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  1. Whereas aberrant brain connectivity is likely the core pathology of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), studies do not agree as to whether hypo- or hyper-connectivity is the main underlying problem. Recent functio...

    Authors: Jae-Young Koh, Joon Seo Lim, Hyae-Ran Byun and Min-Heui Yoo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:64
  2. Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause degeneration of motor neurons in a subset of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The pathogenetic process mediated by misfolded and/or aggre...

    Authors: Seiji Watanabe, Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Shinji Nagatsu, Keizo Takao, Okiru Komine, Fumito Endo, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Hidemi Misawa, Ryosuke Takahashi, Makoto Kinoshita and Koji Yamanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:62
  3. Current evidence suggests a central role for autophagy in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore...

    Authors: Arnaud Francois, Faraj Terro, Nathalie Quellard, Beatrice Fernandez, Damien Chassaing, Thierry Janet, Agnes Rioux Bilan, Marc Paccalin and Guylene Page
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:56
  4. Recent studies have indicated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-recognition receptor that triggers inflammatory signals in innate immune cells, is also expressed on sensory neurons, implicating its ...

    Authors: Hyunjung Min, Hyunkyoung Lee, Hyoungsub Lim, Yong Ho Jang, Sung Jun Chung, C Justin Lee and Sung Joong Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:59
  5. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is motile within dendritic spines, but the mechanisms underlying its regulation are poorly understood. To address this issue, we have simultaneously imaged morphology and ER content ...

    Authors: Ai Na Ng, Andrew J Doherty, Paul J Lombroso, Nigel J Emptage and Graham L Collingridge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:60
  6. Animal aggressiveness is controlled by genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, social experience plays an important role in modulating aggression in vertebrates and invertebrates. In Droso...

    Authors: Mahmoudreza Ramin, Claudiu Domocos, David Slawaska-Eng and Yong Rao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:55
  7. Dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) synapse with axon terminals of bipolar cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Changes in RGC dendrites and synapses between bipolar cells in the inner retinal laye...

    Authors: Hae-Young Lopilly Park, Jie Hyun Kim and Chan Kee Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:53
  8. Histamine (HA) regulates the sleep-wake cycle, synaptic plasticity and memory in adult mammals. Dopaminergic specification in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) coincides with increased HA brain levels. To st...

    Authors: Itzel Escobedo-Avila, Fernanda Vargas-Romero, Anayansi Molina-Hernández, Rodrigo López-González, Daniel Cortés, Juan A De Carlos and Iván Velasco
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:58
  9. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial malfunction is implicated in PD pathogenesis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced puta...

    Authors: Xiaoling Duan, Jade Tong, Qin Xu, Yili Wu, Fang Cai, Tingyu Li and Weihong Song
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:57
  10. Alzheimer s disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral deposition of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Aβ is produced by sequential cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. Many studies hav...

    Authors: Joshua HK Tam, Claudia Seah and Stephen H Pasternak
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:54
  11. TRPM4 channels are Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channels which are deeply involved in physiological and pathological conditions. However, their trafficking mechanism and binding partners are still elusive.

    Authors: Chang-Hoon Cho, Eunju Kim, Young-Sun Lee, Oleg Yarishkin, Jae Cheal Yoo, Jae-Yong Park, Seong-Geun Hong and Eun Mi Hwang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:52
  12. Serotonin receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in a variety of psychiatric disorders. G-proteins, heterotrimeric complexes that couple to multiple receptors, are activated when their rece...

    Authors: Matteo Giulietti, Viviana Vivenzio, Francesco Piva, Giovanni Principato, Cesario Bellantuono and Bernardo Nardi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:49
  13. Despite the importance of 5-HT1A as a major target for the action of several anxiolytics/antidepressant drugs, little is known about its regulation in central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurons.

