Effect of various mutants of Vangl2 on spine morphology. (A) The expression pattern of endogenous Vangl2 in the cultured hippocampal neurons at 21 DIV. Vangl2 was colocalized with PSD-95. (B) Schematic representation of HA-tagged Vangl2, and the constructs of deletion mutants. Numbers indicate amino acid sequences. TM, transmembrane region; PkBD, Prickle binding domain. (C) Spine morphology. Cultured hippocampal neurons were visualized by immunostaining for pmEGFP-β-actin at 21 DIV. (D) Ratio of spine density in neurons transfected with each Vangl2 construct. Data are mean % value relative to the level with control HA vector and SEM from four independent primary cultures. *p <0.05 as assessed by one-way ANOVA.