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  1. Social-stress mouse model, based on the resident-intruder paradigm was used to simulate features of human post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The model involved exposure of an intruder (subject) mouse to a ...

    Authors: Seid Muhie, Aarti Gautam, James Meyerhoff, Nabarun Chakraborty, Rasha Hammamieh and Marti Jett
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:14
  2. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels help control the rhythmic activation of pacemaker neurons during brain development. However, little is known about the timing and cell type sp...

    Authors: Hyunhyo Seo, Myoung-Jin Seol and Kyungmin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:13
  3. Viral vectors are frequently used to deliver and direct expression of transgenes in a spatially and temporally restricted manner within the nervous system of numerous model organisms. Despite the common use of...

    Authors: Roopashri Holehonnur, Srihari K Lella, Anthony Ho, Jonathan A Luong and Jonathan E Ploski
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:12
  4. Our previous study found that suppression of TRPM7 reduced neuronal death in adult rat ischemic brain injury. It was reported that carvacrol blocked TRPM7 and attenuated brain injury in an adult rat MCAO model...

    Authors: Wenliang Chen, Baofeng Xu, Aijiao Xiao, Ling Liu, Xiaoyan Fang, Rui Liu, Ekaterina Turlova, Andrew Barszczyk, Xiao Zhong, Christopher L F Sun, Luiz R G Britto, Zhong-Ping Feng and Hong-Shuo Sun
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:11
  5. Synaptogenesis is a critical neurodevelopmental process whereby pre- and postsynaptic neurons form apposed sites of contact specialized for chemical neurotransmission. Many neurodevelopmental disorders are tho...

    Authors: Joshua A Harrill, Hao Chen, Karin M Streifel, Dongren Yang, William R Mundy and Pamela J Lein
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:10
  6. The antioxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid (aLA) correlate with its ability to promote neuroproliferation. However, there have been no comprehensive studies examining the neurorestorative effects of aLA a...

    Authors: Kang-Ho Choi, Man-Seok Park, Hyung-Seok Kim, Kyung-Tae Kim, Hyeon-Sik Kim, Joon-Tae Kim, Byeong-Chae Kim, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Jong-Tae Park and Ki-Hyun Cho
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:9
  7. Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates a variety of neural functions, including neurotransmitter release. Although various PKC isoforms can be expressed at the synaptic sites and specific cell distribution may contr...

    Authors: Teresa Obis, Núria Besalduch, Erica Hurtado, Laura Nadal, Manel M Santafe, Neus Garcia, Marta Tomàs, Mercedes Priego, Maria A Lanuza and Josep Tomàs
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:8
  8. In Alzheimer’s disease synapse loss precedes neuronal loss and correlates best with impaired memory formation. However, the mechanisms underlying synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease are not well known...

    Authors: Sachin S Tiwari, Marie d’Orange, Claire Troakes, Badrun N Shurovi, Olivia Engmann, Wendy Noble, Tibor Hortobágyi and Karl P Giese
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:6
  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration in motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding...

    Authors: Stefania Marcuzzo, Silvia Bonanno, Dimos Kapetis, Claudia Barzago, Paola Cavalcante, Sara D’Alessandro, Renato Mantegazza and Pia Bernasconi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:5
  10. Homeostatic intrinsic plasticity encompasses the mechanisms by which neurons stabilize their excitability in response to prolonged and destabilizing changes in global activity. However, the milieu of molecular...

    Authors: Kwan Young Lee, Sara E Royston, Max O Vest, Daniel J Ley, Seungbae Lee, Eric C Bolton and Hee Jung Chung
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:4
  11. Identifying a neural circuit mechanism that is differentially involved in tremor would aid in the diagnosis and cure of such cases. Here, we demonstrate that tremor-related cortical potential (TRCP) is differe...

    Authors: Young-Gyun Park, Jee Hyun Choi, Chungki Lee, Sehyun Kim, Youngsoo Kim, Ki-Young Chang, Sun Ha Paek and Daesoo Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:3
  12. Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a recently discovered subclass of non-coding RNAs. LincRNAs are expressed across the mammalian genome and contribute to the pervasive transcription phenomenon. T...

