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  1. Ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), generates a rapidly-acting antidepressant effect. It exerts psychomimetic effects, yet demands a further investigation of its m...

    Authors: Dae Hee Han, Ilgang Hong, Ja Eun Choi, Pojeong Park, Jun-Yeong Baek, HyoJin Park, Soichiro Ide, Masayoshi Mishina, Kazutaka Ikeda and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:174

    Content type: Micro report

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  2. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are pivotal neuromodulators that regulate a broad range of brain functions, often in concert. Despite their physiological importance, untangling the relationship between D...

    Authors: Chihiro Nakamoto, Yuhei Goto, Yoko Tomizawa, Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata, Kasper Harpsøe, David E. Gloriam, Kazuhiro Aoki and Tomonori Takeuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:173

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. Despite the established roles of the dopaminergic system in promoting arousal, the effects of loss of dopamine on the patterns of sleep and wakefulness remain elusive. Here, we examined the sleep architecture ...

    Authors: Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Mika Kanuka, Kaeko Tanaka, Masayo Fujita, Ayaka Nakai, Chika Tatsuzawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Kazutaka Ikeda and Yu Hayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:170

    Content type: Micro report

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  4. Rho-associated kinase isoform 2 (ROCK2) is an attractive drug target for several neurologic disorders. A critical barrier to ROCK2-based research and therapeutics is the lack of a mouse model that enables inve...

    Authors: Audrey J. Weber, Ashley B. Adamson, Kelsey M. Greathouse, Julia P. Andrade, Cameron D. Freeman, Jung Vin Seo, Rosaria J. Rae, Courtney K. Walker and Jeremy H. Herskowitz

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:169

    Content type: Research

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  5. Avoidance memory is destabilized when recalled concurrently with conflicting information, and must undergo a hippocampus-dependent restabilization process called reconsolidation to persist. CaMKII is a serine/...

    Authors: Andressa Radiske, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Janine I. Rossato, Gênedy Apolinário, João R. de Oliveira, Lia R. M. Bevilaqua and Martín Cammarota

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:167

    Content type: Micro report

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  6. T-type calcium channels are known molecular targets of certain phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids. Here we explored the modulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels by terpenes derived from cannabis plants...

    Authors: Vinicius M. Gadotti, Sun Huang and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:166

    Content type: Research

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  7. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) can be an early non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) with pathology involving mainly the pontine nuclei. Beyond the brainstem, it is unclear if RBD patients comorbid...

    Authors: Mikaeel Valli, Sang Soo Cho, Carme Uribe, Mario Masellis, Robert Chen, Alexander Mihaescu and Antonio P. Strafella

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:165

    Content type: Research

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  8. Authors: Adan Hernandez, Chunfeng Tan, Florian Plattner, Aric F. Logsdon, Karine Pozo, Mohammad A. Yousuf, Tanvir Singh, Ryan C. Turner, Brandon P. Lucke-Wold, Jason D. Huber, Charles L. Rosen and James A. Bibb

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:164

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2018 11:64

  9. We have reported that the transcription factor Olig2 labels a subpopulation of astrocytes (Olig2-astrocytes), which show distribution patterns different from those of GFAP-expressing astrocytes (GFAP-astrocyte...

    Authors: Kouko Tatsumi, Kaoru Kinugawa, Ayami Isonishi, Masahiro Kitabatake, Hiroaki Okuda, Shoko Takemura, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Eiichiro Mori and Akio Wanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:163

    Content type: Research

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  10. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the role of the prelimbic cortex in contextual fear memory remain elusive. Here we examined the kinesin family of molecular motor proteins (KIFs) in the prelimbic c...

    Authors: Nadine F. Joseph, Aya Zucca, Jenna L. Wingfield, Isabel Espadas, Damon Page and Sathyanarayanan V. Puthanveettil

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:162

    Content type: Research

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  11. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multi-system neurodegenerative disorder. Patients with PD often suffer chronic pain. In the present study, we investigated motor, sensory and emotional changes in three different ...

