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  1. Type B GABA receptors (GABA Rs) play a critical role in synaptic transmission. We carried out studies to determine whether neuronal cell surface expression of GABAB-Rs might be regulated by the Nogo receptor 1...

    Authors: Rachana Murthy, Jeeyong Kim, Xiankui Sun, Roman J Giger, David J Fink and Marina Mata

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their effective antimicrobial properties, are being widely used in a broad range of applications. These include, but are not limited to, antibacterial materials, the text...

    Authors: Fenglian Xu, Cortt Piett, Svetlana Farkas, Munir Qazzaz and Naweed I Syed

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:29

    Content type: Research

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  3. Inflammation in injured tissue has both repair functions and cytotoxic consequences. However, the issue of whether brain inflammation has a repair function has received little attention. Previously, we demonst...

    Authors: Hey-Kyeong Jeong, Kyung-min Ji, Jun Kim, Ilo Jou and Eun-Hye Joe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:28

    Content type: Research

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  4. GSK3β is involved in a wide range of physiological functions, and is presumed to act in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, from bipolar disorder to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In contrast, the GSK3α isoz...

    Authors: Hervé Maurin, Benoit Lechat, Ilse Dewachter, Laurence Ris, Justin V Louis, Peter Borghgraef, Herman Devijver, Tomasz Jaworski and Fred Van Leuven

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:27

    Content type: Research

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  5. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. There is emerging evidence that alterations in RNA metabolism may be critical in the pathoge...

    Authors: Danae Campos-Melo, Cristian A Droppelmann, Zhongping He, Kathryn Volkening and Michael J Strong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:26

    Content type: Research

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  6. Bergmann glia (BG) are unipolar cerebellar astrocytes. The somata of mature BG reside in the Purkinje cell layer and extend radially arranged processes to the pial surface. BG have multiple branched processes,...

    Authors: Yuichi Hiraoka, Okiru Komine, Mai Nagaoka, Ning Bai, Katsuto Hozumi and Kohichi Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:25

    Content type: Research

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  7. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are regulated by several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as receptor tyrosine kinases. Serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptors are expressed throughout the brain inc...

    Authors: Maryam S Vasefi, Kai Yang, Jerry Li, Jeff S Kruk, John J Heikkila, Michael F Jackson, John F MacDonald and Michael A Beazely

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:24

    Content type: Research

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  8. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of NMDARs is implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Native NMDARs are heteromultimeric pr...

    Authors: Ning Bai, Hideki Hayashi, Tomomi Aida, Kazuhiko Namekata, Takayuki Harada, Masayoshi Mishina and Kohichi Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:22

    Content type: Research

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  9. Dravet syndrome is a devastating infantile-onset epilepsy syndrome with cognitive deficits and autistic traits caused by genetic alterations in SCN1A gene encoding the α-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channe...

    Authors: Norimichi Higurashi, Taku Uchida, Christoph Lossin, Yoshio Misumi, Yohei Okada, Wado Akamatsu, Yoichi Imaizumi, Bo Zhang, Kazuki Nabeshima, Masayuki X Mori, Shutaro Katsurabayashi, Yukiyoshi Shirasaka, Hideyuki Okano and Shinichi Hirose

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:19

    Content type: Research

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  10. GABAergic deficit is one of the major mechanisms underlying epileptic seizures. Previous studies have mainly focused on alterations of synaptic GABAergic inhibition during epileptogenesis. Recent work suggeste...

    Authors: Yajie Sun, Zheng Wu, Shuzhen Kong, Dongyun Jiang, Anar Pitre, Yun Wang and Gong Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:21

    Content type: Research

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  11. Fear is one of the most potent emotional experiences and is an adaptive component of response to potentially threatening stimuli. Cumulative evidence suggests that the amygdala plays a central role in the acqu...

    Authors: Ayumi Kishioka, Takeshi Uemura, Fumiaki Fukushima and Masayoshi Mishina

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:17

    Content type: Research

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  12. Loss of the translational repressor FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. In healthy neurons, FMRP modulates the local translation of numerous synaptic proteins. Synthesis of these proteins is required for the maint...

    Authors: Michael S Sidorov, Benjamin D Auerbach and Mark F Bear

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:15

    Content type: Review

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  13. Matrix metalloproteinases are important factors in the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal injury in many neurological disorders. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia a...

