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  1. The angiotensin system has several non-vascular functions in the central nervous system. For instance, inhibition of the brain angiotensin system results in a reduction in neuronal death following acute brain ...

    Authors: Mi-Ha Park, Ha Na Kim, Joon Seo Lim, Jae-Sung Ahn and Jae-Young Koh
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:50
  2. Adult neurogenesis, fundamental for cellular homeostasis in the mammalian olfactory epithelium, requires major shifts in gene expression to produce mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) from multipotent prog...

    Authors: Paula M Heron, Arnold J Stromberg, Patrick Breheny and Timothy S McClintock
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:49
  3. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a genetic disorder characterized by severe ataxia associated with progressive loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptor plays a key ro...

    Authors: Serena Notartomaso, Cristina Zappulla, Francesca Biagioni, Milena Cannella, Domenico Bucci, Giada Mascio, Pamela Scarselli, Francesco Fazio, Filippo Weisz, Luana Lionetto, Maurizio Simmaco, Roberto Gradini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Michele Signore, Aldamaria Puliti and Ferdinando Nicoletti
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:48
  4. Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, have been suggested to be involved in both the metabolism and aggregation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Despite thei...

    Authors: Kyongman An, Igor Klyubin, Youngkyu Kim, Jung Hoon Jung, Alexandra J Mably, Sean T O’Dowd, Timothy Lynch, Daniel Kanmert, Cynthia A Lemere, Gina M Finan, Joon Won Park, Tae-Wan Kim, Dominic M Walsh, Michael J Rowan and Joung-Hun Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:47
  5. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated...

    Authors: Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Ching-Han Yu, Jiuan-Miaw Liao and Dong-Yih Kuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:46
  6. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is widely used totreat depression and anxiety disorders, but cellular mechanisms underlyingthe antidepressant effect of FLX remain largely unknown. T...

    Authors: Koji Ohira, Rika Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Iwanaga and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:43
  7. A luminex-based screen of cytokine expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nerve of type 1 diabetic rodents revealed interleukin-1 (IL-1α) and IL-1β to be significantly depressed. We, therefore, tested the...

    Authors: Ali Saleh, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Darrell R Smith, Savitha Balakrishnan, Lori Tessler, Emily Schartner, Andre Bilodeau, Randy Van Der Ploeg and Paul Fernyhough
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:45
  8. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of a large number of drugs currently in therapeutic use. Likewise, the glutamate ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in certain...

    Authors: Ana Vicente-Sánchez, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, María Rodríguez-Muñoz and Javier Garzón
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:42
  9. Mammalian sires participate in infant care. We previously demonstrated that sires of a strain of nonmonogamous laboratory mice initiate parental retrieval behavior in response to olfactory and auditory signals...

    Authors: Shirin Akther, Natalia Korshnova, Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Stanislav M Cherepanov, Olga Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Alla B Salmina, Tomoko Nishimura, Azam AKM Fakhrul, Hirokazu Hirai, Ichiro Kato, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Shin Takasawa, Hiroshi Okamoto and Haruhiro Higashida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:41
  10. The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) participates in normal post-transcriptional control of cytokine and chemokine gene expression, dysregulation of which contributes to the HIV-associated neurocognit...

    Authors: Jonathan Liu, Jeanne M Sisk, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements and Kenneth W Witwer
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:40
  11. Intracellular Ca2+ regulates many aspects of neuronal function through Ca2+ binding to EF hand-containing Ca2+ sensors that in turn bind target proteins to regulate their function. Amongst the sensors are the neu...

    Authors: Victoria M Martin, James R Johnson, Lee P Haynes, Jeff W Barclay and Robert D Burgoyne
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:39
  12. αCaMKII plays central and essential roles in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. αCaMKII is activated via binding with Ca2+/CaM in response to elevated Ca2+ concentration. Furthermore, prolonged in...

    Authors: Ken-ichi Kato, Taku Iwamoto and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:37
  13. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels with essential roles in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the CNS. As co-receptors for glutamate and glycine, gating of the NMDA receptor/channe...

    Authors: Lu Han, Verónica A Campanucci, James Cooke and Michael W Salter
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:36
  14. In autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinsonism (PARK2), the pathogenetic process from the loss of function of a ubiquitin ligase parkin to the death of dopamine neurons remains unclear. A dominant hypothesis ...

    Authors: Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Hodaka Yamakado, Takao Morita, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Ryosuke Takahashi and Makoto Kinoshita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:35
  15. Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a hallmark of various retinal diseases including glaucoma, retinal ischemia, and diabetic retinopathy. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-media...

