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  1. Higher brain function is supported by the precise temporal and spatial regulation of thousands of genes. The mechanisms that underlie transcriptional regulation in the brain, however, remain unclear. The Ntng1 an...

    Authors: Kunio Yaguchi, Sachiko Nishimura-Akiyoshi, Satoshi Kuroki, Takashi Onodera and Shigeyoshi Itohara

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:19

    Content type: Research

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  2. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can deliver transgenes to diverse cell types and are therefore useful for basic research and gene therapy. Although AAV has many advantages over other viral vectors, its re...

    Authors: Jun-Hyeok Choi, Nam-Kyung Yu, Gi-Chul Baek, Joseph Bakes, Daekwan Seo, Hye Jin Nam, Sung Hee Baek, Chae-Seok Lim, Yong-Seok Lee and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:17

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. Rats exhibit extremely limited motor function recovery after total transection of the spinal cord (SCT). We previously reported that SM-216289, a semaphorin3A inhibitor, enhanced axon regeneration and motor fu...

    Authors: Liang Zhang, Shinjiro Kaneko, Kaoru Kikuchi, Akihiko Sano, Miho Maeda, Akiyoshi Kishino, Shinsuke Shibata, Masahiko Mukaino, Yoshiaki Toyama, Meigen Liu, Toru Kimura, Hideyuki Okano and Masaya Nakamura

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:14

    Content type: Research

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  4. Excess expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the cortex and hippocampus causes a decrease in the number of glutamatergic synapses and alters the expression of neurexin and neuroligin, trans-synaptic pro...

    Authors: Yun-Yan Xiang, Haiheng Dong, Burton B Yang, John F MacDonald and Wei-Yang Lu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:15

    Content type: Research

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  5. We have previously identified BRINP (BMP/RA-inducible neural-specific protein-1, 2, 3) family genes that possess the ability to suppress cell cycle progression in neural stem cells. Of the three family members...

    Authors: Miwako Kobayashi, Toshiyuki Nakatani, Toshiaki Koda, Ken-ichi Matsumoto, Ryosuke Ozaki, Natsuki Mochida, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Ichiro Matsuoka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:12

    Content type: Research

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  6. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)/ Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS) is an effective therapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression disorder. The molecular and ...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Rong-Rong Mao, Zhi-Fang Chen, Meng Tian, Da-Li Tong, Zheng-Run Gao, Min Huang, Xiao Li, Xiu Xu, Wen-Hao Zhou, Cheng-Yu Li, Jiang Wang, Lin Xu and Zilong Qiu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:11

    Content type: Research

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  7. VPS35 (vacuolar protein sorting 35) is a major component of retromer that selectively promotes endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of transmembrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for the pathogenes...

    Authors: Wei Liu, Fu-Lei Tang, Joanna Erion, Hang Xiao, Jian Ye and Wen-Cheng Xiong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:10

    Content type: Research

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  8. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5 receptors) have important roles in synaptic activity in the central nervous system. They modulate neuronal excitability by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ following...

    Authors: Seung-Eon Roh, Yun Hwa Hong, Dong Cheol Jang, Jun Kim and Sang Jeong Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:9

    Content type: Research

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  9. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4 is an important A-type potassium channel and modulates the excitability of neurons in central nervous system. Analysis of the interaction between Kv1.4 and its interac...

    Authors: Chunliang Xie, Haibo Su, Tianyao Guo, Yizhong Yan, Xiaozhen Peng, Rui Cao, Ying Wang, Ping Chen, Xianchun Wang and Songping Liang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:4

    Content type: Research

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  10. The output of the neuronal digital spikes is fulfilled by axonal propagation and synaptic transmission to influence postsynaptic cells. Similar to synaptic transmission, spike propagation on the axon is not se...

    Authors: Zhilai Yang, Erwei Gu, Xianfu Lu and Jin-Hui Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:1

    Content type: Research

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  11. Neuropeptides are a diverse category of signaling molecules in the nervous system regulating a variety of processes including food intake, social behavior, circadian rhythms, learning, and memory. Both the ide...

    Authors: Joseph P Salisbury, Kristin J Boggio, Yun-Wei A Hsu, Jeniffer Quijada, Anna Sivachenko, Gabriele Gloeckner, Paul J Kowalski, Michael L Easterling, Michael Rosbash and Jeffrey N Agar

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:60

    Content type: Methodology

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  12. Several etiological reports have shown that chronic pain significantly interferes with sleep. Inadequate sleep due to chronic pain may contribute to the stressful negative consequences of living with pain. How...

