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  1. Content type: Research

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in sensory, cognitive, and executive functions. Studies of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the ACC provide an understanding of basic cellular and molecul...

    Authors: Long-Jun Wu, Xiangyao Li, Tao Chen, Ming Ren and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:32

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  2. Content type: Research

    Previous studies have shown that beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide triggers the activation of several signal transduction cascades in the hippocampus, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade....

    Authors: Faridis Serrano, Angela Chang, Caterina Hernandez, Robia G Pautler, J David Sweatt and Eric Klann

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:31

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  3. Content type: Review

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder that affects about 1% of the population worldwide. Despite significant advances in the identification of genetic mutations and si...

    Authors: Zelda H Cheung and Nancy Y Ip

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:29

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  4. Content type: Research

    In mammals, the synchronized activity of cell autonomous clocks in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) enables this structure to function as the master circadian clock, coordinating daily rhythms in physiology an...

    Authors: Clare Guilding, Alun TL Hughes, Timothy M Brown, Sara Namvar and Hugh D Piggins

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:28

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  5. Content type: Research

    Proneurotrophins and mature neurotrophins elicit opposite effects via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and Trk tyrosine kinase receptors, respectively; however the molecular roles of proneurotrophins in the...

    Authors: Hisatsugu Koshimizu, Kazuyuki Kiyosue, Tomoko Hara, Shunsuke Hazama, Shingo Suzuki, Koichi Uegaki, Guhan Nagappan, Eugene Zaitsev, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Yoshiro Tatsu, Akihiko Ogura, Bai Lu and Masami Kojima

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:27

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  6. Content type: Research

    The Na+/Cl--dependent serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) is a critical element in neuronal 5-HT signaling, being responsible for the efficient elimination of 5-HT after release. SERTs are no...

    Authors: Jennifer A Steiner, Ana MarinD Carneiro, Jane Wright, Heinrich JG Matthies, Harish C Prasad, Christian K Nicki, Wolfgang R Dostmann, Carrie C Buchanan, Jackie D Corbin, Sharron H Francis and Randy D Blakely

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:26

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  7. Content type: Research

    Purkinje cells are a class of specialized neurons in the cerebellum, and are among the most metabolically active of all neurons, as they receive immense synaptic stimulation, and provide the only efferent outp...

    Authors: Lisa Chakrabarti, Jeremiah Eng, Nishi Ivanov, Gwenn A Garden and Albert R La Spada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:24

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  8. Content type: Research

    Dysfunction of alsin, particularly its putative Rab5 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor activity, has been linked to one form of juvenile onset recessive familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2). Multiple...

    Authors: Chen Lai, Chengsong Xie, Hoon Shim, Jayanth Chandran, Brian W Howell and Huaibin Cai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:23

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  9. Content type: Research

    The signalling mechanisms involved in the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Numerous studies have presented eviden...

    Authors: Stéphane Peineau, Céline S Nicolas, Zuner A Bortolotto, Ratan V Bhat, W Jonathan Ryves, Adrian J Harwood, Pascal Dournaud, Stephen M Fitzjohn and Graham L Collingridge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:22

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  10. Content type: Research

    Epilepsy is a prominent sign of neurological dysfunction in children with various fetal and maternal deficiencies. However, the detailed mechanism and influences underlying epileptic disorders are still unreve...

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Naseer, Li Shupeng and Myeong Ok Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:20

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  11. Content type: Research

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to cont...

    Authors: Koichi Tanda, Akinori Nishi, Naoki Matsuo, Kazuo Nakanishi, Nobuyuki Yamasaki, Tohru Sugimoto, Keiko Toyama, Keizo Takao and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:19

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  12. Content type: Research

    Long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and muscarinic acethycholin...

    Authors: Bryony A Dickinson, Jihoon Jo, Heon Seok, Gi Hoon Son, Daniel J Whitcomb, Ceri H Davies, Morgan Sheng, Graham L Collingridge and Kwangwook Cho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:18

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  13. Content type: Research

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present in the adult mammalian brain and sustain life-long adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In culture, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is sufficient ...

    Authors: Dengke K Ma, Karthikeyan Ponnusamy, Mi-Ryoung Song, Guo-li Ming and Hongjun Song

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:16

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  14. Content type: Short report

    In vitro reactions are useful to identify putative enzyme substrates, but in vivo validation is required to identify actual enzyme substrates that have biological meaning. To investigate in vivo effects of prolyl...

