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  1. Mutations in protocadherin 19 (PCDH19), which is on the X-chromosome, cause the brain disease Epilepsy in Females with Mental Retardation (EFMR). EFMR is also often associated with autism-like symptoms. In mice a...

    Authors: Jisoo Lim, Jiin Ryu, Shinwon Kang, Hyun Jong Noh and Chul Hoon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:95

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  2. Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK (GAREM), is an adaptor protein related to the several cell growth factor receptor-signaling. The GAREM family has two subtypes, GAREM1 and GAREM2, both encoded in the huma...

    Authors: Tasuku Nishino, Kota Tamada, Akane Maeda, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Kozo Kaibuchi, Toru Takumi and Hiroaki Konishi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:94

    Content type: Research

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  3. The growth cone is a specialized structure that forms at the tip of extending axons in developing and regenerating neurons. This structure is essential for accurate synaptogenesis at developmental stages, and ...

    Authors: Yuya Ishikawa, Masayasu Okada, Atsuko Honda, Yasuyuki Ito, Atsushi Tamada, Naoto Endo and Michihiro Igarashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:93

    Content type: Research

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  4. We report the identification of a de novo GABRA1 (R214C) variant in a child with epileptic encephalopathy (EE), describe its functional characterization and pathophysiology, and evaluate its potential therapeutic...

    Authors: Yun-Fei Bai, Michelle Chiu, Elizabeth S. Chan, Peter Axerio-Cilies, Jie Lu, Linda Huh, Mary B. Connolly, Ilaria Guella, Matthew J. Farrer, Zhi-Qing David Xu, Lidong Liu, Michelle Demos and Yu Tian Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:92

    Content type: Research

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  5. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders without a unique or definite underlying pathogenesis. Although savant syndrome is common in ASD, few models are a...

    Authors: Jinjing Song, Xiujuan Yang, Ying Zhou, Lei Chen, Xu Zhang, Zhuxi Liu, Weibo Niu, Nengpeng Zhan, Xuelian Fan, Abdul Aziz Khan, Yifang Kuang, Lulu Song, Guang He and Weidong Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:91

    Content type: Research

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  6. The hippocampus has been known to process temporal information as part of memory formation. While time cells have been observed in the hippocampus and medial entorhinal cortex, a number of the behavioral tasks...

    Authors: William D. Marks, Hisayuki Osanai, Jun Yamamoto, Sachie K. Ogawa and Takashi Kitamura

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:90

    Content type: Micro report

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  7. Increasing evidence suggests there is a relationship between cognitive impairment and metabolic dysfunction. Diabetes is a chronic disease, and metabolic factors affecting brain metabolisms, such as serum gluc...

    Authors: Young-Suk Choi, Jae Eun Song, Jong Eun Lee, Eosu Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim and Ho-Taek Song

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:88

    Content type: Research

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  8. Parkinson’s disease (PD), classically defined as a progressive motor disorder accompanied with dopaminergic neuron loss and presence of Lewy bodies, is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. PD also...

    Authors: Milos Stanojlovic, Jean Pierre Pallais, Michael K. Lee and Catherine M. Kotz

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:87

    Content type: Research

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  9. Two paternally-inherited missense variants in CACNA1H were identified and characterized in a 6-year-old child with generalized epilepsy. Febrile and unprovoked seizures were present in this child. Both variants w...

    Authors: Ivana A. Souza, Maria A. Gandini, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Wendy G. Mitchell, Joyce Matsumoto, Jason Lerner, Tyler Mark Pierson and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:86

    Content type: Short report

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  10. The Fc gamma receptor I (FcγRI; CD64) is the high-affinity receptor of the immunoglobulin G protein (IgG). It is usually expressed in immune cells and has recently been identified to distribute in the nervous ...

    Authors: Yingxia Liang, Zhiyu Zhang, Zhaodong Juan, Rui Zhang and Can Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:83

    Content type: Micro report

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  11. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. Owing to the difficulty of clinical diagnosis, ASD without intellectual ...

    Authors: Masatoshi Nakata, Ryo Kimura, Yasuko Funabiki, Tomonari Awaya, Toshiya Murai and Masatoshi Hagiwara

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:82

    Content type: Micro report

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  12. Presynaptic CaV2.2 channels control calcium entry that triggers neurotransmitter release at both central and peripheral synapses. The Cacna1b gene encodes the α1-pore forming subunit of CaV2.2 channels. Distinct ...

    Authors: Alexandra Bunda, Brianna LaCarubba, Melanie Bertolino, Marie Akiki, Kevin Bath, Javier Lopez-Soto, Diane Lipscombe and Arturo Andrade

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:81

    Content type: Research

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  13. Selective attention modulates sensory cortical activity. It remains unclear how auditory cortical activity represents stimuli that differ behaviorally. We designed a cross-modality task in which mice made deci...

    Authors: Pan-tong Yao, Jia Shen, Liang Chen, Shaoyu Ge and Qiaojie Xiong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:80

    Content type: Research

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  14. Morphine tolerance developed after repeated or continuous morphine treatment is a global health concern hindering the control of chronic pain. In our previous research, we have reported that the expression of ...

