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  1. Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases that play key roles in programmed cell death (apoptosis). Mounting evidence in recent years shows that caspases also have important non-apoptotic functions in multip...

    Authors: Zheng Li and Morgan Sheng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:15
  2. Over-activation of AMPARs (α−amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype glutamate receptors) is implicated in excitotoxic neuronal death associated with acute brain insults, such as ischemic st...

    Authors: Min Wang, Shupeng Li, Hongyu Zhang, Lin Pei, Shengwei Zou, Frank JS Lee, Yu Tian Wang and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:13
  3. Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in neuronal oxidant defence. Depletion of cellular GSH is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and thereby contributes to the associated oxidative stress and Ca2+ dysre...

    Authors: Jillian C Belrose, Yu-Feng Xie, Lynn J Gierszewski, John F MacDonald and Michael F Jackson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:11
  4. Retinoid signaling pathways mediated by retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid × receptor (RXR)-mediated transcription play critical roles in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, recent studies have sh...

    Authors: Masanori Nomoto, Yohei Takeda, Shusaku Uchida, Koji Mitsuda, Hatsune Enomoto, Kaori Saito, Tesu Choi, Ayako M Watabe, Shizuka Kobayashi, Shoichi Masushige, Toshiya Manabe and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:8
  5. Although the cortex has been extensively studied in long-term memory storage, less emphasis has been placed on immediate cortical contributions to fear memory formation. AMPA receptor plasticity is strongly im...

    Authors: Giannina Descalzi, Xiang-Yao Li, Tao Chen, Valentina Mercaldo, Kohei Koga and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:6
  6. During permanent memory formation, recall of acquired place memories initially depends on the hippocampus and eventually become hippocampus-independent with time. It has been suggested that the quality of orig...

    Authors: Takashi Kitamura, Reiko Okubo-Suzuki, Noriko Takashima, Akiko Murayama, Toshiaki Hino, Hirofumi Nishizono, Satoshi Kida and Kaoru Inokuchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:5
  7. An important limiting factor in the development of centrally acting pharmaceuticals is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Transport of therapeutic peptides through this highly protective physiological barrier rema...

    Authors: Karel Guillemyn, Patrycja Kleczkowska, Alexandre Novoa, Bart Vandormael, Isabelle Van den Eynde, Piotr Kosson, Muhammad Faheem Asim, Peter W Schiller, Mariana Spetea, Andrzej W Lipkowski, Dirk Tourwé and Steven Ballet
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:4
  8. Wnt proteins are emerging key regulators of the plasticity and functions of adult brains. However, the mechanisms by which the expression of Wnt proteins is regulated in neurons are unclear. Using cortical pri...

    Authors: Yichen Li, Bei Li, Xianzi Wan, Wei Zhang, Ling Zhong and Shao-Jun Tang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:1
  9. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a calcium permeable non-selective cation channel that functions as a sensor of cellular redox status. Highly expressed within the CNS, we have previously de...

    Authors: Yu-Feng Xie, Jillian C Belrose, Gang Lei, Michael Tymianski, Yasuo Mori, John F MacDonald and Michael F Jackson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:44
  10. Deletions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulate to high levels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in normal aging and in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Human nig...

    Authors: Matthias Elstner, Sarina K Müller, Lars Leidolt, Christoph Laub, Lena Krieg, Falk Schlaudraff, Birgit Liss, Chris Morris, Douglass M Turnbull, Eliezer Masliah, Holger Prokisch, Thomas Klopstock and Andreas Bender
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:43
  11. A tonic form of synaptic inhibition occurs in discrete regions of the central nervous system and has an important role in controlling neuronal excitability. Recently, we reported that GABA present in astrocyte...

    Authors: Bo-Eun Yoon, Seonmi Jo, Junsung Woo, Jae-Hoon Lee, Taekeun Kim, Daesoo Kim and C Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:42
  12. The contribution of different GluN2 subunits of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to the induction of bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity is a controversial topic. As both supporting and refut...

    Authors: Thomas E Bartlett, Jie Lu and Yu Tian Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:41
  13. The small non-coding microRNAs play an important role in development by regulating protein translation, but their involvement in axon guidance is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA-134 (miR-13...

    Authors: Liang Han, Zhexing Wen, Rachel C Lynn, Marie-Laure Baudet, Christine E Holt, Yukio Sasaki, Gary J Bassell and James Q Zheng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:40
  14. DIP (diaphanous interacting protein)/WISH (WASP interacting SH3 protein) is a protein involved in cytoskeletal signaling which regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics and/or microtubules mainly through the activ...

    Authors: Suhail Asrar, Keiko Kaneko, Keizo Takao, Jaina Negandhi, Makoto Matsui, Koji Shibasaki, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Robert V Harrison, Zhengping Jia, Michael W Salter, Makoto Tominaga and Tomoko Fukumi-Tominaga
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:39
  15. Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphom...

    Authors: Sharon A Swanger, Xiaodi Yao, Christina Gross and Gary J Bassell
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:38
  16. Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is involved in several fundamental cellular processes and human diseases. Many mammalian ESCRT proteins have multiple isoforms but their precise functio...