    Authors: Bertrand Perroud, Rudy J Alvarado, Glenda M Espinal, Alex R Morado, Brett S Phinney and Craig H Warden

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:14

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  15. Content type: Research

    It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the impo...

    Authors: Ji-Yun Peng and Bao-Ming Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:12

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  16. Content type: Research

    Activation of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is important for learning, memory and persistent pain. Genetic enhancement of NMDA receptor function by overexpressing NR2B subunit significantly enhances hip...

    Authors: Ming-Gao Zhao, Hiroki Toyoda, Yu-Kun Wang and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:11

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  17. Content type: Research

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT) ...

    Authors: Heping Zhang, Shupeng Li, Min Wang, Brian Vukusic, Zdenek B Pristupa and Fang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:10

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  18. Content type: Research

    Although nutrients, including amino acids and their metabolites such as serotonin (5-HT), are strong modulators of anxiety-related behavior, the metabolic pathway(s) responsible for this physiological modulati...

    Authors: Masaaki Kanai, Hiroshi Funakoshi, Hisaaki Takahashi, Tomoko Hayakawa, Shinya Mizuno, Kunio Matsumoto and Toshikazu Nakamura

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:8

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  19. Content type: Research

    The formation of long-term memory (LTM) and the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) depend on macromolecule synthesis, translation, and transcription in neurons. vesl-1S (V ASP/E na-related gene upregula...

    Authors: Naoko Inoue, Harumi Nakao, Rika Migishima, Toshiaki Hino, Minoru Matsui, Fumihiko Hayashi, Kazuki Nakao, Toshiya Manabe, Atsu Aiba and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:7

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  20. Content type: Research

    Previous studies have demonstrated essential roles for alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII) in learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP). However, previous studies have a...

    Authors: Shunsuke Hasegawa, Takahiro Furuichi, Taro Yoshida, Kengo Endoh, Kenichi Kato, Megumi Sado, Ryouta Maeda, Aya Kitamoto, Takahisa Miyao, Ryosuke Suzuki, Seiichi Homma, Shoichi Masushige, Yasushi Kajii and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:6

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  21. Content type: Research

    Elevated SNCA gene expression and intracellular accumulation of the encoded α-synuclein (aSyn) protein are associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD). To date, few enzymes have been examined for th...

    Authors: Valerie Cullen, Maria Lindfors, Juliana Ng, Anders Paetau, Erika Swinton, Piotr Kolodziej, Heather Boston, Paul Saftig, John Woulfe, Mel B Feany, Liisa Myllykangas, Michael G Schlossmacher and Jaana Tyynelä

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:5

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  22. Content type: Research

    Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neuro...

    Authors: Lucilia B Lepsch, Carolina D Munhoz, Elisa M Kawamoto, Lidia M Yshii, Larissa S Lima, Maria F Curi-Boaventura, Thais ML Salgado, Rui Curi, Cleopatra S Planeta and Cristoforo Scavone

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:3

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  23. Content type: Research

    Mossy fibers, the dentate granule cell axons, are generated throughout an animal's lifetime. Mossy fiber paths and synapses are primarily restricted to the stratum lucidum within the CA3 region. Brain-derived ...

    Authors: Makoto Tamura, Naohiro Tamura, Takamitsu Ikeda, Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya, Norio Matsuki and Maki K Yamada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:2

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  24. Content type: Research

    Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning a...

    Authors: Hyoung-Gon Ko, Deok-Jin Jang, Junehee Son, Chuljung Kwak, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Young-Hoon Ji, Yun-Sil Lee, Hyeon Son and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:1

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  25. Content type: Research

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period in that stress experienced during this time can affect the incidence of psychiatric disorders later, during adulthood. Neurogenesis is known to be involved in the postnatal d...

    Authors: Fumihiko Hayashi, Noriko Takashima, Akiko Murayama and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:22

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  26. Content type: Research

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with pathogenic mutations has been found in patients with cognitive disorders. However, little is known about whether pathogenic mtDNA mutations and the resultant mitochondrial respir...

    Authors: Daisuke Tanaka, Kazuto Nakada, Keizo Takao, Emi Ogasawara, Atsuko Kasahara, Akitsugu Sato, Hiromichi Yonekawa, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Jun-Ichi Hayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:21

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  27. Content type: Research

    We have previously demonstrated that PDGF receptor activation indirectly inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) currents by modifying the cytoskeleton. PDGF receptor ligand is also neuroprotective in hippocampal...

