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  1. Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, slowly progressive motor neuron disease caused by abnormal CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Although ligand (testosterone)-depen...

    Authors: Kazunari Onodera, Daisuke Shimojo, Yasuharu Ishihara, Masato Yano, Fuyuki Miya, Haruhiko Banno, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takuji Ito, Rina Okada, Bruno de Araújo Herculano, Manabu Ohyama, Mari Yoshida, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Masahisa Katsuno, Manabu Doyu, Gen Sobue…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:18

    Content type: Research

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  2. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are excitatory glutamatergic receptors that are fundamental for many neuronal processes, including synaptic plasticity. NMDARs are comprised of four subunits derived from h...

    Authors: Vishaal Rajani, Ameet S. Sengar and Michael W. Salter

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:23

    Content type: Review

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  3. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) serves as a critical hub for the anxiety and pain perception. The large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels, or BKCa channels, are ubiquitously expressed throughout t...

    Authors: Huan Zhao, Qian Xue, Cong Li, Qingchuan Wang, Shichao Han, Yongsheng Zhou, Tao Yang, Yingli Xie, Hao Fu, Changbo Lu, Fancheng Meng, Ming Zhang, Yan Zhang, Xianglong Wu, Shengxi Wu, Min Zhuo…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:22

    Content type: Research

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  4. Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition was demonstrated to be elevated in the brains of HIV-infected patients and associated with neurocognitive decline; however, the mechanisms of these processes are poorly understood....

    Authors: Ibolya E. András, Marta Garcia-Contreras, Christopher Yanick, Paola Perez, Brice Sewell, Leonardo Durand and Michal Toborek

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:21

    Content type: Research

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  5. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in neuroinflammation and apoptotic neuronal death, and increasing evidences indicated that β2-microglobulin (B2M) is thought to be a major contributor to age-r...

    Authors: Qi Zhong, Yufeng Zou, Hongchao Liu, Ting Chen, Feng Zheng, Yifei Huang, Chang Chen and Zongze Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:20

    Content type: Research

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  6. Synaptic proteins play an important role for the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Numerous studies have identified and revealed individual synaptic protein functions using protein overexpression or deletion....

    Authors: Hyoung-Gon Ko, Dong Ik Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Christoph W. Turck and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:19

    Content type: Micro report

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  7. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss and the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the patients’ brains. In this study, we inv...

    Authors: Hyunju Kim, Bora Kim, Hye-Sun Kim and Joo-Youn Cho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:17

    Content type: Research

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  8. Anxiety disorder is highly prevalent worldwide and represents a chronic and functionally disabling condition, with high levels of psychological stress characterized by cognitive and physiological symptoms. Sco...

    Authors: Li Luo, Ting Sun, Le Yang, An Liu, Qing-qing Liu, Qin-qin Tian, Yan Wang, Ming-gao Zhao and Qi Yang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:15

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Nociception is important perception that has harmful influence on daily life of humans. As to main pain management system, some descending pathways are called descending antinociceptive systems (DAS). As main ...

    Authors: Shunpei Moriya, Akira Yamashita, Daiki Masukawa, Yuki Kambe, Junichi Sakaguchi, Honami Setoyama, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:14

    Content type: Research

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  10. Presynaptic active zone cytomatrix proteins are essential elements of neurotransmitter release machinery that govern neural transmission. Among active zone proteins, cytomatrix at the active zone-associated st...

    Authors: Akari Hagiwara, Shun Hamada, Yamato Hida and Toshihisa Ohtsuka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:13

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Hippocampal GABAergic interneurons play key roles in regulating principal cell activity and plasticity. Interneurons located in stratum oriens/alveus (O/A INs) receive excitatory inputs from CA1 pyramidal cells a...

    Authors: André Kougioumoutzakis, Joe Guillaume Pelletier, Isabel Laplante, Abdessattar Khlaifia and Jean-Claude Lacaille

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:12

    Content type: Research

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  12. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent post-transcriptional modification of eukaryotic mRNA. It has been reported that there is a stimulus-dependent regulation of m6A in the mammalian central nervous s...

    Authors: Jiangtao Yu, Yuxian Zhang, Haoli Ma, Rong Zeng, Ruining Liu, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaoqing Jin and Yan Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:11

    Content type: Research

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  13. Complex diseases involve dynamic perturbations of pathophysiological processes during disease progression. Transcriptional programs underlying such perturbations are unknown in many diseases. Here, we present ...

    Authors: Taek-Kyun Kim, Inyoul Lee, Ji-Hoon Cho, Brenda Canine, Andrew Keller, Nathan D. Price, Daehee Hwang, George Carlson and Leroy Hood

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:10

    Content type: Research

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  14. Abnormal accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a DNA/RNA binding protein, is a pathological signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Missense mutations in the TARDBP gene are also found in...

