The schematic diagram shows a proposed model on how different cues might act through PS-dependent and -independent pathways to regulate growth cone steering. BMP7 acts as bidirectional guidance molecular through phosphorylation regulation of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin (AC). We propose that BDNF gradients release the inhibition of translation by miR-134 and induce the local translation of Xlimk1 in an asymmetric way, leading to the asymmetric modification of the actin dynamics for growth cone steering. BDNF also acts to elicit asymmetric β-actin translation, which could plausibly operate in parallel to or in concert with the miR-134 regulation of LIMK1 translation for growth cone turning. Future experiments are required to test this model. For simplicity, the mTOR pathway is not depicted in the model.