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  1. Content type: Research

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable chronic mental disorder with significant abnormalities in brain function. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes that schizophrenia originates in the prenatal period due...

    Authors: Zhengrong Zhang, Fanfan Zheng, Yang You, Yuanlin Ma, Tianlan Lu, Weihua Yue and Dai Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:54

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  2. Content type: Short report

    Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the major side effect in Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations account for up to 13 % of familial cases of PD. ...

    Authors: Jennifer Stanic, Manuela Mellone, Maria Daniela Cirnaru, Maria Perez-Carrion, Elisa Zianni, Monica Di Luca, Fabrizio Gardoni and Giovanni Piccoli

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:53

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  3. Content type: Research

    Small promoters that recapitulate endogenous gene expression patterns are important for basic, preclinical, and now clinical research. Recently, there has been a promising revival of gene therapy for diseases ...

    Authors: Charles N. de Leeuw, Andrea J. Korecki, Garrett E. Berry, Jack W. Hickmott, Siu Ling Lam, Tess C. Lengyell, Russell J. Bonaguro, Lisa J. Borretta, Vikramjit Chopra, Alice Y. Chou, Cletus A. D’Souza, Olga Kaspieva, Stéphanie Laprise, Simone C. McInerny, Elodie Portales-Casamar, Magdalena I. Swanson-Newman…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:52

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  4. Content type: Research

    Alcohol abuse produces an enormous impact on health, society, and the economy. Currently, there are very limited therapies available, largely due to the poor understanding of mechanisms underlying alcohol use ...

    Authors: Lidia De Filippis, Apoorva Halikere, Heather McGowan, Jennifer C. Moore, Jay A. Tischfield, Ronald P. Hart and Zhiping P. Pang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:51

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  5. Content type: Short report

    Studies have indicated that depressive disorders are observed frequently in dentists. It’s suggested that dentists encounter numerous sources of stress in their professional career. We noticed that the noises ...

    Authors: Yujie Dong, Ying Zhou, Xixia Chu, Shiqing Chen, Lei Chen, Beimeng Yang, Xu Zhang, Lin Wang, Shuai Wang, Jingyu Lou, Qing Deng, Li Wang, Zheyi Cao, Jianan Wang, Jiaxin Xie, Tatiana Serdyuk…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:50

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  6. Content type: Research

    Recent evidence indicates that histamine, acting on histamine 1 receptor (H1R), resets the circadian clock in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) throu...

    Authors: Yoon Sik Kim, Young-Beom Kim, Woong Bin Kim, Seung Won Lee, Seog Bae Oh, Hee-Chul Han, C. Justin Lee, Christopher S. Colwell and Yang In Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:49

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  7. Content type: Research

    Macrophages play an important role in the inflammatory responses involved with spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously demonstrated that infiltrated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) engulf myelin d...

    Authors: Lei Guo, Alyssa J. Rolfe, Xi Wang, Wenjiao Tai, Zhijian Cheng, Kai Cao, Xiaoming Chen, Yunsheng Xu, Dongming Sun, Jinhua Li, Xijing He, Wise Young, Jianqing Fan and Yi Ren

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:48

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  8. Content type: Research

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors form a large and diverse family of acetylcholine gated ion channels having diverse roles in the central nervous system. Maturation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is ...

    Authors: Yael Ben-David, Tehila Mizrachi, Sarah Kagan, Tamar Krisher, Emiliano Cohen, Talma Brenner and Millet Treinin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:47

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  9. Content type: Research

    Proper dendrite patterning is critical for the receiving and processing of information in the nervous system. Cell-autonomous molecules have been extensively studied in dendrite morphogenesis; however, the reg...

    Authors: Xiaoting Li, Yan Wang, Huan Wang, Tongtong Liu, Jing Guo, Wei Yi and Yan Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:46

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  10. Content type: Research

    Although the roles of p21-activated serine/threonine kinase 1 (PAK1) have been reported in some neurodegenerative diseases, details regarding neurodegeneration are still limited. Hence, we tried to determine t...