    Authors: Hisakatsu Ito, Makoto Yanase, Akira Yamashita, Chigusa Kitabatake, Asami Hamada, Yuki Suhara, Michiko Narita, Daigo Ikegami, Hiroyasu Sakai, Mitsuaki Yamazaki and Minoru Narita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:59

    Content type: Research

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  13. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) are both ligand-gated ion channels permeable to Ca2+ and Na+. Previous studies have demonstrated functional modulation of NMDARs...

    Authors: Shupeng Li, Qiang Nai, Tatiana V Lipina, John C Roder and Fang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:58

    Content type: Research

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  14. Noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists evoke a behavioral and neurobiological syndrome in experimental animals. We previously reported that phencyclidine (PCP), an NMDA receptor antagonis...

    Authors: Hideko Yamamoto, Etsuko Kamegaya, Wakako Sawada, Ryota Hasegawa, Toshifumi Yamamoto, Yoko Hagino, Yukio Takamatsu, Kazuhide Imai, Hisashi Koga, Masayoshi Mishina and Kazutaka Ikeda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:56

    Content type: Research

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  15. Huntington Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein (Htt). Mutant HTT (mHtt) leads to progressive impairment of several molec...

    Authors: Alba Di Pardo, Silvia Alberti, Vittorio Maglione, Enrico Amico, Etty P Cortes, Francesca Elifani, Giuseppe Battaglia, Carla L Busceti, Ferdinando Nicoletti, JeanPaul G Vonsattel and Ferdinando Squitieri

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:55

    Content type: Research

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  16. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter that mediates a principal form of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. From the presynaptic terminals of neurons, glutamate is released upon exocytosis of the ...

    Authors: Hyungju Park, Kyung-Seok Han, Soo-Jin Oh, Seonmi Jo, Junsung Woo, Bo-Eun Yoon and C Justin Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:54

    Content type: Research

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  17. Sensory input is generally thought to be necessary for refining and consolidating neuronal connections during brain development. We here report that cortical callosal axons in somatosensory cortex require sens...

    Authors: Ying Huang, Ning-Ning Song, Wei Lan, Qiong Zhang, Ling Zhang, Lei Zhang, Ling Hu, Jia-Yin Chen, Chun-Jie Zhao, Lingjiang Li, Lin Xu and Yu-Qiang Ding

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:53

    Content type: Research

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  18. Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are inherited diseases caused by glycosylation defects. Incorrectly glycosylated proteins induce protein misfolding and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The most ...

    Authors: Liangwu Sun, Yingjun Zhao, Kun Zhou, Hudson H Freeze, Yun-wu Zhang and Huaxi Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:52

    Content type: Research

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  19. The angiotensin system has several non-vascular functions in the central nervous system. For instance, inhibition of the brain angiotensin system results in a reduction in neuronal death following acute brain ...

    Authors: Mi-Ha Park, Ha Na Kim, Joon Seo Lim, Jae-Sung Ahn and Jae-Young Koh

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:50

    Content type: Research

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  20. Adult neurogenesis, fundamental for cellular homeostasis in the mammalian olfactory epithelium, requires major shifts in gene expression to produce mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) from multipotent prog...

    Authors: Paula M Heron, Arnold J Stromberg, Patrick Breheny and Timothy S McClintock

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:49

    Content type: Research

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  21. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a genetic disorder characterized by severe ataxia associated with progressive loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptor plays a key ro...

    Authors: Serena Notartomaso, Cristina Zappulla, Francesca Biagioni, Milena Cannella, Domenico Bucci, Giada Mascio, Pamela Scarselli, Francesco Fazio, Filippo Weisz, Luana Lionetto, Maurizio Simmaco, Roberto Gradini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Michele Signore, Aldamaria Puliti and Ferdinando Nicoletti

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:48

    Content type: Research

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  22. Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, have been suggested to be involved in both the metabolism and aggregation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Despite thei...

    Authors: Kyongman An, Igor Klyubin, Youngkyu Kim, Jung Hoon Jung, Alexandra J Mably, Sean T O’Dowd, Timothy Lynch, Daniel Kanmert, Cynthia A Lemere, Gina M Finan, Joon Won Park, Tae-Wan Kim, Dominic M Walsh, Michael J Rowan and Joung-Hun Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:47

    Content type: Research

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  23. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated...