    Authors: Seiji Watanabe, Kotaro Oiwa, Yuri Murata, Okiru Komine, Akira Sobue, Fumito Endo, Eiki Takahashi and Koji Yamanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:8

    Content type: Micro report

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  15. Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs), a large group of adhesion molecules, are important for axonal projections and dendritic spread, but little is known about how they influence neuronal activity. The Pcdhβ clust...

    Authors: Hirotaka Asai, Noriaki Ohkawa, Yoshito Saitoh, Khaled Ghandour, Emi Murayama, Hirofumi Nishizono, Mina Matsuo, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Takeshi Yagi and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:7

    Content type: Research

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  16. Neurotropic viral transsynaptic tracing is an increasingly powerful technique for dissecting the structure and function of neural circuits. Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain H129 has been widely used as an an...

    Authors: Peng Su, Min Ying, Zengpeng Han, Jinjin Xia, Sen Jin, Yingli Li, Huadong Wang and Fuqiang Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. While chronic restraint stress (CRS) results in depression-like behaviors possibly through oxidative stress in the brain, its molecular etiology and the development of therapeutic strategies remain elusive. Si...

    Authors: Ji Hyeon Kim, Ahbin Kim, Yejin Yun, Seoyoung Park, Jung Hoon Lee, Yong-Seok Lee and Min Jae Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:4

    Content type: Micro report

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  18. The cellular consequences of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) stimulation depend on the receptors’ subcellular localization. Synaptic NMDARs promote plasticity and survival whereas extrasynaptic NMDARs me...

    Authors: Carlos Bas-Orth, Mirja Koch, David Lau, Bettina Buchthal and Hilmar Bading

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:3

    Content type: Research

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  19. ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of small GTPases composed of six members (ARF1–6) that control various cellular functions, including membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, in e...

    Authors: Hyeonho Kim, Hyeji Jung, Hyunsu Jung, Seok-Kyu Kwon, Jaewon Ko and Ji Won Um

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:2

    Content type: Research

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  20. Ubiquitin Specific Peptidase 16 (USP16) has been reported to contribute to somatic stem-cell defects in Down syndrome. However, how this gene being regulated is largely unknown. To study the mechanism underlying

    Authors: Shou Yang, Juelu Wang, Shipeng Guo, Daochao Huang, Isabel Bestard Lorigados, Xing Nie, Dandan Lou, Yanhua Li, Mingjing Liu, Yu Kang, Weihui Zhou and Weihong Song

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:120

    Content type: Research

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  21. Adult fish produce new cells throughout their central nervous system during the course of their lives and maintain a tremendous capacity to repair damaged neural tissue. Much of the focus on understanding brai...

    Authors: Eleanor C. Bisese, Chandler M. Ciuba, Amelia L. Davidson, Akanksha Kaushik, Sabrina M. Mullen, Jeremy L. Barth, E. Starr Hazard, Robert C. Wilson, Gary Hardiman and David M. Hollis

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:119

    Content type: Micro report

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  22. Chronic corticosterone (CORT) stress is an anxiety and depression inducing factor that involves the dysfunction of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neuronal plasticit...

    Authors: Qin Gong, Xiao-Jin Yan, Fan Lei, Mu-Lan Wang, Lu-Ling He, Ying-Ying Luo, Hong-Wei Gao, Yu-Lin Feng, Shi-Lin Yang, Jun Li and Li-Jun Du

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:118

    Content type: Research

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  23. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that patients with Diabetic Neuropathy Pain (DNP) present with increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) serum concentration, whereas studies with diabetic anima...

    Authors: Flávio Henrique Pequeno de Macedo, Rosária Dias Aires, Esdras Guedes Fonseca, Renata Cristina Mendes Ferreira, Daniel Portela Dias Machado, Lina Chen, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Ivana A. Souza, Virgínia Soares Lemos, Thiago Roberto Lima Romero, Aubin Moutal, Rajesh Khanna, Gerald W. Zamponi and Jader S. Cruz

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:117

    Content type: Short report

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  24. Transcription factor RelB is a member of the nuclear factror-kappa B (NF-κB) family, which plays a crucial role in mediating immune responses. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that RelB actively contributes...

    Authors: Meng-ge Yang, Li Sun, Jinming Han, Chao Zheng, Hudong Liang, Jie Zhu and Tao Jin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:115

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  25. An impaired biological response to insulin in the brain, known as central insulin resistance, was identified during stroke and traumatic brain injury, for which glutamate excitotoxicity is a common pathogenic ...