    Authors: Ji-Young Kim, Ana Kim, Zhong-Qiu Zhao, Xian-Yu Liu and Zhou-Feng Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:48
  14. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by recurrent abdominal discomfort, spontaneous pain, colorectal hypersensitivity and bowel dysfunction. Patients with IBS also suffer from emotional anxiety and ...

    Authors: Ming-Ming Zhang, Shui-Bing Liu, Tao Chen, Kohei Koga, Ting Zhang, Yun-Qing Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:47
  15. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited human retinal disorder that causes progressive photoreceptor cell loss, leading to severe vision impairment or blindness. However, no effective therapy has been establ...

    Authors: Tetsu Yoshida, Yoko Ozawa, Keiichiro Suzuki, Kenya Yuki, Manabu Ohyama, Wado Akamatsu, Yumi Matsuzaki, Shigeto Shimmura, Kohnosuke Mitani, Kazuo Tsubota and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:45
  16. Voltage-dependent block of the NMDA receptor by Mg2+ is thought to be central to the unique involvement of this receptor in higher brain functions. However, the in vivo role of the Mg2+ block in the mammalian bra...

    Authors: Yuichiro Hayashi, Yoko Nabeshima, Katsunori Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Koichi Tanda, Keizo Takao, Hidenori Suzuki, Eisaku Esumi, Shigeru Noguchi, Yukiko Matsuda, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Tetsuo Noda, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Masayoshi Mishina, Kazuo Funabiki and Yo-ichi Nabeshima
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:44
  17. Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a highly charged polyanion capable of interacting with a number of molecular targets. This signaling molecule is released into the extracellular matrix by central astrocytes ...

    Authors: Stephanie C Stotz, Lucas OM Scott, Christopher Drummond-Main, Yosef Avchalumov, Fernando Girotto, Jörn Davidsen, Maria R Gómez-Gárcia, Jong M Rho, Evgeny V Pavlov and Michael A Colicos
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:42
  18. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology occurs in part as the result of excessive production of β-amyloid (Aβ). Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is now considered a receptor for Aβ and consequently contri...

    Authors: Alison Hamilton, Jessica L Esseltine, Rebecca A DeVries, Sean P Cregan and Stephen S G Ferguson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:40
  19. The gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system is a critical mediator of fear extinction process. GABA can induce “phasic” or “tonic” inhibition in neurons through synaptic or extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, respectiv...

    Authors: Afshin Paydar, Boyoung Lee, Gireesh Gangadharan, Sukchan Lee, Eun Mi Hwang and Hee-Sup Shin
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:39
  20. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States...

    Authors: Venkata Subba Rao Atluri, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Thangavel Samikkannu, Vidya Sagar, Kesava Rao Venkata Kurapati, Shailendra K Saxena, Adriana Yndart, Andrea Raymond, Hong Ding, Oscar Hernandez and Madhavan PN Nair
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:37
  21. Low-voltage-activated (T-type) calcium channels play a crucial role in a number of physiological processes, including neuronal and cardiac pacemaker activity and nociception. Therefore, finding specific modula...

    Authors: Chris Bladen, Jawed Hamid, Ivana A Souza and Gerald W Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:36
  22. Functional heterologous expression of naturally-expressed and apparently functional mammalian α6*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs; where ‘*’ indicates presence of additional subunits) has been diffic...

    Authors: Bhagirathi Dash and Ming D Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:35
  23. Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the initiation and progression of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Chronic neuroinflammation results in diminished synaptic plasticity and loss of GluN1 N-methy...

    Authors: Jinhua Ma, Bo-Ryoung Choi, ChiHye Chung, Sun Seek Min, Won Kyung Jeon and Jung-Soo Han
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:33
  24. Chronic stress is generally known to exacerbate the development of numerous neuropsychiatric diseases such as fear and anxiety disorders, which is at least partially due to the disinhibition of amygdala subseq...

