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  1. Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although many victims are initially resuscitated, they often suffer from serious brain injury, even leading to a “persistent vegetative stat...

    Authors: Dao-jie Xu, Bin Wang, Xuan Zhao, Yi Zheng, Jiu-lin Du and Ying-wei Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:44

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Deep brain stimulation in thalamic regions has been proposed as a treatment for epilepsy. The electrical current excites thalamocortical activity which is controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneu...

    Authors: Wei Jen Chang, Wei Pang Chang and Bai Chuang Shyu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:42

    Content type: Research

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  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induces neuronal injuries, with almost 50% of infected individuals developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although highly activate antiretrovira...

    Authors: Wenjuan Ru and Shao-Jun Tang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:40

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  4. We have recently shown that pharmacological blockade of mGlu2 metabotropic glutamate receptors protects vulnerable neurons in the 4-vessel occlusion model of transient global ischemia, whereas receptor activat...

    Authors: Federica Mastroiacovo, Slavianka Moyanova, Milena Cannella, Anderson Gaglione, Remy Verhaeghe, Giovanna Bozza, Michele Madonna, Marta Motolese, Anna Traficante, Barbara Riozzi, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, David Lodge and Ferdinando Nicoletti

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:39

    Content type: Research

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  5. The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid receptor, whose exact role in anxiety remains unknown. The present study was conducted to explore the possible mechanisms by which GPR55 regulat...

    Authors: Qi-xin Shi, Liu-kun Yang, Wen-long Shi, Lu Wang, Shi-meng Zhou, Shao-yu Guan, Ming-gao Zhao and Qi Yang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:38

    Content type: Research

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  6. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important signaling molecule that regulates a vast array of cellular functions by activating second messengers involved in cell function and plasticity. Low voltage-activated calcium cha...

    Authors: Hadhimulya Asmara, Ileana Micu, Arsalan P. Rizwan, Giriraj Sahu, Brett A. Simms, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Jordan D. T. Engbers, Peter K. Stys, Gerald W. Zamponi and Ray W. Turner

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:37

    Content type: Research

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  7. Lewy body dementias are the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia in the elderly after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The two clinical subgroups of Lewy body dementias, namely, dementia with Lewy b...

    Authors: Arnab Datta, Yuek Ling Chai, Jing Min Tan, Jasinda H. Lee, Paul T. Francis, Christopher P. Chen, Siu Kwan Sze and Mitchell K. P. Lai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is defined by the excessive accumulation of toxic peptides, such as beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). The risk factors associated with AD inclu...

    Authors: Juhyun Song, Daniel J. Whitcomb and Byeong C. Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:35

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2017 10:59

  9. Post-translational modification on protein Ser/Thr residues by O-linked attachment of ß-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a key mechanism integrating redox signaling, metabolism and stress responses. O...

    Authors: Willayat Y. Wani, Xiaosen Ouyang, Gloria A. Benavides, Matthew Redmann, Stacey S. Cofield, John J. Shacka, John C. Chatham, Victor Darley-Usmar and Jianhua Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:32

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Reliable and reproducible assessment of animal learning and behavior is a central aim of basic and translational neuroscience research. Recent developments in automated operant chamber technology have led to t...

    Authors: Eun Woo Kim, Benjamin U. Phillips, Christopher J. Heath, So Yeon Cho, Hyunjeong Kim, Jemeen Sreedharan, Ho-Taek Song, Jong Eun Lee, Timothy J. Bussey, Chul Hoon Kim, Eosu Kim and Lisa M. Saksida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:31

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. A hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is hippocampal neuronal demise and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, unrestrained neuronal activity in TLE patients induces gene expression including immed...

    Authors: Pascal Lösing, Cristina Elena Niturad, Merle Harrer, Christopher Meyer zu Reckendorf, Theresa Schatz, Daniela Sinske, Holger Lerche, Snezana Maljevic and Bernd Knöll

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. Mechano growth factor (MGF) is a splice variant of IGF-1 first described in skeletal muscle. MGF induces muscle cell proliferation in response to muscle stress and injury. In control mice we found endogenous e...

    Authors: Jason J. Tang, Jewel L. Podratz, Miranda Lange, Heidi J. Scrable, Mi-Hyeon Jang and Anthony J. Windebank

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Studies have implied that the circadian oscillation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways is crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. NF1 mouse models (Nf1 heterozygous null mutants; Nf1 ...

    Authors: Lei Chen, Tatiana Serdyuk, Beimeng Yang, Shuai Wang, Shiqing Chen, Xixia Chu, Xu Zhang, Jinjing Song, Hechen Bao, Chengbin Zhou, Xiang Wang, Shuangle Dong, Lulu Song, Fujun Chen, Guang He, Lin He…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:29

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  14. Depression is a polygenic and highly complex psychiatric disorder that remains a major burden on society. Antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are some of the most commonly...

    Authors: Christine N. Yohn, Mark M. Gergues and Benjamin Adam Samuels

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:28

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  15. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was recently shown to contribute to secondary brain damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), although the molecular mechanisms of this contribution are elusive. In this study, w...

    Authors: Hyunjung Min, Boomin Choi, Yong Ho Jang, Ik-Hyun Cho and Sung Joong Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:27

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  16. Mounting evidence suggests that the nervous and immune systems are intricately linked. Many proteins first identified in the immune system have since been detected at synapses, playing different roles in norma...

    Authors: Robert Nisticò, Eric Salter, Celine Nicolas, Marco Feligioni, Dalila Mango, Zuner A. Bortolotto, Pierre Gressens, Graham L. Collingridge and Stephane Peineau

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:26

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  17. The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is ...