    Authors: Igor Pomytkin, Irina Krasil’nikova, Zanda Bakaeva, Alexander Surin and Vsevolod Pinelis

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:112

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  26. Exposure to moderate level of stress during the perinatal period helps the organisms to cope well with stressful events in their later life, an effect known as stress inoculation. Amygdala is one of the kernel...

    Authors: Xia Qin, Ye He, Na Wang, Jia-Xin Zou, Yong-Mei Zhang, Jun-Li Cao, Bing-Xing Pan and Wen-Hua Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:111

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Gene expression profiling across various brain areas at the single-cell resolution enables the identification of molecular markers of neuronal subpopulations and comprehensive characterization of their functio...

    Authors: Hyun Jin Kim, Minhyung Kim, Byeongsoo Kang, Soyeon Yun, Shin Eun Ryeo, Daehee Hwang and Joung-Hun Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:110

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The topographic projection of afferent terminals into two-dimensional maps is essential for sensory systems to encode the locations of sensory stimuli. In vertebrates, guidance cues are critical for establishi...

    Authors: Ruonan Li, Yuhua Liang, Siyang Zheng, Qun He and Limin Yang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:109

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. It is agreed upon that adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) in rodents. However, the existence of AHN in humans, particularly in elderly individuals, remains to be determined. ...

    Authors: Hideo Hagihara, Tomoyuki Murano, Koji Ohira, Miki Miwa, Katsuki Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:108

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. Bipolar disorder is a major mental illness characterized by severe swings in mood and activity levels which occur with variable amplitude and frequency. Attempts have been made to identify mood states and biol...

    Authors: Hideo Hagihara, Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yasuhiro Irino, Hironori K. Nakamura, Juzoh Umemori, Hirotaka Shoji, Masaru Yoshida, Yukiyasu Kamitani and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:107

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Due to the increase in population and longevity, incidence will triple by the middle of the twenty-first century. So far, no treatme...

    Authors: Yingshuo Xu, Guiran Xiao, Li Liu and Minglin Lang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:106

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  32. Peripheral nerve injury can lead to remodeling of brain circuits, and this can cause chronification of pain. We have recently reported that male mice subjected to spared injury of the sciatic nerve undergo cha...

    Authors: Vinicius M. Gadotti, Zizhen Zhang, Junting Huang and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:105

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  33. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease that has been linked to defective DNA repair. Many familial ALS patients harbor autosomal dominant mutations in the gene encoding the ...

    Authors: Haibo Wang, Suganya Rangaswamy, Manohar Kodavati, Joy Mitra, Wenting Guo, Erika N. Guerrero, Ludo Van Den Bosch and Muralidhar L. Hegde

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:103

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  34. This study aimed to evaluate the specific regulatory roles of microRNA-146a (miRNA-146a) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and explore the related regulatory mechanisms. A rat model of TLE was established by int...

    Authors: Hui Huang, Guiyun Cui, Hai Tang, Lingwen Kong, Xiaopeng Wang, Chenchen Cui, Qihua Xiao and Huiming Ji

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:102

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Schwann cells experience de-differentiation, proliferation, migration, re-differentiation and myelination, and participate in the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Our previous sequencing a...

    Authors: Hongkui Wang, Ping Zhang, Jun Yu, Fuchao Zhang, Wenzhao Dai and Sheng Yi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:101

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. FKBP5 encodes the FK506 binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding protein known to play an important role in the physiological stress response. However, results from previous studies examining the...

    Authors: Joonhong Kwon, Yeong Jae Kim, Koeul Choi, Sihwan Seol and Hyo Jung Kang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:99

    Content type: Micro report

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  37. We have examined the regulation of mutually exclusive Cav2.2 exon 37a and b variants by the mouse μ-opioid receptor (mMOR) C-terminal splice variants 1, 1C and 1O in tsA-201 cells. Electrophysiological analyse...

    Authors: Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Dvij Raval, Jin Xu, Ying-Xian Pan and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:98

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  38. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is a pivotal postsynaptic scaffolding protein in excitatory neurons. Although the transport and regulation of PSD-95 in synaptic regions is well understood, dendritic t...

    Authors: Ki-Seo Yoo, Kina Lee, Jun-Young Oh, Hyoeun Lee, Hyungju Park, Young Seok Park and Hyong Kyu Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:97

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Mutations in protocadherin 19 (PCDH19), which is on the X-chromosome, cause the brain disease Epilepsy in Females with Mental Retardation (EFMR). EFMR is also often associated with autism-like symptoms. In mice a...

    Authors: Jisoo Lim, Jiin Ryu, Shinwon Kang, Hyun Jong Noh and Chul Hoon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:95

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

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