    Authors: James D Mills, Tomas Kavanagh, Woojin S Kim, Bei Jun Chen, Paul D Waters, Glenda M Halliday and Michael Janitz
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:2
  13. Regulation of synaptic connectivity, including long-term depression (LTD), allows proper tuning of cellular signalling processes within brain circuitry. In the cerebellum, a key centre for motor coordination, ...

    Authors: Mirthe Erkens, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Guy Cheron, Javier Márquez-Ruiz, Cynthia Prigogine, Jan TG Schepens, Nael Nadif Kasri, George J Augustine and Wiljan JAJ Hendriks
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:1
  14. Regulation of cell death during neurodegeneration is one of the key factors that play a role in the speed at which a disease progresses. Out of several cellular pathways responsible for this progression, necro...

    Authors: Emilie Imbeault, Tara M Mahvelati, Ralf Braun, Pavel Gris and Denis Gris
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:90
  15. Synapses are fundamental components of brain circuits and are disrupted in over 100 neurological and psychiatric diseases. The synapse proteome is physically organized into multiprotein complexes and polygenic...

    Authors: Àlex Bayés, Mark O Collins, Clare M Galtrey, Clémence Simonnet, Marcia Roy, Mike DR Croning, Gemma Gou, Louie N van de Lagemaat, David Milward, Ian R Whittle, Colin Smith, Jyoti S Choudhary and Seth GN Grant
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:88
  16. Bilirubin encephalopathy (BE) is a severe neurologic sequelae induced by hyperbilirubinemia in newborns. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the clinical syndromes of BE remain ambiguous. Ex vivo1H nu...

    Authors: Wenyi Hu, Xiaojie Cheng, Xinjian Ye, Liangcai Zhao, Yanan Huang, Huanle Zhu, Zhihan Yan, Xuebao Wang, Xiaojie Wang, Guanghui Bai and Hongchang Gao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:87
  17. As the primary immune cells of the central nervous system, microglia contribute to development, homeostasis, and plasticity of the central nervous system, in addition to their well characterized roles in the f...

    Authors: Matthew A Churchward and Kathryn G Todd
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:85
  18. Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels have been shown to modulate neuronal excitability. However, physiological function of TWIK-1, the first identified member of the mammalian K2P channel family, in neuronal cells i...

    Authors: Oleg Yarishkin, Da Yong Lee, Eunju Kim, Chang-Hoon Cho, Jae Hyouk Choi, C Justin Lee, Eun Mi Hwang and Jae-Yong Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:80
  19. The rodent barrel cortex has been established as an ideal model for studying the development and plasticity of a neuronal circuit. The barrel cortex consists of barrel and septa columns, which receive various ...

    Authors: Junhua Liu, Bin Liu, XiaoYun Zhang, Baocong Yu, Wuqiang Guan, Kun Wang, Yang Yang, Yifan Gong, Xiaojing Wu, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shengxi Wu and Chunjie Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:84
  20. The basal ganglia (BG) are a complex network of subcortical nuclei involved in the coordination and integration of the motor activity. Although these independent anatomical structures are functionally related,...

    Authors: Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen, María Victoria Zelaya, Teresa Tuñon and Enrique Santamaría
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:83
  21. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which is activated by binding to p35 or p39, is involved in synaptic plasticity and affects learning and memory formation. In Cdk5 knockout (KO) mice and p35 KO mice, brain de...

    Authors: Tomohide Mishiba, Mika Tanaka, Naoki Mita, Xiaojuan He, Kodai Sasamoto, Shigeyoshi Itohara and Toshio Ohshima
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:82
  22. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading form of dementia worldwide. The Aβ-peptide is believed to be the major pathogenic compound of the disease. Since several years it is hypothesized that Aβ impacts the Wnt...

    Authors: Anne-Marie LüChtenborg and Vladimir L Katanaev
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:81
  23. Van Gogh-like (Vangl) 2 is a planar cell polarity (PCP) protein that regulates the induction of polarized cellular and tissue morphology during animal development. In the nervous system, the core PCP signaling...

    Authors: Akari Hagiwara, Misato Yasumura, Yamato Hida, Eiji Inoue and Toshihisa Ohtsuka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:79
  24. Behavioral choices in habits and innate behaviors occur automatically in the absence of conscious selection. These behaviors are not easily modified by learning. Similar types of behaviors also occur in variou...