    Authors: Yingqi Weng, Jing Wu, Lin Li, Jiali Shao, Zhengyiqi Li, Meiling Deng and Wangyuan Zou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:79

    Content type: Research

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  15. Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of iron-dependent regulated cell death, has been implicated in traumatic brain injury (TBI). MiR-212-5p has previously been reported to be downregulated in extracellular ve...

    Authors: Xiao Xiao, Youjing Jiang, Weibo Liang, Yanyun Wang, Shuqiang Cao, He Yan, Linbo Gao and Lin Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:78

    Content type: Research

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  16. Ginseng has been shown to produce a cognitive improvement effect. The key molecular components in ginseng that produce pharmacological effects are ginsenosides. Previous studies reported a memory improvement e...

    Authors: Junho Han, Jung-Pyo Oh, Miran Yoo, Chang-Hao Cui, Byeong-Min Jeon, Sun-Chang Kim and Jin-Hee Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:77

    Content type: Research

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  17. Central sensitization plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of chronic pain induced by chronic pancreatitis (CP), but cortical modulation of painful CP remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the...

    Authors: Yang Bai, Li-Tian Ma, Yan-Bing Chen, Dan Ren, Ying-Biao Chen, Ying-Qi Li, Hong-Ke Sun, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ting Zhang, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xi-Nan Yi, Tao Chen, Hui Li, Bo-Yuan Fan and Yun-Qing Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:76

    Content type: Research

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  18. Ankyrin B (AnkB) is an adaptor and scaffold for motor proteins and various ion channels that is ubiquitously expressed, including in the brain. AnkB has been associated with neurological disorders such as epil...

    Authors: Catherine S. W. Choi, Ivana A. Souza, Juan C. Sanchez-Arias, Gerald W. Zamponi, Laura T. Arbour and Leigh Anne Swayne

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:75

    Content type: Research

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  19. Cav3.2 calcium channels play a key role in nociceptive signaling in the primary afferent pain pathway. We have previously reported the regulation of Cav3.2 calcium channels by the deubiquitinase USP5 and its i...

    Authors: Agustin Garcia-Caballero, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Lina Chen, Said M’Dahoma, Junting Huang and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:73

    Content type: Short report

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  20. Postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions were isolated from rat forebrain and sonicated. Pellets from sonicated samples examined by electron microscopy revealed particles with an electron density similar to PSDs t...

    Authors: Ayse Dosemeci, Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng, Valerie Bakly and Thomas S. Reese

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:72

    Content type: Research

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  21. The P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) is a purinoceptor that is selectively expressed in microglia in the central nervous system. As a signature receptor, microglial P2Y12R mediates process chemotaxis towards ADP/ATP gr...

    Authors: Jiyun Peng, Yong Liu, Anthony D. Umpierre, Manling Xie, Dai-Shi Tian, Jason R. Richardson and Long-Jun Wu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:71

    Content type: Research

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  22. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is widely used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. Chronic FLX treatment reportedly induces cellular responses in the brain, including increas...

    Authors: Koji Ohira, Hideo Hagihara, Miki Miwa, Katsuki Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:69

    Content type: Research

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  23. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder associated with memories of traumatic experiences. Recent studies have shown that the forgetting of contextual fear memory is promoted via increa...

    Authors: Rie Ishikawa, Chiaki Uchida, Shiho Kitaoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:68

    Content type: Short report

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  24. LIMK1 and LIMK2 are key downstream targets to mediate the effects of the Rho family small GTPases and p21-activated kinases (PAK) in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. LIMKs are also critical for synapt...

    Authors: Rui Mao, Rui Deng, Yan Wei, Lifang Han, Yanghong Meng, Wei Xie and Zhengping Jia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:67

    Content type: Research

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  25. Poly-arginine peptide-18 (R18) has recently emerged as a highly effective neuroprotective agent in experimental stroke models, and is particularly efficacious in protecting cortical neurons against glutamic ac...

    Authors: Gabriella MacDougall, Ryan S. Anderton, Frank L. Mastaglia, Neville W. Knuckey and Bruno P. Meloni

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:66

    Content type: Research

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  26. Protein synthesis is crucial for maintaining synaptic plasticity and synaptic signalling. Here we have attempted to understand the role of RNA binding proteins, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) and ...

    Authors: Preeti Madhav Kute, Sarayu Ramakrishna, Nagammal Neelagandan, Sumantra Chattarji and Ravi. S. Muddashetty

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:65

    Content type: Research

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  27. Glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) family are coincident detectors of pre- and postsynaptic activity, allowing Ca2+ influx into neurons. These properties are central to neurological disease me...

    Authors: Hannah Warming, Chrysia-Maria Pegasiou, Aleksandra P. Pitera, Hanna Kariis, Steven D. Houghton, Ksenia Kurbatskaya, Aminul Ahmed, Paul Grundy, Girish Vajramani, Diederik Bulters, Xavier Altafaj, Katrin Deinhardt and Mariana Vargas-Caballero

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:64

    Content type: Short report

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  28. The transcription factor Foxg1 is known to be continuously expressed at a high level in mature neurons in the telencephalon, but little is known about its role in neural plasticity. Mutations in human FOXG1 cause...