    Authors: Hwanhee Kim, Jun-Young Oh, Sun-Lim Choi, Yeon-Ju Nam, Anna Jo, Ara Kwon, Eun-Young Shin, Eung-Gook Kim and Hyong Kyu Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:45

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  11. Content type: Research

    Long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathological processes of nervous system diseases. NONRATT021972 is an lncRNA. This study explores the effects of lncRNA NONRATT021972 small interfere...

    Authors: Shuangmei Liu, Lifang Zou, Jinyan Xie, Wei Xie, Shiyao Wen, Qiuyu Xie, Yun Gao, Guilin Li, Chunping Zhang, Changshui Xu, Hong Xu, Bing Wu, Qiulan Lv, Xi Zhang, Shouyu Wang, Yun Xue…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:44

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  12. Content type: Review

    The presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the production of new neurons in the adult brain have received great attention from scientists and the public because of implications to brain plasticity and their ...

    Authors: Jae Ryun Ryu, Caroline Jeeyeon Hong, Joo Yeon Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Woong Sun and Seong-Woon Yu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:43

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  13. Content type: Research

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the major causes of stroke. After onset of ICH, massive infiltration of macrophages is detected in the peri-hematoma regions. Still, the function of these macrophages i...

    Authors: Hyunjung Min, Yong Ho Jang, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seong-Woon Yu and Sung Joong Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:42

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  14. Content type: Research

    Diabetes-associated cognition decline is one of central nervous system complications in diabetic mellitus, while its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabo...

    Authors: Yongquan Zheng, Yunjun Yang, Baijun Dong, Hong Zheng, Xiaodong Lin, Yao Du, Xiaokun Li, Liangcai Zhao and Hongchang Gao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:40

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  15. Content type: Research

    Neuronal and glial differentiation in the murine hypothalamus is not complete at birth, but continues over the first two weeks postnatally. Nutritional status and Leptin deficiency can influence the maturation...

    Authors: Andrew P. Holmes, Shi Quan Wong, Michela Pulix, Kirsty Johnson, Niamh S. Horton, Patricia Thomas, João Pedro de Magalhães and Antonius Plagge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:39

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  16. Content type: Research

    Activation of NMDA receptors can induce iron movement into neurons by the small GTPase Dexras1 via the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). This pathway under pathological conditions such as NMDA excitotoxicit...

    Authors: Rachel S. White, Anup K. Bhattacharya, Yong Chen, Madeleine Byrd, Mary F. McMullen, Steven J. Siegel, Gregory C. Carlson and Sangwon F. Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:38

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  17. Content type: Research

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is a major cause of symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), an impairment in cell proliferation during prenatal development that results i...

    Authors: Shintaro Naganos, Kohei Ueno, Junjiro Horiuchi and Minoru Saitoe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:37

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  18. Content type: Research

    When consolidated memories are retrieved, they become labile and a new protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation process is required to restabilize these memories. So far, most studies conducted on reconsoli...

    Authors: Reiko Okubo-Suzuki, Yoshito Saitoh, Mohammad Shehata, Qi Zhao, Hiroshi Enomoto and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:36

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  19. Content type: Research

    Concerns have risen regarding the potential side effects of clinical exposure of the pediatric population to inhalational anesthetics, and how they might impact cognitive, learning, and memory functions. Howev...

    Authors: Fenglian Xu, Ryden Armstrong, Daniela Urrego, Munir Qazzaz, Mario Pehar, J. N. Armstrong, Tim Shutt and Naweed Syed

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:35

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  20. Content type: Research

    Neonatal astrocytes are diverse in origin, and undergo dramatic change in gene expression, morphological differentiation and  syncytial networking throughout development. Neonatal astrocytes also play multifac...

    Authors: Shiying Zhong, Yixing Du, Conrad M. Kiyoshi, Baofeng Ma, Catherine C. Alford, Qi Wang, Yongjie Yang, Xueyuan Liu and Min Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:34

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  21. Content type: Short report

    Neural network synchrony is a critical factor in regulating information transmission through the nervous system. Improperly regulated neural network synchrony is implicated in pathophysiological conditions suc...