    Authors: Hannah Kim, Tae-Kyung Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jin-Young Park, Yunjin Lee, Minkyung Kang, Kyoung-Shim Kim and Pyung-Lim Han
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:77
  25. Previous studies have shown that a family of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) plays pivotal roles in the brain; in particular, we previously reported that knockout of the β isoform of PI3K (PI3Kβ) in mice im...

    Authors: Jun-Hyeok Choi, Pojeong Park, Gi-Chul Baek, Su-Eon Sim, SukJae Joshua Kang, Yeseul Lee, Seo-Hee Ahn, Chae-Seok Lim, Yong-Seok Lee, Graham L Collingridge and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:78
  26. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the key cellular mechanism for physiological learning and pathological chronic pain. Postsynaptic accumulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 plays an important role for injury-...

    Authors: Tao Chen, Wen Wang, Yu-Lin Dong, Ming-Ming Zhang, Jian Wang, Kohei Koga, Yong-Hui Liao, Jin-Lian Li, Timotheus Budisantoso, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Makoto Itakura, Richard L Huganir, Yun-Qing Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:76
  27. Inhibition from GABAergic interneurons in brain circuits is a critical component of cognitive function. This inhibition is regulated through a diverse network of neuromodulation. A number of recent studies sug...

    Authors: Michael P Demars and Hirofumi Morishita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:75
  28. The dysbindin-1 gene (DTNBP1: dystrobrevin binding protein 1) is a promising schizophrenia susceptibility gene, known to localize almost exclusively to neurons in the brain, and participates in the regulation of ...

    Authors: Norihito Shintani, Yusuke Onaka, Ryota Hashimoto, Hironori Takamura, Tsuyoshi Nagata, Satomi Umeda-Yano, Akihiro Mouri, Takayoshi Mamiya, Ryota Haba, Shinsuke Matsuzaki, Taiichi Katayama, Hidenaga Yamamori, Takanobu Nakazawa, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Yuki Yagasaki…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:74
  29. Mutations of VPS35, a component of the retromer complex have been associated with late onset familial Parkinson's disease. The D620N mutation in VPS35 appears to be most prevalent, however, P316S was found in ...

    Authors: Hua-shan Wang, Joanne Toh, Patrick Ho, Murni Tio, Yi Zhao and Eng-King Tan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:73
  30. Despite high prevalence of anxiety accompanying with chronic pain, the mechanisms underlying pain-related anxiety are largely unknown. With its well-documented role in pain and emotion processing, the amygdala...

    Authors: Hong Jiang, Dong Fang, Ling-Yu Kong, Zi-Run Jin, Jie Cai, Xue-Jing Kang, You Wan and Guo-Gang Xing
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:72
  31. Mutations in the human FOXP2 gene cause speech and language impairments. The FOXP2 protein is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of many downstream genes, which may have important roles in nervo...

    Authors: Lijuan Fu, Zhimin Shi, Guanzheng Luo, Weihong Tu, XiuJie Wang, Zhide Fang and XiaoChing Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:71
  32. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A is selectively expressed in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key region that mediates drug reward and addiction-related behaviors. To investigate t...

    Authors: Ying Mu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Jia Jia, Bo Gao, Longtai Zheng, Guanghui Wang, Eitan Friedman and Xuechu Zhen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:70
  33. Genetic methods for inducibly and reversibly inhibiting neuronal activity of specific neurons are critical for exploring the functions of neuronal circuits. The engineered human glycine receptor, called iverme...

    Authors: Ling Hu, Wei Lan, Hao Guo, Guo-Dong Chai, Kun Huang, Ling Zhang, Ying Huang, Xue-Feng Chen, Lei Zhang, Ning-Ning Song, Ling Chen, Bing Lang, Yun Wang, Qing-Xiu Wang, Jin-Bao Zhang, Collin McCaig…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:68
  34. Alcohol is detrimental to early development. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) due to maternal alcohol abuse results in a series of developmental abnormalities including cranial facial dysmorphology, ocu...