    Authors: Zhi-Peng Liu, Chen Song, Min Wang, Ye He, Xiao-Bin Xu, Han-Qing Pan, Wen-Bing Chen, Wei-Jie Peng and Bing-Xing Pan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:32
  25. We previously performed systematic association studies of glutamate receptor gene family members with schizophrenia, and found positive associations of polymorphisms in the GRM3 (a gene of metabotropic glutamate ...

    Authors: Ryuta Fujioka, Takenobu Nii, Akiko Iwaki, Atsushi Shibata, Isao Ito, Kiyoyuki Kitaichi, Masatoshi Nomura, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Yasuyuki Fukumaki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:31
  26. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common cause of dominant and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder. Yeast-two-hybrid screening using human LRRK2 kin...

    Authors: Sharon L Chan, Ling-Ling Chua, Dario C Angeles and Eng-King Tan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:29
  27. Inflammatory reaction in blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays a crucial role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been shown that microglia could be activated through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Ther...

    Authors: Xiao-Qian Li, Jun Wang, Bo Fang, Wen-Fei Tan and Hong Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:28
  28. Itch, chronic itch in particular, can have a significant negative impact on an individual’s quality of life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying itch processing in the central nervous system remain la...

    Authors: Ling Zhang, Guan-Yu Jiang, Ning-Jing Song, Ying Huang, Jia-Yin Chen, Qing-Xiu Wang and Yu-Qiang Ding
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:25
  29. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate sharing many similarities with humans. Recently developed technology for generating transgenic marmosets has opened new avenues for faithful recapit...

    Authors: Zhi Zhou, Kazuhisa Kohda, Keiji Ibata, Jun Kohyama, Wado Akamatsu, Michisuke Yuzaki, Hirotaka James Okano, Erika Sasaki and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:24
  30. Loss of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene function results in constitutive activation of the canonical Wnt pathway and represents the main initiating and rate-limiting event in colorectal tumorigenesis. APC i...

    Authors: Takanori Onouchi, Katsunori Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi Sakai, Atsushi Shimomura, Ron Smits, Chiho Sumi-Ichinose, Masafumi Kurosumi, Keizo Takao, Ryuji Nomura, Akiko Iizuka-Kogo, Hidenori Suzuki, Kazunao Kondo, Tetsu Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Riccardo Fodde and Takao Senda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:21
  31. Higher brain function is supported by the precise temporal and spatial regulation of thousands of genes. The mechanisms that underlie transcriptional regulation in the brain, however, remain unclear. The Ntng1 an...

    Authors: Kunio Yaguchi, Sachiko Nishimura-Akiyoshi, Satoshi Kuroki, Takashi Onodera and Shigeyoshi Itohara
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:19
  32. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can deliver transgenes to diverse cell types and are therefore useful for basic research and gene therapy. Although AAV has many advantages over other viral vectors, its re...

    Authors: Jun-Hyeok Choi, Nam-Kyung Yu, Gi-Chul Baek, Joseph Bakes, Daekwan Seo, Hye Jin Nam, Sung Hee Baek, Chae-Seok Lim, Yong-Seok Lee and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:17
  33. Rats exhibit extremely limited motor function recovery after total transection of the spinal cord (SCT). We previously reported that SM-216289, a semaphorin3A inhibitor, enhanced axon regeneration and motor fu...

    Authors: Liang Zhang, Shinjiro Kaneko, Kaoru Kikuchi, Akihiko Sano, Miho Maeda, Akiyoshi Kishino, Shinsuke Shibata, Masahiko Mukaino, Yoshiaki Toyama, Meigen Liu, Toru Kimura, Hideyuki Okano and Masaya Nakamura
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:14
  34. Excess expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the cortex and hippocampus causes a decrease in the number of glutamatergic synapses and alters the expression of neurexin and neuroligin, trans-synaptic pro...

    Authors: Yun-Yan Xiang, Haiheng Dong, Burton B Yang, John F MacDonald and Wei-Yang Lu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:15

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