    Authors: Ning Bai, Tomomi Aida, Michiko Yanagisawa, Sayaka Katou, Kenji Sakimura, Masayoshi Mishina and Kohichi Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:34
  16. Down’s syndrome (DS) is caused by triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 and is characterized by a decrease in the overall size of the brain. One of the brain regions most affected is the cerebellu...

    Authors: Marianna Szemes, Rachel L Davies, Claire LP Garden and Maria M Usowicz
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:33
  17. Pain and natural rewards such as food elicit different behavioral effects. Both pain and rewards, however, have been shown to alter synaptic activities in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key component of the br...

    Authors: David S Tukey, Michelle Lee, Duo Xu, Sarah E Eberle, Yossef Goffer, Toby R Manders, Edward B Ziff and Jing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:32
  18. A long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1_2 (NEAT1_2), constitutes nuclear bodies known as “paraspeckles”. Mutations of RNA binding proteins, including TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (...

    Authors: Yoshinori Nishimoto, Shinichi Nakagawa, Tetsuro Hirose, Hirotaka James Okano, Masaki Takao, Shinsuke Shibata, Satoshi Suyama, Ken-ichiro Kuwako, Takao Imai, Shigeo Murayama, Norihiro Suzuki and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:31
  19. Type B GABA receptors (GABA Rs) play a critical role in synaptic transmission. We carried out studies to determine whether neuronal cell surface expression of GABAB-Rs might be regulated by the Nogo receptor 1...

    Authors: Rachana Murthy, Jeeyong Kim, Xiankui Sun, Roman J Giger, David J Fink and Marina Mata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:30
  20. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their effective antimicrobial properties, are being widely used in a broad range of applications. These include, but are not limited to, antibacterial materials, the text...

    Authors: Fenglian Xu, Cortt Piett, Svetlana Farkas, Munir Qazzaz and Naweed I Syed
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:29
  21. Inflammation in injured tissue has both repair functions and cytotoxic consequences. However, the issue of whether brain inflammation has a repair function has received little attention. Previously, we demonst...

    Authors: Hey-Kyeong Jeong, Kyung-min Ji, Jun Kim, Ilo Jou and Eun-Hye Joe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:28
  22. GSK3β is involved in a wide range of physiological functions, and is presumed to act in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, from bipolar disorder to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In contrast, the GSK3α isoz...

    Authors: Hervé Maurin, Benoit Lechat, Ilse Dewachter, Laurence Ris, Justin V Louis, Peter Borghgraef, Herman Devijver, Tomasz Jaworski and Fred Van Leuven
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:27
  23. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. There is emerging evidence that alterations in RNA metabolism may be critical in the pathoge...

    Authors: Danae Campos-Melo, Cristian A Droppelmann, Zhongping He, Kathryn Volkening and Michael J Strong
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:26
  24. Bergmann glia (BG) are unipolar cerebellar astrocytes. The somata of mature BG reside in the Purkinje cell layer and extend radially arranged processes to the pial surface. BG have multiple branched processes,...

    Authors: Yuichi Hiraoka, Okiru Komine, Mai Nagaoka, Ning Bai, Katsuto Hozumi and Kohichi Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:25
  25. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are regulated by several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as receptor tyrosine kinases. Serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptors are expressed throughout the brain inc...

    Authors: Maryam S Vasefi, Kai Yang, Jerry Li, Jeff S Kruk, John J Heikkila, Michael F Jackson, John F MacDonald and Michael A Beazely
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:24
  26. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of NMDARs is implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Native NMDARs are heteromultimeric pr...

    Authors: Ning Bai, Hideki Hayashi, Tomomi Aida, Kazuhiko Namekata, Takayuki Harada, Masayoshi Mishina and Kohichi Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:22
  27. Dravet syndrome is a devastating infantile-onset epilepsy syndrome with cognitive deficits and autistic traits caused by genetic alterations in SCN1A gene encoding the α-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channe...

    Authors: Norimichi Higurashi, Taku Uchida, Christoph Lossin, Yoshio Misumi, Yohei Okada, Wado Akamatsu, Yoichi Imaizumi, Bo Zhang, Kazuki Nabeshima, Masayuki X Mori, Shutaro Katsurabayashi, Yukiyoshi Shirasaka, Hideyuki Okano and Shinichi Hirose
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:19
  28. GABAergic deficit is one of the major mechanisms underlying epileptic seizures. Previous studies have mainly focused on alterations of synaptic GABAergic inhibition during epileptogenesis. Recent work suggeste...