    Authors: Qi Wang, Feng-yan Shen, Rong Zou, Jing-jing Zheng, Xiang Yu and Ying-wei Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a devastating neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons and the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates. The latter suggests impai...

    Authors: Martin Madill, Katya McDonagh, Jun Ma, Alice Vajda, Paul McLoughlin, Timothy O’Brien, Orla Hardiman and Sanbing Shen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Excitatory synaptic transmission in central synapses is modulated by serotonin (5-HT). The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important cortical region for pain perception and emotion. ACC neurons receive i...

    Authors: Zhen Tian, Manabu Yamanaka, Matteo Bernabucci, Ming-gao Zhao and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Although post-ischemic inflammation induced by the innate immune response is considered an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid ce...

    Authors: Rong Wu, Xiangpen Li, Pengfei Xu, Likui Huang, Jinping Cheng, Xiaolong Huang, Jingru Jiang, Long-Jun Wu and Yamei Tang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau aggregates form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagat...

    Authors: Michel Goedert and Maria Grazia Spillantini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:18

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  22. The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo ...

    Authors: Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  23. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that are sharply increasing in prevalence worldwide. Intriguingly, ASD is often accompanied by an array of systemic aberrations includ...

    Authors: Joon Seo Lim, Mi Young Lim, Yongbin Choi and GwangPyo Ko

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A gene cause one of the most frequent forms of childhood-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (HLD): POLR3-HLD. POLR3A encodes the largest subunit of RNA Pol...

    Authors: Karine Choquet, Sharon Yang, Robyn D. Moir, Diane Forget, Roxanne Larivière, Annie Bouchard, Christian Poitras, Nicolas Sgarioto, Marie-Josée Dicaire, Forough Noohi, Timothy E. Kennedy, Joseph Rochford, Geneviève Bernard, Martin Teichmann, Benoit Coulombe, Ian M. Willis…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:13

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Human studies demonstrate that sleep impairment is a concurrent comorbidity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but its etiology remains largely uncertain. One of the prominent theories of ASD suggests that an...

    Authors: Jackie J. Liu, Kevin P. Grace, Richard L. Horner, Miguel A. Cortez, Yiwen Shao and Zhengping Jia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the re...

    Authors: Richard T. O’Neil, Xiaojing Wang, Michael V. Morabito and Ronald B. Emeson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Microglia are dynamic immune cells with diverse roles in maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of microglia has been critically implicated in the genesis of neuropathic pain. Per...

    Authors: Josiane C. S. Mapplebeck, Simon Beggs and Michael W. Salter

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:9

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and fast-acting treatment for depression. Despite a long history of clinical use, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Recently, a novel cell...

    Authors: Yuki Imoto, Eri Segi-Nishida, Hidenori Suzuki and Katsunori Kobayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized ...

    Authors: Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji and Haruhisa Inoue

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Deregulation of α-synuclein encoding gene (SNCA) is one of the important facets of Parkinson’s disease (PD) research. DNA methylation status of SNCA-intron1 has been shown to regulate the α-synuclein expression. ...

    Authors: Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Baggio A. Evangelista, Susmita Ghosh, Sambuddha Basu and Yoon-Seong Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:6

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  31. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Recent evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers elic...

    Authors: Daisuke Tanokashira, Naomi Mamada, Fumiko Yamamoto, Kaori Taniguchi, Akira Tamaoka, Madepalli K. Lakshmana and Wataru Araki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are ...

    Authors: Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin and Bing-Xing Pan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Sleep-disordered breathing produces cognitive impairments, and is possibly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Intermittent hypoxia treatment (IHT), an experimental model for sleep-disordered breathing, re...

    Authors: Sosuke Yagishita, Seiya Suzuki, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Keiko Iida, Ayako Hirata, Masahiko Suzuki, Akihiko Takashima, Kei Maruyama, Akira Hirasawa and Takeo Awaji

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of various neuronal diseases including ischemia. Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22) is known to protect cells against oxidative stress. However, the prote...

    Authors: Hyo Sang Jo, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Su Bin Cho, Jung Hwan Park, Chi Hern Lee, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Jeong Sohn, Ora Son, Sung-Woo Cho, Duk-Soo Kim, Yeon Hee Yu, Keun Wook Lee, Jinseu Park…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. The transition from wakefulness to a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep state at the onset of sleep involves a transition from low-voltage, high-frequency irregular electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms to la...

    Authors: Joohyeon Hong, Jungryun Lee, Kiyeong Song, Go Eun Ha, Yong Ryoul Yang, Ji Su Ma, Masahiro Yamamoto, Hee-Sup Shin, Pann-Ghill Suh and Eunji Cheong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:100

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous multipurpose protein, is also known as redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1). It is involved in DNA repair and redox signaling and, in turn, oxidative stress...

    Authors: Hyunjung Baek, Chae Seong Lim, Hee Sun Byun, Hyun Sil Cho, Yu Ran Lee, Yong Sup Shin, Hyun-Woo Kim, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Dong Woon Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Gang Min Hur and Jin Bong Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:99

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Early-life sensory input plays a crucial role in brain development. Although deprivation of orofacial sensory input at perinatal stages disrupts the establishment of the barrel cortex and relevant callosal con...

    Authors: Jin-Bao Zhang, Ling Chen, Zhu-Man Lv, Xue-Yuan Niu, Can-Can Shao, Chan Zhang, Michal Pruski, Ying Huang, Cong-Cong Qi, Ning-Ning Song, Bing Lang and Yu-Qiang Ding

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:98

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in supporting the proliferation and/or survival of murine neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs); however, the downstream effectors of this fa...

    Authors: Shigeki Ohta, Tomonori Yaguchi, Hironobu Okuno, Hervé Chneiweiss, Yutaka Kawakami and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:96

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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