Overexpression of GRP78/Bip rescues CGCs from cell death induced by TM treatment or PMM2 downregulation. CGCs were infected with GRP78/Bip-overexpressing adenovirus or control (Con) adenovirus 1 d prior to TM treatment (A-D) or PMM2 shRNA downregulation (E-F). A. Equal amounts of cell lysate proteins were subjected to Western blotting to determine the protein levels of GRP78/Bip and cleaved-caspase-3. B. Cleaved-caspase-3 levels were quantified by densitometry, n = 3, *: p < 0.05. (C and E) Representative TUNEL staining of CGCs upon TM treatment or PMM2 shRNA, respectively. Dying cells were stained in red and cell nuclei were stained in blue (with DAPI). (D and F) Quantification of cell death in C and E, respectively. *: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01, ***: p < 0.001, comparison between TM- or PMM2 knockdown-treated and untreated samples. #: p < 0.05, comparison between GRP78/BiP-overexpressing and control samples.