    Authors: Zhaoxiang Zhou, Penghai Ye, Xu-Hui Li, Yuxiang Zhang, Muhang Li, Qi-Yu Chen, Jing-Shan Lu, Man Xue, Yanan Li, Weiqi Liu, Lin Lu, Wantong Shi, Ping-Yi Xu and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:161

    Content type: Research

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  12. Songbirds are one of the few animal taxa that possess vocal learning abilities. Different species of songbirds exhibit species-specific learning programs during song acquisition. Songbirds with open-ended voca...

    Authors: Shin Hayase, Chengru Shao, Masahiko Kobayashi, Chihiro Mori, Wan-chun Liu and Kazuhiro Wada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:160

    Content type: Research

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  13. Neuroinflammation is an escalation factor shared by a vast range of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to neuropsychiatric disorders. CNS immune status emerges by the int...

    Authors: Giulia Panattoni, Roberta Amoriello, Christian Memo, Agnes Thalhammer, Clara Ballerini and Laura Ballerini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:159

    Content type: Research

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  14. Alterations in the canonical processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein generate proteoforms that contribute to the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease. Modified composition of γ-secretase or mutations in its subunits h...

    Authors: Shekhar Kedia, Kousik Mandal, Pallavi Rao Netrakanti, Mini Jose, Sangram S. Sisodia and Deepak Nair

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:158

    Content type: Micro report

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  15. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) is widely distributed in brain including the hippocampus. Studies have demonstrated the critical role of hippocampal ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling in synaptic phys...

    Authors: Nan Li, Na Li, Fenghua Xu, Ming Yu, Zichen Qiao and Yu Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:157

    Content type: Micro report

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  16. The neuro-physiological properties of individuals with genetic pre-disposition to neurological disorders are largely unknown. Here we aimed to explore these properties using cerebral organoids (COs) derived fr...

    Authors: Simote T. Foliaki, Benjamin Schwarz, Bradley R. Groveman, Ryan O. Walters, Natalia C. Ferreira, Christina D. Orrù, Anna Smith, Aleksandar Wood, Olivia M. Schmit, Phoebe Freitag, Jue Yuan, Wenquan Zou, Catharine M. Bosio, James A. Carroll and Cathryn L. Haigh

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:156

    Content type: Research

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  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron (MN) disease, with no present cure. The progressive loss of MNs is the hallmark of ALS. We have previously shown the therapeutic effects of t...

    Authors: Junmei Wang, Lydia Tierney, Ranjeet Mann, Thomas Lonsway and Chandler L. Walker

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:155

    Content type: Micro report

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  18. The generation of mature synaptic structures using neurons differentiated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-neurons) is expected to be applied to physiological studies of synapses in human cells...

    Authors: Kazuyuki Togo, Hayato Fukusumi, Tomoko Shofuda, Hiroshi Ohnishi, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Mariko Kato Hayashi, Nana Kawasaki, Nobuyuki Takei, Takanobu Nakazawa, Yumiko Saito, Kousuke Baba, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Yuko Sekino, Tomoaki Shirao, Hideki Mochizuki and Yonehiro Kanemura

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:149

    Content type: Research

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  19. Studies on the development of central nervous system (CNS) primarily rely on the use of specific molecular markers for different types of neural cells. S100B is widely being used as a specific marker for astro...

    Authors: Junqing Du, Min Yi, Fang Zhou, Wanjun He, Aifen Yang, Mengsheng Qiu and Hao Huang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:154

    Content type: Research

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  20. Fear conditioning and retrieval are suitable models to investigate the biological basis of various mental disorders. Hippocampus and amygdala neurons consolidate conditioned stimulus (CS)-dependent fear memory...

    Authors: Yoonjeong Jeon, Yun Lim, Jiwoo Yeom and Eun-Kyoung Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:153

    Content type: Research

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  21. The glutamatergic signaling pathway is involved in molecular learning and human cognitive ability. Specific single variants (SNVs, formerly single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in the genes encoding N-methyl-d-aspart...