    Authors: Yu Shi, Jiejing Li, Chunjiang Chen, Manzi Gong, Yuan Chen, Youxue Liu, Jie Chen, Tingyu Li and Weihong Song
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:67
  35. Culturing primary cortical neurons is an essential neuroscience technique. However, most cultures are derived from rodent brains and standard protocols for human brain cultures are sparse. Herein, we describe ...

    Authors: Balmiki Ray, Nipun Chopra, Justin M Long and Debomoy K Lahiri
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:63
  36. Profound synapse loss is one of the major pathological hallmarks associated with Alzheimer’s disease, which might underlie memory impairment. Our previous work demonstrates that magnesium ion is a critical fac...

    Authors: Wei Li, Jia Yu, Yong Liu, Xiaojie Huang, Nashat Abumaria, Ying Zhu, Xian Huang, Wenxiang Xiong, Chi Ren, Xian-Guo Liu, Dehua Chui and Guosong Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:65
  37. Appropriate parental care by fathers greatly facilitates health in human family life. Much less is known from animal studies regarding the factors and neural circuitry that affect paternal behavior compared wi...

    Authors: Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Shirin Akther, Chiharu Higashida, Takahiro Tsuji and Haruhiro Higashida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:66
  38. Microglia are the primary immune cells of the spinal cord that are activated in response to ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and release various neurotrophic and/or neurotoxic factors to determine neuronal sur...

    Authors: Xiao-Qian Li, Xue-Zhao Cao, Jun Wang, Bo Fang, Wen-Fei Tan and Hong Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:69
  39. Whereas aberrant brain connectivity is likely the core pathology of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), studies do not agree as to whether hypo- or hyper-connectivity is the main underlying problem. Recent functio...

    Authors: Jae-Young Koh, Joon Seo Lim, Hyae-Ran Byun and Min-Heui Yoo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:64
  40. Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause degeneration of motor neurons in a subset of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The pathogenetic process mediated by misfolded and/or aggre...

    Authors: Seiji Watanabe, Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Shinji Nagatsu, Keizo Takao, Okiru Komine, Fumito Endo, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Hidemi Misawa, Ryosuke Takahashi, Makoto Kinoshita and Koji Yamanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:62
  41. Current evidence suggests a central role for autophagy in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore...

    Authors: Arnaud Francois, Faraj Terro, Nathalie Quellard, Beatrice Fernandez, Damien Chassaing, Thierry Janet, Agnes Rioux Bilan, Marc Paccalin and Guylene Page
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:56
  42. Recent studies have indicated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-recognition receptor that triggers inflammatory signals in innate immune cells, is also expressed on sensory neurons, implicating its ...

    Authors: Hyunjung Min, Hyunkyoung Lee, Hyoungsub Lim, Yong Ho Jang, Sung Jun Chung, C Justin Lee and Sung Joong Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:59
  43. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is motile within dendritic spines, but the mechanisms underlying its regulation are poorly understood. To address this issue, we have simultaneously imaged morphology and ER content ...

    Authors: Ai Na Ng, Andrew J Doherty, Paul J Lombroso, Nigel J Emptage and Graham L Collingridge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:60
  44. Animal aggressiveness is controlled by genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, social experience plays an important role in modulating aggression in vertebrates and invertebrates. In Droso...

    Authors: Mahmoudreza Ramin, Claudiu Domocos, David Slawaska-Eng and Yong Rao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:55
  45. Dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) synapse with axon terminals of bipolar cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Changes in RGC dendrites and synapses between bipolar cells in the inner retinal laye...

    Authors: Hae-Young Lopilly Park, Jie Hyun Kim and Chan Kee Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:53
  46. Histamine (HA) regulates the sleep-wake cycle, synaptic plasticity and memory in adult mammals. Dopaminergic specification in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) coincides with increased HA brain levels. To st...

    Authors: Itzel Escobedo-Avila, Fernanda Vargas-Romero, Anayansi Molina-Hernández, Rodrigo López-González, Daniel Cortés, Juan A De Carlos and Iván Velasco
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:58
  47. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial malfunction is implicated in PD pathogenesis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced puta...

    Authors: Xiaoling Duan, Jade Tong, Qin Xu, Yili Wu, Fang Cai, Tingyu Li and Weihong Song
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:57

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