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  1. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder resulting from an aberrant expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the ataxin-3 protein and subsequent neuronal death. The underlying i...

    Authors: Anna S. Sowa, Taissia G. Popova, Tina Harmuth, Jonasz J. Weber, Priscila Pereira Sena, Jana Schmidt, Jeannette Hübener-Schmid and Thorsten Schmidt
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:57
  2. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of impaired social behavior and communication. Recent studies have suggested that the oxytocin sy...

    Authors: Kohei Kitagawa, Kensuke Matsumura, Masayuki Baba, Momoka Kondo, Tomoya Takemoto, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Kaoru Seiriki, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Atsushi Kasai, Kazuhiro Takuma, Ryota Hashimoto, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:56
  3. Our previous study showed the intrinsic ability of descending noradrenergic neurons projecting from the locus coeruleus to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) to suppress itch-related behaviors. Noradrenaline and α1A-ad...

    Authors: Yuto Shiraishi, Keisuke Koga, Ryo Yamagata, Izuho Hatada, Miho Shiratori-Hayashi and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:55
  4. TMEM132D is a human gene identified with multiple risk alleles for panic disorders, anxiety and major depressive disorders. Defining a conserved family of transmembrane proteins, TMEM132D and its homologs are sti...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Wei Jiang, Shuo Luo, Xiaoyu Yang, Changnan Wang, Bingying Wang, Yongjun Dang, Yin Shen and Dengke K. Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:54
  5. The HapMap Project is a major international research effort to construct a resource to facilitate the discovery of relationships between human genetic variations and health and disease. The Ser19Stop single nu...

    Authors: Hisako Sugimoto, Takuro Horii, Jun-Na Hirota, Yoshitake Sano, Yo Shinoda, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Yasuki Ishizaki, Hajime Hirase, Izuho Hatada, Teiichi Furuichi and Tetsushi Sadakata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:52
  6. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yukiko Ochiai, Taishi-Clark Takeda, Yoko Hagino, Kazuto Kobayashi and Kazutaka Ikeda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:51

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2020 13:126

  7. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among gut microbiota disturbances and serum and spinal cord metabolic disorders in neuropathic pain. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and serum and spinal cor...

    Authors: Peng Chen, Chen Wang, Yan-na Ren, Zeng-jie Ye, Chao Jiang and Zhi-bing Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:50
  8. Antibiotics affect gut microbial composition, leading to Gut–Brain-Axis imbalance and neurobehavioral changes. However, the intestinal dysbacteriosis associated behavior changes are not consistently reported. ...

    Authors: Pan Wang, Ke Tu, Peng Cao, Yuefan Yang, Hao Zhang, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Hui Yang and Tao Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:49

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:69

  9. Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6) on synaptic vesicle (SV) is critical for the presynaptic regulation of quantal size at the glutamatergic synapses by converting the chemical gradient (ΔpH) into membrane potential (Δ...

    Authors: Unghwi Lee, Seung Hyun Ryu and Sunghoe Chang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:47
  10. The corticostriatal circuit plays an important role in the regulation of reward- and aversion-types of behaviors. Specifically, the projection from the prelimbic cortex (PL) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has ...

    Authors: Fei Zeng, Qiaosheng Zhang, Yaling Liu, Guanghao Sun, Anna Li, Robert S. Talay and Jing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:45
  11. Memory reconsolidation is thought to maintain or enhance an original memory or add new information to the memory. Retrieved inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory is enhanced through memory reconsolidation by activa...

    Authors: Hotaka Fukushima, Yue Zhang and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:44
  12. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates attention through dopamine D1 and D2-receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We previously developed an object-based attention test (OBAT) to evaluate attent...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuo Kunisawa, Moeka Tanabe, Aika Yanagawa, Kuniaki Saito, Akihiro Mouri and Toshitaka Nabeshima
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:43
  13. Fear dysregulation is one of the symptoms found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. The functional abnormality of the hippocampus is known to be implicated in the development of such pathology. ...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Tanita Pairojana, Pavithra Suresh, Chee-Hing Yang, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Shun-Ping Huang, Chien-Chang Chen, Narawut Pakaprot, Supin Chompoopong, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi and Ingrid Y. Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:42
  14. The SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (Shank3) protein is a core organizer of the macromolecular complex in excitatory postsynapses, and its defects cause numerous synaptopathies, including autism spec...

    Authors: Chunmei Jin, Yeunkum Lee, Hyojin Kang, Kwon Jeong, Joori Park, Yinhua Zhang, Hyae Rim Kang, Ruiying Ma, Hyunyoung Seong, Yoonhee Kim, Hosung Jung, Jin Young Kim, Yoon Ki Kim and Kihoon Han
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:39
  15. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a crucial role in integrating peripheral information regarding visceral functions. Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) inhibitory neurons are abundant in the NTS, and...

    Authors: Mei-Yu Shi, Lu-Feng Ding, Yu-Hong Guo, Yu-Xiao Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi and Pak-Ming Lau
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:38
  16. Olig2 is an important transcription factor essential for the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes and neurons during developmental stages. However, Olig2 distribution pat...

    Authors: Hui Wang, Liang Xu, Chuying Lai, Kaiyu Hou, Junliang Chen, Yaowei Guo, Abhijeet Sambangi, Shreya Swaminathan, Chunming Xie, Zheng Wu and Gong Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:36
  17. Pathogen infection triggers pain via activation of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are the main components of innate immunity and have been implicated in pain...

