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  1. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic disease. Its pathogenesis may involve multiple genetic and nongenetic factors, but its etiology remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that the genome of a patient...

    Authors: Hidenao Sasaki, Mitsuru Emi, Hiroshi Iijima, Noriko Ito, Hidenori Sato, Ichiro Yabe, Takeo Kato, Jun Utsumi and Kenichi Matsubara
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:24
  2. Up to 50% of long-term HIV infected patients, including those with systemically well-controlled infection, commonly experience memory problems and slowness, difficulties in concentration, planning, and multita...

    Authors: Brian Giunta, Jared Ehrhart, Demian F Obregon, Lucy Lam, Lisa Le, JingJi Jin, Francisco Fernandez, Jun Tan and R Douglas Shytle
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:23
  3. Staufens (Stau) are RNA-binding proteins involved in mRNA transport, localization, decay and translational control. The Staufen 1 (Stau1) isoform was recently identified as necessary for the protein synthesis-...

    Authors: Geneviève Lebeau, Luc DesGroseillers, Wayne Sossin and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:22
  4. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of cell surface receptors, and are the target of more than half of the current therapeutic drugs on the market. When activated by an ag...

    Authors: Javier González-Maeso
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:20
  5. Gap junctions mediate the electrical coupling and intercellular communication between neighboring cells. Some gap junction proteins, namely connexins and pannexins in vertebrates, and innexins in invertebrates...

    Authors: Magali Bouhours, Michelle D Po, Shangbang Gao, Wesley Hung, Hang Li, John Georgiou, John C Roder and Mei Zhen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:16
  6. The specific genetic regulation of neural primordial cell determination is of great interest in stem cell biology. The Musashi1 (Msi1) protein, which belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-bindin...

    Authors: Satoshi Kawase, Takao Imai, Chikako Miyauchi-Hara, Kunio Yaguchi, Yoshinori Nishimoto, Shin-ichi Fukami, Yumi Matsuzaki, Atsushi Miyawaki, Shigeyoshi Itohara and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:14
  7. In experimental models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), cerebellar hypoplasia and hypofoliation are associated with insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) resistance with impaired signaling thr...

    Authors: Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Nathaniel Bowling and Peter Moskal
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:13
  8. Sleep homeostasis is characterized by a positive correlation between sleep length and intensity with the duration of the prior waking period. A causal role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in sleep...

    Authors: Keri Martinowich, Robert J Schloesser, Dennisse V Jimenez, Daniel R Weinberger and Bai Lu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:11
  9. The alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) is a major synaptic kinase that undergoes autophosphorylation after NMDA receptor activation, switching the kinase into a calcium-independe...

    Authors: Elaine E Irvine, Arthur Danhiez, Kasia Radwanska, Charlotte Nassim, Walter Lucchesi, Emile Godaux, Laurence Ris and K Peter Giese
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:8
  10. In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and generate new neurons throughout life. A multimodal protein, Galectin-1, is expressed in neura...

    Authors: Yoichi Imaizumi, Masanori Sakaguchi, Tsuyoshi Morishita, Mamoru Ito, Françoise Poirier, Kazunobu Sawamoto and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:7
  11. Affective disorders, which include anxiety and depression, are highly prevalent and have overwhelming emotional and physical symptoms. Despite human brain imaging studies, which have implicated the prefrontal ...

    Authors: Susan S Kim, Hansen Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Tao Chen, Valentina Mercaldo, Giannina Descalzi, Long-Jun Wu and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:6
  12. Animals constantly receive and respond to external or internal stimuli, and these experiences are learned and memorized in their brains. In animals, this is a crucial feature for survival, by making it possibl...

    Authors: Nam-Kyung Yu, Sung Hee Baek and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:5
  13. Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have...

    Authors: Yue Zhang, Hotaka Fukushima and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:4
  14. An important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of aggregations of small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ). ...

    Authors: Yun-wu Zhang, Robert Thompson, Han Zhang and Huaxi Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:3
  15. Directed evolution of biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins containing high diversity has emerged as an effective method to obtain molecules for various purposes. In the recent past, proteins from non-imm...

    Authors: Mohammed Naimuddin, Suzuko Kobayashi, Chihiro Tsutsui, Masayuki Machida, Naoto Nemoto, Takafumi Sakai and Tai Kubo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:2
  16. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) loads GABA and glycine from the neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles. To address functional importance of VGAT during embryonic development, we generated global VGAT ...

    Authors: Kenzi Saito, Toshikazu Kakizaki, Ryotaro Hayashi, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Tomonori Furukawa, Yoichi Nakazato, Shigeo Takamori, Satoe Ebihara, Masakazu Uematsu, Masayoshi Mishina, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Minesuke Yokoyama, Shiro Konishi, Koichi Inoue, Atsuo Fukuda, Manabu Fukumoto…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:40
  17. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the major ASIC subunit determining acid-activated currents in brain neurons. Recent studies show that ASIC1a play critical roles in acid-induced cell toxicity. While the...