    Authors: Kimberly E Hawkins, Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Gary A Rosenberg and Eduardo Candelario-Jalil

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:14

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is required for spatial working memory. Although evidence from genetic manipulation mice suggests an important role of hippocampal NMDAR NR2B subunits (NR2B-NM...

    Authors: Xue-Han Zhang, Shu-Su Liu, Feng Yi, Min Zhuo and Bao-Ming Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:13

    Content type: Research

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  15. Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25) regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Growing evidence suggests that SNAP-25 is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attenti...

    Authors: Koji Ohira, Katsunori Kobayashi, Keiko Toyama, Hironori K Nakamura, Hirotaka Shoji, Keizo Takao, Rika Takeuchi, Shun Yamaguchi, Masakazu Kataoka, Shintaro Otsuka, Masami Takahashi and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:12

    Content type: Research

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  16. The editors of Molecular Brain would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 5 (2012).

    Authors: Tim Bliss, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:7

    Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

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  17. Pavlovian fear conditioning is a classical form of associative learning, which depends on associative synaptic plasticity in the amygdala. Recent findings suggest that the central amygdala (CeA) plays an activ...

    Authors: Ayako M Watabe, Toshitaka Ochiai, Masashi Nagase, Yukari Takahashi, Masaru Sato and Fusao Kato

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:11

    Content type: Research

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  18. CaMKII is a major synaptic protein that is activated during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) by the Ca2+ influx through NMDARs. This activation is required for LTP induction, but the role of the kina...

    Authors: Magdalena Sanhueza and John Lisman

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:10

    Content type: Review

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  19. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are coupled via Gαq/11 to the activation of phospholipase Cβ, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to form inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. In a...

    Authors: Maryse Paquet, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Jennifer Guadagno, Jessica L Esseltine, Stephen SG Ferguson and Sean P Cregan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:9

    Content type: Research

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  20. Opioids are associated with wide inter-individual variability in the analgesic response and a narrow therapeutic index. This may be partly explained by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in...

    Authors: Annica Rhodin, Alfhild Grönbladh, Harumi Ginya, Kent W Nilsson, Andreas Rosenblad, Qin Zhou, Mats Enlund, Mathias Hallberg, Torsten Gordh and Fred Nyberg

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:8

    Content type: Research

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  21. Neuronal activity alters calcium ion (Ca2+) dynamics in astrocytes, but the physiologic relevance of these changes is controversial. To examine this issue further, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model...

    Authors: Mika Tanaka, Pei-Yu Shih, Hiroshi Gomi, Takamasa Yoshida, Junichi Nakai, Reiko Ando, Teiichi Furuichi, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Alexey Semyanov and Shigeyoshi Itohara

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:6

    Content type: Research

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  22. Astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic activity by releasing gliotransmitters such as glutamate. Our recent study demonstrated that astrocytes release glutamate upon GPCR activation via Ca2+ activ...

    Authors: Kyung-Seok Han, Junsung Woo, Hyungju Park, Bong-June Yoon, Sukwoo Choi and C Justin Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:4

    Content type: Research

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  23. The transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury, but not at the chronic phase, can promote functional recovery. However, the reasons for this differenc...

    Authors: Soraya Nishimura, Akimasa Yasuda, Hiroki Iwai, Morito Takano, Yoshiomi Kobayashi, Satoshi Nori, Osahiko Tsuji, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hayao Ebise, Yoshiaki Toyama, Hideyuki Okano and Masaya Nakamura

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:3

    Content type: Research

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  24. Loss of a sensory input causes the hypersensitivity in other modalities. In addition to cross-modal plasticity, the sensory cortices without receiving inputs undergo the plastic changes. It is not clear how th...

    Authors: Guanjun Zhang, Zilong Gao, Sudong Guan, Yan Zhu and Jin-Hui Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:2

    Content type: Research

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  25. Trigeminal neuropathic pain attacks can be excruciating for patients, even after being lightly touched. Although there are rodent trigeminal nerve research models to study orofacial pain, few models have been ...

    Authors: Fei Ma, Liping Zhang, Danielle Lyons and Karin N Westlund

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:44

    Content type: Research

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  26. Postsynaptic density (PSD)-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs) are scaffold proteins in PSDs that cluster signaling molecules near NMDA receptors. PSD-MAGUKs share a common domain struct...