    Authors: Jin-A Lee, Lei Liu, Robyn Javier, Anatol C Kreitzer, Celine Delaloy and Fen-Biao Gao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:37
  17. Over the past decade, the use and development of optical imaging techniques has advanced our understanding of synaptic plasticity by offering the spatial and temporal resolution necessary to examine long-term ...

    Authors: Zahid Padamsey and Nigel J Emptage
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:36
  18. Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) is a promising method to regenerate tissue from damage and recover function in various neurological diseases including brain ischemia. Galectin-1(...

    Authors: Junichi Yamane, Satoru Ishibashi, Masanori Sakaguchi, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Yonehiro Kanemura, Masaya Nakamura, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Yoshiaki Toyama, Hidehiro Mizusawa and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:35
  19. The olfactory epithelium (OE) has a unique capacity for continuous neurogenesis, extending axons to the olfactory bulb with the assistance of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs). The OE and OECs have been belie...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Katoh, Shinsuke Shibata, Kimiko Fukuda, Momoka Sato, Etsuko Satoh, Narihito Nagoshi, Takeo Minematsu, Yumi Matsuzaki, Chihiro Akazawa, Yoshiaki Toyama, Masaya Nakamura and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:34
  20. Galectins are a 15 member family of carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been implicated in cancer, immunity, inflammation and development. While galectins are expressed in the central nervous system, littl...

    Authors: Masanori Sakaguchi, Maithe Arruda-Carvalho, Na Hyea Kang, Yoichi Imaizumi, Françoise Poirier, Hideyuki Okano and Paul W Frankland
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:33
  21. Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is expressed in multiple cell types in the CNS, with the most prominent expression in glial cells. PAR1 activation enhances excitatory synaptic transmission secondary to th...

    Authors: Kyung-Seok Han, Guido Mannaioni, Cecily E Hamill, Jaekwang Lee, Candice E Junge, C Justin Lee and Stephen F Traynelis
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:32
  22. Neuropathic pain is generally defined as a chronic pain state resulting from peripheral and/or central nerve injury. Effective treatment for neuropathic pain is still lacking, due in part to poor understanding...

    Authors: Min Zhuo, Gongxiong Wu and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:31
  23. Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investig...

    Authors: Katherine G Akers, Steven A Kushner, Ana T Leslie, Laura Clarke, Derek van der Kooy, Jason P Lerch and Paul W Frankland
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:29
  24. Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has reached epidemic proportions, and it has become increasingly recognized that abusers suffer from a wide range of neurocognitive deficits. Much previous work has focused on the ...

    Authors: Arun Venkatesan, Lerna Uzasci, Zhaohui Chen, Labchan Rajbhandari, Carol Anderson, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Mario A Bianchet, Robert Cotter, Hongjun Song and Avindra Nath
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:28
  25. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic disease. Its pathogenesis may involve multiple genetic and nongenetic factors, but its etiology remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that the genome of a patient...

    Authors: Hidenao Sasaki, Mitsuru Emi, Hiroshi Iijima, Noriko Ito, Hidenori Sato, Ichiro Yabe, Takeo Kato, Jun Utsumi and Kenichi Matsubara
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:24
  26. Up to 50% of long-term HIV infected patients, including those with systemically well-controlled infection, commonly experience memory problems and slowness, difficulties in concentration, planning, and multita...

    Authors: Brian Giunta, Jared Ehrhart, Demian F Obregon, Lucy Lam, Lisa Le, JingJi Jin, Francisco Fernandez, Jun Tan and R Douglas Shytle
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:23
  27. Staufens (Stau) are RNA-binding proteins involved in mRNA transport, localization, decay and translational control. The Staufen 1 (Stau1) isoform was recently identified as necessary for the protein synthesis-...

    Authors: Geneviève Lebeau, Luc DesGroseillers, Wayne Sossin and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:22
  28. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of cell surface receptors, and are the target of more than half of the current therapeutic drugs on the market. When activated by an ag...

    Authors: Javier González-Maeso
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:20
  29. Gap junctions mediate the electrical coupling and intercellular communication between neighboring cells. Some gap junction proteins, namely connexins and pannexins in vertebrates, and innexins in invertebrates...

    Authors: Magali Bouhours, Michelle D Po, Shangbang Gao, Wesley Hung, Hang Li, John Georgiou, John C Roder and Mei Zhen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:16
  30. The specific genetic regulation of neural primordial cell determination is of great interest in stem cell biology. The Musashi1 (Msi1) protein, which belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-bindin...

    Authors: Satoshi Kawase, Takao Imai, Chikako Miyauchi-Hara, Kunio Yaguchi, Yoshinori Nishimoto, Shin-ichi Fukami, Yumi Matsuzaki, Atsushi Miyawaki, Shigeyoshi Itohara and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:14
  31. In experimental models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), cerebellar hypoplasia and hypofoliation are associated with insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) resistance with impaired signaling thr...

    Authors: Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Nathaniel Bowling and Peter Moskal
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:13
  32. Sleep homeostasis is characterized by a positive correlation between sleep length and intensity with the duration of the prior waking period. A causal role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in sleep...

    Authors: Keri Martinowich, Robert J Schloesser, Dennisse V Jimenez, Daniel R Weinberger and Bai Lu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:11

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