    Authors: Michael A Beazely, Manjula Weerapura and John F MacDonald

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:20

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  28. Content type: Research

    Temporal control of brain and behavioral states emerges as a consequence of the interaction between circadian and homeostatic neural circuits. This interaction permits the daily rhythm of sleep and wake, regul...

    Authors: Oliver J Marston, Rhîannan H Williams, Maria M Canal, Rayna E Samuels, Neil Upton and Hugh D Piggins

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:19

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  29. Content type: Research

    α-synuclein (α-syn) is a main component of Lewy bodies (LB) that occur in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with LB (DLB) and multi-system atrophy. α-syn mutations o...

    Authors: Liyan Qiao, Shusei Hamamichi, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Talene A Yacoubian, Scott Wilson, Zuo-Lei Xie, Lisa D Speake, Rachael Parks, Donna Crabtree, Qiuli Liang, Stephen Crimmins, Lonnie Schneider, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Yi Zhou…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:17

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  30. Content type: Research

    Phenylethanolamines selectively bind to NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate-subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors and negatively modulate receptor activity. To investigate the structural and function...

    Authors: Fui-Mee Ng, Matthew T Geballe, James P Snyder, Stephen F Traynelis and Chian-Ming Low

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:16

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  31. Content type: Research

    Deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is generated from γ-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition to APP, γ-secretase ...

    Authors: Ting Yang, Dilyara Arslanova, Yongli Gu, Corinne Augelli-Szafran and Weiming Xia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:15

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  32. Content type: Methodology

    Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) participate in many important physiological processes. However, the lack of effective and selective blockers has hindered the study of these channels, mostly due to the lack of...

    Authors: Soo-Jin Oh, Jung Hwan Park, Sungyu Han, Jae Kyun Lee, Eun Joo Roh and C Justin Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:14

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  33. Content type: Research

    Although long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is very persistent, current studies have provided evidence that various manipulations or pharmacological treatment when applied shortly after LTP indu...

    Authors: Ying-Ching Liang, Chiung-Chun Huang and Kuei-Sen Hsu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:13

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  34. Content type: Research

    In previous work, we investigated dieldrin cytotoxicity and signaling cell death mechanisms in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Dieldrin has been reported to be one of the environmental factors correlated with Parkins...

    Authors: Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Masashi Kitazawa, Yongjie Yang, Vellareddy Anantharam and Arthi Kanthasamy

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:12

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  35. Content type: Research

    Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1) gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia....

    Authors: Keizo Takao, Keiko Toyama, Kazuo Nakanishi, Satoko Hattori, Hironori Takamura, Masatoshi Takeda, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Ryota Hashimoto

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:11

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  36. Content type: Research

    Several myelin-associated factors that inhibit axon growth of mature neurons, including Nogo66, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), can associate with a common ...

    Authors: Eyleen LK Goh, Ju Kim Young, Kenichiro Kuwako, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Zhigang He, John W Griffin and Guo-li Ming

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:10

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  37. Content type: Research

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region requires the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Studies using genetic and pharmacological approaches have reported inconsistent re...

    Authors: Xue-Han Zhang, Long-Jun Wu, Bo Gong, Ming Ren, Bao-Ming Li and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:9

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  38. Content type: Research

    Calpastatin is an endogenous inhibitor of calpain, intracellular calcium-activated protease. It has been suggested to be involved in molecular mechanisms of long-term plasticity and excitotoxic pathways. Howev...

    Authors: Ryuichi Nakajima, Keizo Takao, Shu-Ming Huang, Jiro Takano, Nobuhisa Iwata, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Takaomi C Saido

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:7

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  39. Content type: Research

    Elucidating the neural and genetic factors underlying psychiatric illness is hampered by current methods of clinical diagnosis. The identification and investigation of clinical endophenotypes may be one soluti...

    Authors: Nobuyuki Yamasaki, Motoko Maekawa, Katsunori Kobayashi, Yasushi Kajii, Jun Maeda, Miho Soma, Keizo Takao, Koichi Tanda, Koji Ohira, Keiko Toyama, Kouji Kanzaki, Kohji Fukunaga, Yusuke Sudo, Hiroshi Ichinose, Masashi Ikeda, Nakao Iwata…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:6

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