    Authors: Hitoshi Nagura, Yasuyuki Ishikawa, Katsunori Kobayashi, Keizo Takao, Tomo Tanaka, Kouki Nishikawa, Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Hidenori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi and Tomoko Doi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:43

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) is a paternally expressed imprinted gene regulating fetal growth, playing an integral role in the development of many tissues including the brain. The parent-of-origin specific...

    Authors: Ruth Pidsley, Cathy Fernandes, Joana Viana, Jose L Paya-Cano, Lin Liu, Rebecca G Smith, Leonard C Schalkwyk and Jonathan Mill

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:42

    Content type: Research

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  28. Notch signaling is well recognized as a key regulator of the neuronal fate during embryonic development, but its function in the adult brain is still largely unknown. Mind bomb-1 (Mib1) is an essential positiv...

    Authors: Ki-Jun Yoon, Hye-Ryeon Lee, Yong Sang Jo, Kyongman An, Sang-Yong Jung, Min-Woo Jeong, Seok-Kyu Kwon, Nam-Shik Kim, Hyun-Woo Jeong, Seo-Hee Ahn, Kyong-Tai Kim, Kyungmin Lee, Eunjoon Kim, Joung-Hun Kim, June-Seek Choi, Bong-Kiun Kaang…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:40

    Content type: Research

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  29. Glutamate is the major transmitter that mediates the principal form of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. It has been well established that glutamate is released via Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of gluta...

    Authors: Soo-Jin Oh, Kyung-Seok Han, Hyungju Park, Dong ho Woo, Hye Yun Kim, Stephen F Traynelis and C Justin Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). The familial form of PD, PARK2, is caused by mutations in the

    Authors: Yoichi Imaizumi, Yohei Okada, Wado Akamatsu, Masato Koike, Naoko Kuzumaki, Hideki Hayakawa, Tomoko Nihira, Tetsuro Kobayashi, Manabu Ohyama, Shigeto Sato, Masashi Takanashi, Manabu Funayama, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Tomoyoshi Soga, Takako Hishiki, Makoto Suematsu…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:35

    Content type: Research

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  31. Axonopathy is critical in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Axonal swellings such as globules and spheroids are a dis...

    Authors: Akio Sekigawa, Masayo Fujita, Kazunari Sekiyama, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Taku Hatano, Edward Rockenstein, Albert R La Spada, Eliezer Masliah and Makoto Hashimoto

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS, has been demonstrated to paradoxically produce excitation even in mature brain. However activity-dependent form of GABA excitation in cortical neurons has no...

    Authors: Jaekwang Lee, Junsung Woo, Oleg V Favorov, Mark Tommerdahl, C Justin Lee and Barry L Whitsel

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:33

    Content type: Research

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  33. Memories are stored within neuronal ensembles in the brain. Modern genetic techniques can be used to not only visualize specific neuronal ensembles that encode memories (e.g., fear, craving) but also to select...

    Authors: Masanori Sakaguchi and Yasunori Hayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:32

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  34. Mercury is a well-known neurotoxin implicated in a wide range of neurological or psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, depression, mood ...

    Authors: Fenglian Xu, Svetlana Farkas, Simone Kortbeek, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Lina Chen, Gerald W Zamponi and Naweed I Syed

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. In the olfactory system of malacostracan crustaceans, axonal input from olfactory receptor neurons associated with aesthetascs on the animal’s first pair of antennae target primary processing centers in the me...

    Authors: Marta A Polanska, Oksana Tuchina, Hans Agricola, Bill S Hansson and Steffen Harzsch

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch within Huntingtin (htt), the protein product of the HD gene. Alth...

    Authors: Shuqiu Zheng, Nima Ghitani, Jessica S Blackburn, Jeh-Ping Liu and Scott O Zeitlin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Fragile X syndrome is caused by lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to silencing of the FMR1 gene. The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the central nervous system contribute to ...

    Authors: Hansen Wang, Yoshikazu Morishita, Daiki Miura, Jose R Naranjo, Satoshi Kida and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:27

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  38. Action potentials at the neurons and graded signals at the synapses are primary codes in the brain. In terms of their functional interaction, the studies were focused on the influence of presynaptic spike patt...

    Authors: Jiandong Yu, Hao Qian and Jin-Hui Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:26

    Content type: Research

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