    Authors: Wenying Jin, Chong Shen, Lan Jing, Xiang-ming Zha and Jun Xia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:39
  18. Concentrations of extracellular divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) fall substantially during intensive synaptic transmission as well as during some pathophysiological conditions such as epilepsy and brain ischemia....

    Authors: Xuanmao Chen, Tomohiro Numata, Minghua Li, Yasuo Mori, Beverley A Orser, Michael F Jackson, Zhi-Gang Xiong and John F MacDonald
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:38
  19. Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence implicating the glutamate system in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety disorders, thou...

    Authors: Mina Delawary, Tohru Tezuka, Yuji Kiyama, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Takeshi Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Ryota Hashimoto, Hisashi Umemori, Toshiya Manabe, Tadashi Yamamoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:37
  20. Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage c...

    Authors: Liang Feng, Zheng-hua Xie, Qian Ding, Xiaoling Xie, Richard T Libby and Lin Gan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:36
  21. In recent years, several lines of evidence have shown an increase in Parkinson's disease prevalence in rural environments where pesticides are heavily used. Although, the underlying mechanism for neuronal dege...

    Authors: Binukumar BK, Amanjit Bal, Ramesh JL Kandimalla and Kiran Dip Gill
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:35
  22. It is hypothesized that complex interactions between multiple environmental factors and genetic factors are implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly unders...

    Authors: Latha Devi, Melissa J Alldred, Stephen D Ginsberg and Masuo Ohno
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:34
  23. Huntington's disease results from expansion of a glutamine repeat (>36 glutamines) in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (htt) and is characterized by preferential neurodegeneration in the striatum of the bra...

    Authors: Chuan-En Wang, Shihua Li and Xiao-Jiang Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:33
  24. Aβ peptides derived from the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein are widely believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. A common way to study the impact of these molecul...

    Authors: Jonathan Witton, Jon T Brown, Matthew W Jones and Andrew D Randall
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:32
  25. While several mouse strains have recently been developed for tracing neural crest or oligodendrocyte lineages, each strain has inherent limitations. The connection between human SOX10 mutations and neural crest c...

    Authors: Shinsuke Shibata, Akimasa Yasuda, Francois Renault-Mihara, Satoshi Suyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Takayoshi Inoue, Yukiko U Inoue, Narihito Nagoshi, Momoka Sato, Masaya Nakamura, Chihiro Akazawa and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:31
  26. Zinc dyshomeostasis has been recognized as an important mechanism for cell death in acute brain injury. An increase in the level of free or histochemically reactive zinc in astrocytes and neurons is considered...

    Authors: Sook-Jeong Lee and Jae-Young Koh
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:30
  27. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylates the major transcription factor, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which plays key roles in synaptic plasticity and memory cons...

    Authors: Hiroki Toyoda, Ming-Gao Zhao, Valentina Mercaldo, Tao Chen, Giannina Descalzi, Satoshi Kida and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:27
  28. New granule cells are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. During granule cell maturation, the mechanisms that differentiate new cells not only describe the degree of cell diff...

    Authors: Koji Ohira,, Hideo Hagihara,, Keiko Toyama,, Keizo Takao, Masaaki Kanai, Hiroshi Funakoshi, Toshikazu Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:26
  29. All antipsychotics work via dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), suggesting a critical role for D2Rs in psychosis; however, there is little evidence for a change in receptor number or pharmacological nature of D2Rs. ...

    Authors: Min Wang, Lin Pei, Paul J Fletcher, Shitij Kapur, Philip Seeman and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:25
  30. K+ channel interacting protein 1 (KChIP1) is a neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein that interacts with multiple intracellular molecules. Its physiological function, however, remains largely unknown. We report ....

    Authors: Kun Xia, Hui Xiong, Yeonsook Shin, Danling Wang, Tom Deerinck, Hiroto Takahashi, Mark H Ellisman, Stuart A Lipton, Gang Tong, Giannina Descalzi, Dongxian Zhang, Min Zhuo and Zhuohua Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:23
  31. Growth factor-induced receptor dimerization and cross-phosphorylation are hallmarks of signal transduction via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can activate RTKs through a ...

    Authors: Sum Shing Chi, Sandra M Vetiska, Robin S Gill, Marilyn S Hsiung, Fang Liu and Hubert HM Van Tol
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:22
  32. Synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices have been studied during ageing of a double transgenic mouse strain relevant to early-onset familial Alzheimer's d...

    Authors: Stephen M Fitzjohn, Frederick Kuenzi, Robin A Morton, Thomas W Rosahl, Huw Lewis, David Smith, Guy R Seabrook and Graham L Collingridge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:21
  33. Interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the prefrontal cortex are essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor functions by dopamine D...

    Authors: Jian-Li Hu, Gang Liu, Yan-Chun Li, Wen-Jun Gao and Yue-Qiao Huang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:20
  34. The establishment of tissue architecture in the nervous system requires the proper migration and positioning of newly born neurons during embryonic development. Defects in nuclear translocation, a key process ...

    Authors: Tarek Houalla, Lei Shi, Donald J van Meyel and Yong Rao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:19

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