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  1. Content type: Research

    The trigemino-thalamic (T-T) and trigemino-parabrachial (T-P) pathways are strongly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and affective/emotional aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. These T-T and T-P p...

    Authors: Chun-Kui Zhang, Zhi-Hong Li, Yu Qiao, Ting Zhang, Ya-Cheng Lu, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li and Jin-Lian Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:22

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  2. Content type: Review

    Neurodegenerative disorders are frequent, incurable diseases characterised by abnormal protein accumulation and progressive neuronal loss. Despite their growing prevalence, the underlying pathomechanism remain...

    Authors: János Bencze, Gábor Miklós Mórotz, Woosung Seo, Viktor Bencs, János Kálmán, Christopher Charles John Miller and Tibor Hortobágyi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:20

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  3. Content type: Research

    Morphine tolerance is a challenging clinical problem that limits the use of morphine in pain treatment, but the mechanisms of morphine tolerance remain unclear. Recent research indicates that long noncoding RN...

    Authors: Jiali Shao, Jian Wang, Jiangju Huang, Chang Liu, Yundan Pan, Qulian Guo and Wangyuan Zou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:21

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  4. Content type: Short report

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neurotoxicity mediated by the accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, causing neuronal loss and progressive cognitive decline. Genetic deletion or chronic phar...

    Authors: Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman, Alison Hamilton, Maryam Vasefi and Stephen S. G. Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:19

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  5. Content type: Research

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of thick samples using superresolution fluorescence microscopy remains challenging due to high level of background noise and fast photobleaching of fluorescence probes. We...

    Authors: Sangjun Park, Wooyoung Kang, Yeong-Dae Kwon, Jaehoon Shim, Siyong Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Sungchul Hohng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:17

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  6. Content type: Research

    Our previous studies demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can impair the postnatal cognitive function of rats by damaging the hippocampus. The present study examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) o...

    Authors: Wei Jiang, Min Guo, Min Gong, Li Chen, Yang Bi, Yun Zhang, Yuan Shi, Ping Qu, Youxue Liu, Jie Chen and Tingyu Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:14

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  7. Content type: Research

    The transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a multifunctional neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) that controls Ca2+ and protein homeostasis through gene regulation and p...

    Authors: Alejandro López-Hurtado, Daniel F. Burgos, Paz González, Xose M. Dopazo, Valentina González, Alberto Rábano, Britt Mellström and Jose R. Naranjo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:13

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  8. Content type: Research

    The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is primarily localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of the protein’s main function...

    Authors: Xu-bo Li, An Liu, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Yu-mei Wu, Ming-gao Zhao and Shui-bing Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:12

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  9. Content type: Research

    Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia, and spontaneous pain. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and autopha...

    Authors: Yibo Piao, Do Hyeong Gwon, Dong-Wook Kang, Tae Woong Hwang, Nara Shin, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Hyo Jung Shin, Yuhua Yin, Jwa-Jin Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Hyun-Woo Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Sang Ryong Kim, Sang-Ha Oh and Dong Woon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:11

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  10. Content type: Short report

    Growing evidence has indicated that prefibrillar form of soluble amyloid beta (sAβ1–42) is the major causative factor in the synaptic dysfunction associated with AD. The molecular changes leading to presynaptic d...

    Authors: Daehun Park and Sunghoe Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:10

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  11. Content type: Research

    Ghrelin exerts a wide range of physiological actions throughout the body and appears to be a promising target for disease therapy. Endogenous ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) are present in extrahypothalamic sites in...

    Authors: Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takefumi Sone, Michiko Narita, Kenichi Tanaka, Yusuke Hamada, Chizuru Iwasawa, Masahiro Shibasaki, Aya Maekawa, Miri Matsuo, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano and Minoru Narita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:6

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  12. Content type: Research

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a critical factor leading to a poor prognosis for ischemic stroke patients. ω-3 fatty acid supplements taken as part of a daily diet have been shown to improve the...

    Authors: Gang Zuo, Dongping Zhang, Rutao Mu, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Zhong Wang, Haiying Li and Gang Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:9

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  13. Content type: Research

    We examined the neuroprotective efficacy of the poly-arginine peptide R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D in a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) model in P7 Sprague-Dawley rats. R18 and R18D peptides were administere...

    Authors: Adam B. Edwards, Jane L. Cross, Ryan S. Anderton, Neville W. Knuckey and Bruno P. Meloni

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:8

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  14. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease driven in large part by accumulated deposits in the brain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage product amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, AD is ...

    Authors: Valerie T. Y. Tan, Bruce G. Mockett, Shane M. Ohline, Karen D. Parfitt, Hollie E. Wicky, Katie Peppercorn, Lucia Schoderboeck, Mohamad Fairuz bin Yahaya, Warren P. Tate, Stephanie M. Hughes and Wickliffe C. Abraham

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:7

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  15. Content type: Research

    The epithalamus, which is dorsal to the thalamus, consists of the habenula, pineal gland and third ventricle choroid plexus and plays important roles in the stress response and sleep–wake cycle in vertebrates....

    Authors: Bin Liu, Kaixing Zhou, Xiaojing Wu and Chunjie Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:5

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  16. Content type: Research

    Neuronal inhibition is mediated by glycine and/or GABA. Inferior colliculus (IC) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic inputs, whereas inhibition in hippocampus (HC) predominantly relies on GABA. Astrocyte...

    Authors: Elsa Ghirardini, Simon L. Wadle, Vanessa Augustin, Jasmin Becker, Sina Brill, Julia Hammerich, Gerald Seifert and Jonathan Stephan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:4

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  17. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by tissue atrophy involving the brain and the spinal cord, where reactive inflammation contributes to the neurodegenerative processes. Recently, the presence of synapse alte...

    Authors: M. Medelin, V. Giacco, A. Aldinucci, G. Castronovo, E. Bonechi, A. Sibilla, M. Tanturli, M. Torcia, L. Ballerini, F. Cozzolino and C. Ballerini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:3

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  18. Content type: Methodology

    The adult brain actively controls its metabolic homeostasis via the circulatory system at the blood brain barrier interface. The mechanisms underlying the functional coupling from neuron to vessel remain poorl...

    Authors: Gregory W. Kirschen, Rachel Kéry, Hanxiao Liu, Afrinash Ahamad, Liang Chen, Wendy Akmentin, Ramya Kumar, Joel Levine, Qiaojie Xiong and Shaoyu Ge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:2

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  19. Content type: Review

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. In altered cells, metabolic...

    Authors: Alexandre Vallée and Jean-Noël Vallée

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:1

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  20. Content type: Research

    In Drosophila, precise regulation of BMP signaling is essential for normal synaptic growth at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and neuronal survival in the adult brain. However, the molecular mechanisms un...

    Authors: Keunjung Heo, Minyeop Nahm, Min-Jung Lee, Young-Eun Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Seung Hyun Kim and Seungbok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:62

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  21. Content type: Research

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy in the current form is hard to be used to image the neural connectivity of thick tissue samples due to problems such as slow imaging speed, severe photobleaching of flu...

    Authors: Jongjin Lee, Sangjun Park, Wooyoung Kang and Sungchul Hohng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:63

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