    Authors: Kathryn A. Jewett, Catherine A. Christian, Jonathan T. Bacos, Kwan Young Lee, Jiuhe Zhu and Nien-Pei Tsai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:32

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  22. Content type: Research

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays essential roles in the regulation of survival and function of neural stem cells (NSCs). Abnormal regulation of this process is associated with developmental and degenerative n...

    Authors: Bo Kyoung Yeo, Caroline Jeeyeon Hong, Kyung Min Chung, Hanwoong Woo, Kyungchan Kim, Seonghee Jung, Eun-Kyoung Kim and Seong-Woon Yu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:31

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  23. Content type: Research

    Dementia risk in women is higher than in men, but the molecular neuropathology of this gender difference remains poorly defined. In this study, we used unbiased, discovery-driven quantitative proteomics to ass...

    Authors: Xavier Gallart-Palau, Benjamin S. T. Lee, Sunil S. Adav, Jingru Qian, Aida Serra, Jung Eun Park, Mitchell K. P. Lai, Christopher P. Chen, Raj N. Kalaria and Siu Kwan Sze

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:27

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  24. Content type: Research

    In the adult hippocampus new neurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells (NSCs) present at the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. This process is controlled by Wnt signaling, which plays a co...

    Authors: Muriel D. Mardones, Gabriela A. Andaur, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Jenny F. Henriquez, Felipe Salech, María Isabel Behrens, Andrés Couve, Nibaldo C. Inestrosa and Lorena Varela-Nallar

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:29

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  25. Content type: Research

    The majority of neurons within the central nervous system receive their excitatory inputs via small, actin-rich protrusions called dendritic spines. Spines can undergo rapid morphological alterations according...

    Authors: Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Karl Föhr, Katharina Mangus, Matti Eckert, Juergen Bockmann, Tobias M. Boeckers and Andreas M. Grabrucker

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:28

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  26. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    The editors of Molecular Brain would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 8 (2015).

    Authors: Bong-Kiun Kaang, Min Zhuo and Tim Bliss

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:25

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  27. Content type: Research

    Insulin plays diverse roles in the brain. Although insulin produced by pancreatic β-cells that crosses the blood–brain barrier is a major source of brain insulin, recent studies suggest that insulin is also pr...

    Authors: Jaemeun Lee, Kyungchan Kim, Seong-Woon Yu and Eun-Kyoung Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:24

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  28. Content type: Research

    Transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a Ca2+-binding protein that regulates Ca2+ homeostasis through gene regulation and protein-protein interactions. It has been...

    Authors: Britt Mellström, Asta Kastanauskaite, Shira Knafo, Paz Gonzalez, Xose M. Dopazo, Ana Ruiz-Nuño, John G. R. Jefferys, Min Zhuo, Tim V. P. Bliss, Jose R. Naranjo and Javier DeFelipe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:22

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  29. Content type: Methodology

    Aggregation of malformed proteins is a key feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanisms that drive proteinopathy in the brain are poorly understood. We aimed to characterize aggregated protei...

    Authors: Sunil S. Adav, Xavier Gallart-Palau, Kok Hian Tan, Sai Kiang Lim, James P. Tam and Siu Kwan Sze

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:20

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  30. Content type: Research

    Loss of function mutations in RAB18, has been identified in patients with the human neurological and developmental disorder Warburg Micro syndrome. However, the function of RAB18 in brain remains unknown.

    Authors: Qinwei Wu, Xiaqin Sun, Weihua Yue, Tianlan Lu, Yanyan Ruan, Tianda Chen and Dai Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:19

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  31. Content type: Research

    Sleep deprivation during pregnancy is a serious public health problem as it can affect the health of pregnant women and newborns. However, it is not well studied whether sleep deprivation at different stages o...

    Authors: Yan Peng, Wei Wang, Tao Tan, Wenting He, Zhifang Dong, Yu Tian Wang and Huili Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:17

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  32. Content type: Short report

    CD38 is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, both of which are involved in the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Recently, C...