    Authors: Li-Ching Lee, Ming-Tsan Su, Hsing-Ying Huang, Ying-Chun Cho, Ting-Kuang Yeh and Chun-Yen Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:152

    Content type: Research

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  22. The atypical chemokine receptor 3, ACKR3, is a G protein-coupled receptor, which does not couple to G proteins but recruits βarrestins. At present, ACKR3 is considered a target for cancer and cardiovascular di...

    Authors: Aliza T. Ehrlich, Meriem Semache, Pierre Couvineau, Stefan Wojcik, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Marcus Thelen, Florence Gross, Mireille Hogue, Christian Le Gouill, Emmanuel Darcq, Michel Bouvier and Brigitte L. Kieffer

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:151

    Content type: Research

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  23. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-related disorder that is associated with pro-inflammatory activation and neurobiological impairments in the brain and leads to a series of affective-like behav...

    Authors: Yi-Hung Chen, Sheng-Yun Xie, Chao-Wei Chen and Dah-Yuu Lu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:150

    Content type: Research

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  24. The Cre/LoxP-based conditional knockout technology is a powerful tool for gene function analysis that allows region- and time-specific gene manipulation. However, inserting a pair of LoxP cassettes to generate...

    Authors: Hirofumi Nishizono, Yuki Hayano, Yoshihisa Nakahata, Yasuhito Ishigaki and Ryohei Yasuda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:148

    Content type: Micro report

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  25. Hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses in patients and animal models. However, a limited number of studies have examined the effect of hypoxia in combination with inflammation (Hypo-Inf) on...

    Authors: Yoon-Sil Yang, Joon Ho Choi and Jong-Cheol Rah

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:147

    Content type: Research

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  26. Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a serious problem. We developed a mouse model of CPSP induced by electrocautery and examined the mechanism of CPSP. In this mouse model, while both incision and electrocaute...

    Authors: Yosuke Katsuda, Kenichi Tanaka, Tomohisa Mori, Michiko Narita, Hideyuki Takeshima, Takashige Kondo, Yoshiyuki Yamabe, Misa Matsufuji, Daisuke Sato, Yusuke Hamada, Keisuke Yamaguchi, Toshikazu Ushijima, Eiichi Inada, Naoko Kuzumaki, Masako Iseki and Minoru Narita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:146

    Content type: Research

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  27. Astrocytes express a plethora of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are crucial for shaping synaptic activity. Upon GPCR activation, astrocytes can respond with transient variations in intracellular Ca2+. I...

    Authors: Yana Van Den Herrewegen, Thomas M. Sanderson, Surajit Sahu, Dimitri De Bundel, Zuner A. Bortolotto and Ilse Smolders

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:144

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) regulates neurotransmitter receptor recycling from endosomes. A missense mutation (D620N) in VPS35 leads to autosomal-dominant, late-onset Parkinson’s disease. Here, we stud...

    Authors: Chelsie A. Kadgien, Anusha Kamesh and Austen J. Milnerwood

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:143

    Content type: Research

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  29. Assessment of neural activity in the specific brain area is critical for understanding the circuit mechanisms underlying altered brain function and behaviors. A number of immediate early genes (IEGs) that are ...

    Authors: Sang Ho Yoon, Woo Seok Song, Sung Pyo Oh, Young Sook Kim and Myoung-Hwan Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:142

    Content type: Micro report

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  30. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is expressed in both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic neurons. The expression and role of AVP exhibit remarkable divergence between these two neuronal populations. Polysynaptic pa...

    Authors: Wen Han Tong, Samira Abdulai-Saiku and Ajai Vyas

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:141

    Content type: Micro report

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  31. Previous studies have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the diffusible messengers for enhancing synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Less information is available about ...

    Authors: Hui-Hui Miao, Zhuang Miao, Ji-Gang Pan, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:140

    Content type: Research

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  32. Chronic pain easily leads to concomitant mood disorders, and the excitability of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) pyramidal neurons (PNs) is involved in chronic pain-related anxiety. However, the mechanism by w...

