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Table 1 Differentially expressed proteins identified in neurons treated with: R18 (R18), glutamic acid (Glut), or R18 and glutamic acid exposure (R18 + Glut)

From: Proteomic analysis of cortical neuronal cultures treated with poly-arginine peptide-18 (R18) and exposed to glutamic acid excitotoxicity

Gene name SwissProt Accession Number Protein Fold up−/down-regulateda
R18 vs Cont Glut vs Cont R18 + Glut vs Glut
Mitochondrial respiration/function
 Acly P16638 ATP-citrate synthase 1.076 −2.399 b 1.659
 Aco2 Q9ER34 Aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial −1.028 −3.435 4.285
 Atp5a1 P15999 ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial −1.472 1.888 −2.421
 Atp5b P10719 ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial −1.117 2.558 −3.342
 Atp5h P31399 ATP synthase subunit d, mitochondrial 1.076 2.754 b −1.836
 Atp5o Q06647 ATP synthase subunit O, mitochondrial 1.406 2.032 b −1.644
 Cat P04762 Catalase −1.555 1.138 −1.659 b
 Cox4i1 P10888 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, mitochondrial −1.259 2.070 −2.704
 Idh1 P41562 Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] cytoplasmic 1.066 1.459 −1.486
 Mdh2 P04636 Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial −1.247 2.355 −2.535
 Ndufs1 Q66HF1 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrial 1.294 2.443 −5.249
 Uqcrc2 P32551 Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 2, mitochondrial −1.247 1.888 −2.704
Proteasome & Protein synthesis
 Asns P49088 Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing] 2.089 2.228 2.421 b
 Cct2 Q5XIM9 T-complex protein 1 subunit beta 1.106 −3.802 3.631
 Cct3 Q6P502 T-complex protein 1 subunit gamma −1.158 −4.787 4.207
 Cct4 Q7TPB1 T-complex protein 1 subunit delta 1.127 −3.944 3.499
 Cct5 Q68FQ0 T-complex protein 1 subunit epsilon 1.096 −2.269 2.291
 Psmc1 P62193 26S protease regulatory subunit 4 −1.419 −22.67 18.197
Axonal growth/Neuronal differentiation/Cytoskeletal arrangement
 Actr2 Q5M7U6 Actin-related protein 2 −1.355 − 1.271 − 1.459 b
 Ap2m1 P84092 AP-2 complex subunit mu 1.271 −5.394 6.855
 Armc10 B1WBW4 Armadillo repeat-containing protein 10 −1.294 −6.667 2.070
 Baiap2 Q6GMN2 Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 −1.331 −90.09 99.083
 Basp1 Q05175 Brain acid soluble protein 1 1.343 1.614 −1.270
 Cntn1 Q63198 Contactin-1 −1.117 1.977 −1.836
 Cttn Q66HL2 Src substrate cortactin 1.117 −5.345 b 3.251
 Dcx Q9ESI7 Neuronal migration protein doublecortin 1.000 −6.139 6.026
 Dnm1 P21575 Dynamin-1 −2.148 −4.093 3.076
 Dpysl2 P47942 Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 −1.225 1.723 −1.690
 Dync1h1 P38650 Cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain 1 −1.087 −8.873 8.472
 Fabp7 P55051 Fatty acid-binding protein, brain −1.028 4.406 b −4.207
 Fyn Q62844 Tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn 1.117 −2.489 2.754 b
 Gdi1 P50398 Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha −1.419 1.820 −2.965
 Gfap P47819 Glial fibrillary acidic protein 1.4322 1.906 b −1.159
 Kif21b F1M5N7 Kinesin-like protein KIF21B −1.282 −17.857 16.444
 Krt1 Q6IMF3 Keratin, type II cytoskeletal −4.055 b −1.236 −6.485
 Krt10 Q6IFW6 Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 10 −2.168 −1.722 −16.892 b
 Map2 P15146 Microtubule-associated protein 2 1.138 −8.628 11.482