    Authors: Somi Kim, TaeHyun Kim, Hye-Ryeon Lee, Eun-Hye Jang, Hyun-Hee Ryu, Minkyung Kang, So-Young Rah, Juyoun Yoo, Bolam Lee, Jae-Ick Kim, Chae Seok Lim, Sang Jeong Kim, Uh-Hyun Kim, Yong-Seok Lee and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:16

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  33. Content type: Research

    We reported that zinc neurotoxicity, a key mechanism of ischemic neuronal death, was mediated by poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) over-activation following NAD+/ATP depletion in cortical cultures. Because AMP-ac...

    Authors: Jae-Won Eom, Jong-Min Lee, Jae-Young Koh and Yang-Hee Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:14

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  34. Content type: Research

    Novel taste memories, critical for animal survival, are consolidated to form long term memories which are dependent on translation regulation in the gustatory cortex (GC) hours following acquisition. However, ...

    Authors: Sharon Inberg, Eyal Jacob, Alina Elkobi, Efrat Edry, Akiva Rappaport, T. Ian Simpson, J. Douglas Armstrong, Noam Shomron, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor and Kobi Rosenblum

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:13

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  35. Content type: Research

    Protection of cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury is an important strategy for treating ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated whether co-culture with endo...

    Authors: Jinju Wang, Yusen Chen, Yi Yang, Xiang Xiao, Shuzhen Chen, Cheng Zhang, Bradley Jacobs, Bin Zhao, Ji Bihl and Yanfang Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:12

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  36. Content type: Research

    A reduction of the number of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (PV+) GABAergic interneurons or a decrease in PV immunoreactivity was reported in several mouse models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This include...

    Authors: Federica Filice, Karl Jakob Vörckel, Ayse Özge Sungur, Markus Wöhr and Beat Schwaller

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:10

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  37. Content type: Research

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that mediate acid-induced responses in neurons. ASICs are important for mechanosensation, learning and memory, fear, pain, and neuronal injury...

    Authors: Junjun Wu, Tiandong Leng, Lan Jing, Nan Jiang, Daijie Chen, Youjia Hu, Zhi-Gang Xiong and Xiang-ming Zha

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:9

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  38. Content type: Research

    Wnt5a, originally identified as a guidance cue for commissural axons, activates a non-canonical pathway critical for cortical axonal morphogenesis. The molecular signaling cascade underlying this event remains...

    Authors: Shin-ichiro Horigane, Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Satoshi Kamijo, Hajime Fujii, Michiko Okamura, Makoto Kinoshita, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura and Haruhiko Bito

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:8

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  39. Content type: Research

    The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating motor functions and has a unique laminated architecture. Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons and represent the only output from the cerebellar cortex. Tyrosine ...

    Authors: Ying Huang, Qiong Zhang, Ning-Ning Song, Lei Zhang, Yu-Ling Sun, Ling Hu, Jia-Ying Chen, Weidong Zhu, Jue Li and Yu-Qiang Ding

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:7

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  40. Content type: Research

    Vertebrate-specific neuronal genes are expected to play a critical role in the diversification and evolution of higher brain functions. Among them, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored netrin-G subf...

    Authors: Qi Zhang, Hiromichi Goto, Sachiko Akiyoshi-Nishimura, Pavel Prosselkov, Chie Sano, Hiroshi Matsukawa, Kunio Yaguchi, Toshiaki Nakashiba and Shigeyoshi Itohara

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:6

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  41. Content type: Research

    The conditions under which memory generalization occurs are not well understood. Although it is believed that fear memory generalization is gradually established after learning, it is not clear whether experie...

    Authors: Ayano Fujinaka, Ruoshi Li, Masanobu Hayashi, Deependra Kumar, Gopakumar Changarathil, Keisuke Naito, Kousuke Miki, Taihei Nishiyama, Michael Lazarus, Takeshi Sakurai, Nohjin Kee, Satomi Nakajima, Szu-Han Wang and Masanori Sakaguchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:2

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