    Authors: Fang-bing Shao, Jun-fan Fang, Si-si Wang, Meng-ting Qiu, Dan-ning Xi, Xiao-ming Jin, Jing-gen Liu, Xiao-mei Shao, Zui Shen, Yi Liang, Jian-qiao Fang and Jun-ying Du

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:139

    Content type: Research

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  33. To understand the information encoded in a connection between the neurons, postsynaptic current (PSC) has been widely measured as a primary index of synaptic strength in the field of neurophysiology. Although ...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Jae Jin Shin and Sang Jeong Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:138

    Content type: Methodology

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  34. We recently showed that synaptophysin (Syph) and synapsin (Syn) can induce liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) to cluster small synaptic-like microvesicles in living cells which are highly reminiscent of SV ...

    Authors: Goeun Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Seonyoung Jeong, Jeongkun Lee, Daehun Park and Sunghoe Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:137

    Content type: Short report

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  35. Experimental animals, such as non-human primates (NHPs), mice, Zebrafish, and Drosophila, are frequently employed as models to gain insights into human physiology and pathology. In developmental neuroscience a...

    Authors: Ryuichi Nakajima, Hideo Hagihara and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:135

    Content type: Micro report

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  36. Cumulative evidence shows that gut microbiome can influence brain function and behavior via the inflammatory processes. However, the role of interaction between gut dysbiosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) in th...

    Authors: Yujing Chen, Peilin Meng, Shiqiang Cheng, Yumeng Jia, Yan Wen, Xuena Yang, Yao Yao, Chuyu Pan, Chun’e Li, Huijie Zhang, Jingxi Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Feng Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:133

    Content type: Research

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  37. The medium-chain fatty acids octanoic acid (C8) and decanoic acid (C10) are gaining attention as beneficial brain fuels in several neurological disorders. The protective effects of C8 and C10 have been propose...

    Authors: Jens V. Andersen, Emil W. Westi, Emil Jakobsen, Nerea Urruticoechea, Karin Borges and Blanca I. Aldana

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:132

    Content type: Research

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  38. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs) are a major subpopulation of GABAergic cells in CA1 hippocampus that receive excitation from pyramidal cells (PCs), and, in turn, provide feedback inhibition onto...

    Authors: Anne-Sophie Racine, François-Xavier Michon, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:130

    Content type: Research

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  39. Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is a typical characteristic of high altitude environment and causes a spectrum of pathophysiological effects, including headaches, gliovascular dysfunction and cognitive retardation. Her...

    Authors: Yang Zhou, Huanyu Lu, Ying Liu, Zaihua Zhao, Qian Zhang, Chong Xue, Yuankang Zou, Zipeng Cao and Wenjing Luo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:129

    Content type: Research

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  40. Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that impairs control and coordination of movement. Here we tested whether treatment with the histo...

    Authors: Maxinne Watchon, Luan Luu, Katherine J. Robinson, Kristy C. Yuan, Alana De Luca, Hannah J. Suddull, Madelaine C. Tym, Gilles J. Guillemin, Nicholas J. Cole, Garth A. Nicholson, Roger S. Chung, Albert Lee and Angela S. Laird

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:128

    Content type: Research

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  41. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies that are characterized by seizures and developmental delay. DEEs are primarily attributed to genetic causes and an increasin...

    Authors: Robin N. Stringer, Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Ivana A. Souza, Judy Ibrahim, Tomas Vacik, Waseem Mahmoud Fathalla, Jozef Hertecant, Gerald W. Zamponi, Lubica Lacinova and Norbert Weiss

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:126

    Content type: Micro report

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  42. To understand the role of intracellular zinc ion (Zn2+) dysregulation in mediating age-related neurodegenerative changes, particularly neurotoxicity resulting from the generation of excessive neurotoxic amyloid-β...

    Authors: Wen-bo Chen, Yu-xiang Wang, Hong-gang Wang, Di An, Dan Sun, Pan Li, Tao Zhang, Wan-ge Lu and Yan-qiang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:124

    Content type: Research

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