    Authors: Yajie Sun, Zheng Wu, Shuzhen Kong, Dongyun Jiang, Anar Pitre, Yun Wang and Gong Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:21
  29. Fear is one of the most potent emotional experiences and is an adaptive component of response to potentially threatening stimuli. Cumulative evidence suggests that the amygdala plays a central role in the acqu...

    Authors: Ayumi Kishioka, Takeshi Uemura, Fumiaki Fukushima and Masayoshi Mishina
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:17
  30. Loss of the translational repressor FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. In healthy neurons, FMRP modulates the local translation of numerous synaptic proteins. Synthesis of these proteins is required for the maint...

    Authors: Michael S Sidorov, Benjamin D Auerbach and Mark F Bear
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:15
  31. Matrix metalloproteinases are important factors in the molecular mechanisms leading to neuronal injury in many neurological disorders. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia a...

    Authors: Kimberly E Hawkins, Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Gary A Rosenberg and Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:14
  32. Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is required for spatial working memory. Although evidence from genetic manipulation mice suggests an important role of hippocampal NMDAR NR2B subunits (NR2B-NM...

    Authors: Xue-Han Zhang, Shu-Su Liu, Feng Yi, Min Zhuo and Bao-Ming Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:13
  33. Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kDa (SNAP-25) regulates the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Growing evidence suggests that SNAP-25 is involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, attenti...

    Authors: Koji Ohira, Katsunori Kobayashi, Keiko Toyama, Hironori K Nakamura, Hirotaka Shoji, Keizo Takao, Rika Takeuchi, Shun Yamaguchi, Masakazu Kataoka, Shintaro Otsuka, Masami Takahashi and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:12
  34. The editors of Molecular Brain would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 5 (2012).

    Authors: Tim Bliss, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:7
  35. Pavlovian fear conditioning is a classical form of associative learning, which depends on associative synaptic plasticity in the amygdala. Recent findings suggest that the central amygdala (CeA) plays an activ...

    Authors: Ayako M Watabe, Toshitaka Ochiai, Masashi Nagase, Yukari Takahashi, Masaru Sato and Fusao Kato
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:11
  36. CaMKII is a major synaptic protein that is activated during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) by the Ca2+ influx through NMDARs. This activation is required for LTP induction, but the role of the kina...

    Authors: Magdalena Sanhueza and John Lisman
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:10
  37. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are coupled via Gαq/11 to the activation of phospholipase Cβ, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to form inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. In a...

    Authors: Maryse Paquet, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Jennifer Guadagno, Jessica L Esseltine, Stephen SG Ferguson and Sean P Cregan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:9
  38. Opioids are associated with wide inter-individual variability in the analgesic response and a narrow therapeutic index. This may be partly explained by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in...

    Authors: Annica Rhodin, Alfhild Grönbladh, Harumi Ginya, Kent W Nilsson, Andreas Rosenblad, Qin Zhou, Mats Enlund, Mathias Hallberg, Torsten Gordh and Fred Nyberg
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:8
  39. Neuronal activity alters calcium ion (Ca2+) dynamics in astrocytes, but the physiologic relevance of these changes is controversial. To examine this issue further, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model...

    Authors: Mika Tanaka, Pei-Yu Shih, Hiroshi Gomi, Takamasa Yoshida, Junichi Nakai, Reiko Ando, Teiichi Furuichi, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Alexey Semyanov and Shigeyoshi Itohara
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:6
  40. Astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability and synaptic activity by releasing gliotransmitters such as glutamate. Our recent study demonstrated that astrocytes release glutamate upon GPCR activation via Ca2+ activ...

    Authors: Kyung-Seok Han, Junsung Woo, Hyungju Park, Bong-June Yoon, Sukwoo Choi and C Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:4
  41. The transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury, but not at the chronic phase, can promote functional recovery. However, the reasons for this differenc...

    Authors: Soraya Nishimura, Akimasa Yasuda, Hiroki Iwai, Morito Takano, Yoshiomi Kobayashi, Satoshi Nori, Osahiko Tsuji, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hayao Ebise, Yoshiaki Toyama, Hideyuki Okano and Masaya Nakamura
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:3
  42. Loss of a sensory input causes the hypersensitivity in other modalities. In addition to cross-modal plasticity, the sensory cortices without receiving inputs undergo the plastic changes. It is not clear how th...

    Authors: Guanjun Zhang, Zilong Gao, Sudong Guan, Yan Zhu and Jin-Hui Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:2

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