 Map4 Q5M7W5 Microtubule-associated protein 4 −2.884 −4.488 4.169
 Mapt P19332 Microtubule-associated protein tau 1.077 −7.179 7.379
 Myh10 Q9JLT0 Myosin-10 −1.459 −2.466 2.228
 Ncam1 P13596 Neural cell adhesion molecule 1 −1.180 2.831 −4.093
 Pa2 g4 Q6AYD3 Proliferation-associated protein 2G4 1.202 −2.188 2.489 b
 Pak3 Q62829 Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 3 −2.208 −4.365 5.754 b
bPebp1 P31044 Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 1.5276 2.780 b −2.128
 Rala P63322 Ras-related protein Ral-A −1.236 2.704 b −1.690
 Rtn4 Q9JK11 Reticulon-4 1.107 −2.148 2.679
 Tpm4 P09495 Tropomyosin alpha-4 chain −1.097 −2.270 1.738 b
 Tuba4a Q5XIF6 Tubulin alpha-4A chain 1.086 −2.679 b 2.535
 Tubb5 P69897 Tubulin beta-5 chain −1.038 −18.018 16.444
Vesicular/Transmembrane trafficking
 Actn4 Q9QXQ0 Alpha-actinin-4 −1.294 1.906 b −1.381
 Actr1a P85515 Alpha-centractin −1.738 −3.565 b 2.148
 Ap2a2 P18484 AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2 1.159 −2.582 3.698 b
 Atp1a3 P06687 Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3 −2.128 1.660 −2.355
 Cadps Q62717 Calcium-dependent secretion activator 1 −1.486 −11.481 6.194
 Camk2a P11275 Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha −1.419 −6.667 6.918
 Cask Q62915 Peripheral plasma membrane protein CASK 1.514 1.306 −1.888 b
 Dpysl5 Q9JHU0 Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 5 −1.180 1.213 −1.459 b
 Klc1 P37285 Kinesin light chain 1 1.107 −6.024 b 5.058
 Nsf Q9QUL6 Vesicle-fusing ATPase −1.117 −5.807 4.656
 Prkar2b P12369 cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit −1.472 −3.105 1.754
 Stx1b P61265 Syntaxin-1B 1.225 1.600 −1.419
 Stxbp1 P61765 Syntaxin-binding protein 1 −1.107 1.600 −2.466
 Syn1 P09951 Synapsin-1 −1.786 −3.597 b 3.3113
ER proteostasis/Protein modification
 Calr P18418 Calreticulin 1.419 1.871 −1.570
 Ddost Q641Y0 Oligosaccharyl transferase 48 kDa subunit −1.500 2.466 −2.938
 Erp29 P52555 Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 29 −1.067 2.168 b −3.163
 Hsp90aa1 P82995 Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha 1.038 1.282 −1.446 b
 Hspa5 P06761 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein 1.038 2.014 −1.542
 Hspa8 P63018 Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein 1.259 −2.208 2.559 b
 Hspa9 P48721 Stress-70 protein, mitochondrial 1.159 −6.083 8.318
 Hspd1 P63039 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial 1.107 1.486 −1.556
 Pdia3 P11598 Protein disulfide-isomerase A3 −1.600 1.614 −1.995
 Phb P67779 Prohibitin −1.213 1.644 −2.535
 Phb2 Q5XIH7 Prohibitin-2 −1.047 3.837 −2.992
 Por P00388 NADPH--cytochrome P450 reductase −1.107 −1.038 1.343 b
 Tcp1 P28480 T-complex protein 1 subunit alpha −1.472 −3.597 b 2.911
 Uba1 Q5U300 Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 −1.107 −5.105 4.406
Glycolysis & Carbohydrate metabolism
 Alb P02770 Serum albumin −1.570 1.722 −5.701
 Aldoa P05065 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A −1.660 1.629 −2.355
 Eno1 P04764 Alpha-enolase 1.107 2.911 −1.706
 Gapdh P04797 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase −1.028 −11.700 10.280
 Gpi Q6P6V0 Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase −1.318 1.754 −3.435
 Hk1 P05708 Hexokinase-1 1.138 2.051 b −1.888
 Ldha P04642 L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain −1.786 1.028 −1.675 b
