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Table 1 Summary of regions showing automatic value retrieval responses in the primate basal ganglia

From: Brain substrates for automatic retrieval of value memory in the primate basal ganglia

Region in the basal ganglia Function Putative
cell type
/Target region
Behavioral task Manipulation Subject References
Method Effect
Tail of the caudate nucleus (caudal region) Automatic value retrieval,
Spatial selectivity,
Stimulus–response process
Medium
spiny
neuron
/
Caudal-ventral SNr,
Caudal-ventral GPe
Long-term value learning,
Passive-viewing,
Free-viewing,
Free-looking,
Category learning,
Motor learning
Inactivation by muscimol injection,
Neurotoxic lesion
Deficit
in LTVM-guided automatic eye movement,
Deficit in visual habit
Macaque monkey, Human [12, 15,16,17, 52]
Ventral striatum (caudal region) Automatic value retrieval Medium
spiny
neuron
/
n/a
Long-term value learning,
Passive-viewing,
Free-viewing
n/a n/a Macaque monkey,
Human
[13]
Globus pallidus
external segment
(caudal-ventral
region)
Automatic value retrieval,
Spatial selectivity
Medium
spiny
neuron
/
Caudal-ventral SNr
Long-term value learning,
Passive-viewing,
Free-viewing
n/a n/a Macaque monkey [19, 25, 33]
Substantia nigra pars reticulata (caudal-lateral region) Automatic value retrieval,
Spatial selectivity
Medium
spiny
neuron
/
Superior colliculus
Long-term value learning,
Passive-viewing,
Free-viewing
n/a n/a Macaque monkey [21, 34]
Substantia nigra pars compacta (caudal-ventral
region)
Automatic value retrieval,
Spatial selectivity
Dopamine
neuron
/
Caudate tail
Long-term value learning,
Passive-viewing,
Free-viewing
n/a n/a Macaque monkey [14, 29]
Putamen (caudal-ventral
region)
Automatic value retrieval,
Spatial selectivity
Medium
spiny
neuron
/
n/a
Long-term value learning,
Passive-viewing,
Free-viewing,
Visual discrimination
Neurotoxic lesion Deficit in visual habit Macaque monkey [12, 53]
  1. Automatic value retrieval neurons were identified by the value discrimination responses in passive-viewing task with macaque monkeys. Value discrimination responses in the human brain regions were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. LTVM long-term value memory, GPe globus pallidus external segment, SNr Substantia nigra pars reticulata, n/a not available