    Authors: Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Ching-Han Yu, Jiuan-Miaw Liao and Dong-Yih Kuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:46

    Content type: Research

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  24. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is widely used totreat depression and anxiety disorders, but cellular mechanisms underlyingthe antidepressant effect of FLX remain largely unknown. T...

    Authors: Koji Ohira, Rika Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Iwanaga and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:43

    Content type: Research

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  25. A luminex-based screen of cytokine expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nerve of type 1 diabetic rodents revealed interleukin-1 (IL-1α) and IL-1β to be significantly depressed. We, therefore, tested the...

    Authors: Ali Saleh, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Darrell R Smith, Savitha Balakrishnan, Lori Tessler, Emily Schartner, Andre Bilodeau, Randy Van Der Ploeg and Paul Fernyhough

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:45

    Content type: Research

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  26. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of a large number of drugs currently in therapeutic use. Likewise, the glutamate ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in certain...

    Authors: Ana Vicente-Sánchez, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, María Rodríguez-Muñoz and Javier Garzón

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:42

    Content type: Research

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  27. Mammalian sires participate in infant care. We previously demonstrated that sires of a strain of nonmonogamous laboratory mice initiate parental retrieval behavior in response to olfactory and auditory signals...

    Authors: Shirin Akther, Natalia Korshnova, Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Stanislav M Cherepanov, Olga Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Alla B Salmina, Tomoko Nishimura, Azam AKM Fakhrul, Hirokazu Hirai, Ichiro Kato, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Shin Takasawa, Hiroshi Okamoto and Haruhiro Higashida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:41

    Content type: Research

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  28. The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) participates in normal post-transcriptional control of cytokine and chemokine gene expression, dysregulation of which contributes to the HIV-associated neurocognit...

    Authors: Jonathan Liu, Jeanne M Sisk, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements and Kenneth W Witwer

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:40

    Content type: Research

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  29. Intracellular Ca2+ regulates many aspects of neuronal function through Ca2+ binding to EF hand-containing Ca2+ sensors that in turn bind target proteins to regulate their function. Amongst the sensors are the neu...

    Authors: Victoria M Martin, James R Johnson, Lee P Haynes, Jeff W Barclay and Robert D Burgoyne

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:39

    Content type: Research

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  30. αCaMKII plays central and essential roles in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. αCaMKII is activated via binding with Ca2+/CaM in response to elevated Ca2+ concentration. Furthermore, prolonged in...

    Authors: Ken-ichi Kato, Taku Iwamoto and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:37

    Content type: Research

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  31. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels with essential roles in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the CNS. As co-receptors for glutamate and glycine, gating of the NMDA receptor/channe...

    Authors: Lu Han, Verónica A Campanucci, James Cooke and Michael W Salter

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:36

    Content type: Research

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  32. In autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinsonism (PARK2), the pathogenetic process from the loss of function of a ubiquitin ligase parkin to the death of dopamine neurons remains unclear. A dominant hypothesis ...

    Authors: Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Hodaka Yamakado, Takao Morita, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Ryosuke Takahashi and Makoto Kinoshita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:35

    Content type: Research

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  33. Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a hallmark of various retinal diseases including glaucoma, retinal ischemia, and diabetic retinopathy. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-media...

    Authors: Ning Bai, Tomomi Aida, Michiko Yanagisawa, Sayaka Katou, Kenji Sakimura, Masayoshi Mishina and Kohichi Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:34

    Content type: Research

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  34. Down’s syndrome (DS) is caused by triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 and is characterized by a decrease in the overall size of the brain. One of the brain regions most affected is the cerebellu...

    Authors: Marianna Szemes, Rachel L Davies, Claire LP Garden and Maria M Usowicz

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:33

    Content type: Research

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  35. Pain and natural rewards such as food elicit different behavioral effects. Both pain and rewards, however, have been shown to alter synaptic activities in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key component of the br...

    Authors: David S Tukey, Michelle Lee, Duo Xu, Sarah E Eberle, Yossef Goffer, Toby R Manders, Edward B Ziff and Jing Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:32

    Content type: Short report

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  36. A long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1_2 (NEAT1_2), constitutes nuclear bodies known as “paraspeckles”. Mutations of RNA binding proteins, including TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (...

    Authors: Yoshinori Nishimoto, Shinichi Nakagawa, Tetsuro Hirose, Hirotaka James Okano, Masaki Takao, Shinsuke Shibata, Satoshi Suyama, Ken-ichiro Kuwako, Takao Imai, Shigeo Murayama, Norihiro Suzuki and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:31

    Content type: Research

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