 Pkm P11980 Pyruvate kinase PKM −1.009 1.787 −1.941
 Taldo1 Q9EQS0 Transaldolase 1.259 −1.837 2.109
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis
 Acat1 P17764 Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial 1.159 2.377 −1.500
 Bdh1 P29147 D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial −1.213 −5.970 4.246
 Fasn P12785 Fatty acid synthase −1.117 −3.311 2.704
 Got2 P00507 Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial −1.923 1.213 −2.109 b
Ribosome components/RNA trafficking & processing
 Aars P50475 Alanine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic −1.556 −5.495 4.699
 C1qbp O35796 ASF/SF2-associated protein p32 1.213 1.600 b −1.888
 Ddx1 Q641Y8 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX1 −1.148 −11.173 4.286
 Eef1a1 P62630 Elongation factor 1-alpha 1 −1.225 −5.444 4.529
 Eef2 P05197 Elongation factor 2 −1.202 −4.131 3.048
 Eif4a2 Q5RKI1 Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II −1.057 −3.945 3.02
 Eif5a Q3T1J1 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 1.514 −6.983 9.638
 Elavl2 Q8CH84 ELAV-like protein 2 −1.107 −4.405 5.598 b
 Hnrnpa1 P04256 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 −1.076 −9.911 9.462
 Hnrnpa2b1 A7VJC2 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 1.318 −4.325 6.138
 Hnrnpa3 Q6URK4 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 1.191 −3.311 4.920
 Hnrnpd Q9JJ54 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0 1.202 −5.495 6.252
 Hnrnpk P61980 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K −1.057 −8.091 8.872
 Hnrnpl F1LQ48 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L −1.028 −2.729 4.207 b
 Khsrp Q99PF5 Far upstream element-binding protein 2 1.556 −3.908 8.017 b
 Matr3 P43244 Matrin-3 −1.500 −3.373 b 3.945
 Rpl7 P05426 60S ribosomal protein L7 1.225 −2.109 2.188 b
 Rpl13 P41123 60S ribosomal protein L13 −1.057 −2.377 2.754 b
 Rplp0 P19945 60S acidic ribosomal protein P0 1.486 b −1.191 −1.076
 Rps24 P62850 40S ribosomal protein S24 1.854 −5.754 14.06 b
 Rps27 Q71TY3 40S ribosomal protein S27 −1.102 −18.18 b 5.058
 Yars Q4KM49 Tyrosine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic −1.225 −4.656 3.342
Calcium transport and signalling
 Vdac1 Q9Z2L0 Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 −1.419 2.466 −2.938
 Cacna2d1 P54290 Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 1.306 4.207 −4.018
 Gnao1 P59215 Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha −1.148 −5.152 3.802
 Letm1 Q5XIN6 LETM1 and EF-hand domain-containing protein 1, mitochondrial −3.020 1.459 b −1.236
 Nudt3 Q566C7 Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase 1 1.459 b 1.282 1.117
 Ywhaq P68255 14–3-3 protein theta −1.087 1.355 −1.615
Miscellaneous
 Ak1 P39069 Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (Cellular energy homeostasis) 1.009 −2.938 4.325
 Atic O35567 Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH (Purine biosynthesis) 1.038 1.923 −2.630 b
 Dnm1l O35303 Dynamin-1-like protein (Mitochondrial fission) −1.820 −7.519 b 5.297
 Hist1h4b P62804 Histone H4 (Transcription regulation) 1.754 −3.802 7.516 b
  1. a Statistically significant values (p < 0.05) for fold up−/down-regulation ≥1.3-fold are highlighted in bold. b 25 uniquely DEPs in R18 and Glut treatment versus Cont, or R18 + Glut treatment versus Glut