying the colocalizations of SYN1(red), MAP2(green), and NR1 (magenta). e Representative immunofluorescence images showing the colocalizations of VGLUT1 (red), PSD95 (green), and GABA(A)Rs (magenta). f–j The degree of colocalization between SYN1 and MAP2 (f), VGLUT1 and PSD95 (g), NR1 and SYN1 (h), VGLUT1 and GABA(A)Rs (i), and PSD95 and GABA(A)Rs (j). f–j n = 6 in HC and n = 3 in the genetic defect organoids. The average Pearson’s correlation coefficient or degree of colocalization was compared between organoid lines by One-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s correction for multiple comparisons. ac The heatmap key is on the right panel of (a). d scale bar represents 50 μm. Each point on the graphs represents an individual organoid. Bars and error denote mean and SEM. * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001

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