    Authors: Baocong Yu, Junhua Liu, Mingzhao Su, Chunlian Wang, Huanxin Chen and Chunjie Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:63

    Content type: Research

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  29. This study describes the interaction between Cav2 calcium channels and Rabconnectin-3, a di-subunit protein that is associated with synaptic vesicles. Immunostaining reveals that both Rabconnectin-3α (RB-3α) a...

    Authors: Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Jing Fan, Katherine Li, Decheng Wang and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:62

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  30. The human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 promotes synaptic damage similar to that observed in people living with HIV who have neurocognitive disorders. The neurotoxic effect of gp120 appea...

    Authors: Valeria Avdoshina, Francesca Taraballi, Ennio Tasciotti, Aykut Üren and Italo Mocchetti

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:61

    Content type: Micro report

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  31. Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A and POLR3B genes are the most common cause of POLR3-related hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), a rare childhood-onset disorder characterized by de...

    Authors: Karine Choquet, Maxime Pinard, Sharon Yang, Robyn D. Moir, Christian Poitras, Marie-Josée Dicaire, Nicolas Sgarioto, Roxanne Larivière, Claudia L. Kleinman, Ian M. Willis, Marie-Soleil Gauthier, Benoit Coulombe and Bernard Brais

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:59

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Go is a member of the pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o family. Despite its abundance in the central nervous system, the precise role of Go remains largely unknown compared to other G proteins. In the present study,...

    Authors: Hye Lim Cha, Jung-Mi Choi, Huy-Hyen Oh, Narayan Bashyal, Sung-Soo Kim, Lutz Birnbaumer and Haeyoung Suh-Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:57

    Content type: Research

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  33. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene and subsequent loss of its protein product, fragile X retardation protein (FMRP). One of the most robust neuropatholo...

    Authors: Frankie H. F. Lee, Terence K. Y. Lai, Ping Su and Fang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:56

    Content type: Research

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  34. Synaptic abnormalities, perturbed endosomal recycling mediated by loss of the small GTPase RAB11, and neuroinflammatory signaling have been associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases including the mot...

    Authors: Joy Mitra, Pavana M. Hegde and Muralidhar L. Hegde

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:55

    Content type: Micro report

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  35. Gene expression is highly regulated to functionally diversify cells. Genes that cooperate in the same physiological processes occasionally reside within nearby regions in a chromosome. Olfactory marker protein...

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakashima, Kie Nakashima, Akiko Takaku-Nakashima and Makoto Takano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:54

    Content type: Short report

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  36. The growth cone is essential for nerve growth and axon regeneration, which directly form and rearrange the neural network. Recently, to clarify the molecular signaling pathways in the growth cone that utilize ...

    Authors: Michihiro Igarashi and Shujiro Okuda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:53

    Content type: Micro report

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  37. Mushroom body (MB) is a prominent structure essential for olfactory learning and memory in the Drosophila brain. The development of the MB involves the appropriate guidance of axon lobes and sister axon branch...

    Authors: Huaixing Kang, Juan Zhao, Xuan Jiang, Guangxu Li, Wen Huang, Huili Cheng and Ranhui Duan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:52

    Content type: Research

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  38. Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in learning and memory. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the regulation of neural synaptic plasticity. Here, to determ...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Ran Xie, Xiaolin Kou, Yu Liu, Cui Qi, Rui Liu, Weiyan You, Jun Gao and Xiang Gao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:51

    Content type: Research

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  39. Neonatal seizures are different from adult seizures, and many antiepileptic drugs that are effective in adults often fail to treat neonates. Here, we report that gluconate inhibits neonatal seizure by inhibiti...

    Authors: Zheng Wu, Qingwei Huo, Liang Ren, Fengping Dong, Mengyang Feng, Yue Wang, Yuting Bai, Bernhard Lüscher, Sheng-Tian Li, Guan-Lei Wang, Cheng Long, Yun Wang, Gangyi Wu and Gong Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:50

    Content type: Research

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  40. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small (18–25 nt), single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that play key roles in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. The expression profiles of miRNAs in biofluids and t...

    Authors: Hisashi Uwatoko, Yuka Hama, Ikuko Takahashi Iwata, Shinichi Shirai, Masaaki Matsushima, Ichiro Yabe, Jun Utsumi and Hidenao Sasaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:49

    Content type: Research

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  41. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the authors’ names was spelled incorrectly.

    Authors: Mikiei Tanaka, Hongyun Li, Xijun Zhang, Jatinder Singh, Clifton L. Dalgard, Matthew Wilkerson and Yumin Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:47

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2019 12:25

  42. The microgravity environment in space can impact astronauts’ cognitive and behavioral activities. However, due to the limitations of research conditions, studies of biological changes in the primate brain, suc...

    Authors: Xu Zhang, Xixia Chu, Lei Chen, Juan Fu, Shuai Wang, Jinjing Song, Guanghan Kan, Weizhong Jiang, Guang He, Xiaoping Chen and Weidong Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:46

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

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