    Authors: Junting Huang, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Zizhen Zhang and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:35
  18. The elevated plus maze test is a widely used test for assessing anxiety-like behavior and screening novel therapeutic agents in rodents. Previous studies have shown that a variety of internal factors and proce...

    Authors: Hirotaka Shoji and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:34
  19. GABAergic interneurons play a critical role in tuning neural networks in the central nervous system, and their defects are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently, the mDlx enhancer is solely use...

    Authors: Chiaki Hoshino, Ayumu Konno, Nobutake Hosoi, Ryosuke Kaneko, Ryo Mukai, Junichi Nakai and Hirokazu Hirai
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:33
  20. Axon regeneration in the central nervous system is inefficient. However, the neurons in the peripheral nervous system display robust regeneration after injury, indicating that axonal regeneration is differenti...

    Authors: Hyemin Kim, Jinyoung Lee and Yongcheol Cho
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:31
  21. Metabolites underlying brain function and pathology are not as well understood as genes. Here, we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further understand the mechanisms of memory processing in sleep. As hi...

    Authors: Iyo Koyanagi, Kazuhiro Sonomura, Toshie Naoi, Takaaki Ohnishi, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Taka-Aki Sato and Masanori Sakaguchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:30
  22. Intelligence predicts important life and health outcomes, but the biological mechanisms underlying differences in intelligence are not yet understood. The use of genetically determined metabotypes (GDMs) to un...

    Authors: Jian Yang, Binbin Zhao, Li Qian, Fengjie Gao, Yanjuan Fan, Xiaoyan He, Qingyan Ma, Lihong Yang, Bin Yan, Wei Wang and Xiancang Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:29
  23. Neuropathic pain (NP) remains an untreatable disease due to the complex pathophysiology that involves the whole pain neuraxis including the forebrain. Sensory dysfunctions such as allodynia and hyperalgesia ar...

    Authors: Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Monica Iannotta, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Rosmara Infantino, Flavia Ricciardi, Claudia Cristiano, Rosa Maria Vitale, Pietro Amodeo, Ida Marabese, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Salvatore Paino, Enza Palazzo, Antonio Calignano, Vincenzo Di Marzo…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:28

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:64

  24. CACNA1A pathogenic variants have been linked to several neurological disorders including familial hemiplegic migraine and cerebellar conditions. More recently, de novo variants have been associated with severe ea...

    Authors: Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Laurent Ferron, A. Micheil Innes and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:27
  25. The synaptic tag and capture (STC) hypothesis provides an important theoretical basis for understanding the synaptic basis of associative learning. We recently provided pharmacological evidence that calcium-pe...

    Authors: Pojeong Park, Heather Kang, John Georgiou, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Graham L. Collingridge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:26
  26. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a primary cause of disability and death across the world. Previously, RNA analysis was widely used to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying TBI; however, the relati...

    Authors: Zhongxiang Zhang, Jiangtao Yu, Pengcheng Wang, Lian Lin, Ruining Liu, Rong Zeng, Haoli Ma and Yan Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:25
  27. Disrupted GABAergic neurons have been extensively described in brain tissues from individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and animal models for ASD. However, the contribution of these aberrant inhibito...

    Authors: Sangyep Shin, Andrea Santi and Shiyong Huang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:24
  28. N-cadherin is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that stabilizes excitatory synapses, by connecting pre- and post-synaptic termini. Upon NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation by glutamate, membrane-proximal domain...

    Authors: M. Asada-Utsugi, K. Uemura, M. Kubota, Y. Noda, Y. Tashiro, T. M. Uemura, H. Yamakado, M. Urushitani, R. Takahashi, S. Hattori, T. Miyakawa, N. Ageta-Ishihara, K. Kobayashi, M. Kinoshita and A. Kinoshita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:23
  29. Previously, we found that brains of adult zebrafish heterozygous for Alzheimer’s disease-related mutations in their presenilin 1 gene (psen1, orthologous to human PSEN1) show greater basal expression levels of hy...

    Authors: Karissa Barthelson, Morgan Newman, Cameron J. Nowell and Michael Lardelli
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:22
  30. We recently found a significant association between exonic copy-number variations in the Rho GTPase activating protein 10 (Arhgap10) gene and schizophrenia in Japanese patients. Special attention was paid to one ...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Hada, Bolati Wulaer, Taku Nagai, Norimichi Itoh, Masahito Sawahata, Akira Sobue, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Daisuke Mori, Itaru Kushima, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Norio Ozaki and Kiyofumi Yamada
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:21
  31. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key players in neuronal excitability and pain signaling. Functional expression of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 is under the control of SUMOylated collapsin response me...

    Authors: Kimberly Gomez, Dongzhi Ran, Cynthia L. Madura, Aubin Moutal and Rajesh Khanna
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:20
  32. Writer’s cramp (WC) is a task-specific focal dystonia that occurs selectively in the hand and arm during writing. Previous studies have shown a role for genetics in the pathology of task-specific focal dystoni...

    Authors: Miaozhen Huang, Esther A. R. Nibbeling, Tjerk J. Lagrand, Ivana A. Souza, Justus L. Groen, Maria A. Gandini, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Johannes H. T. M. Koelman, Noam Adir, Richard J. Sinke, Gerald W. Zamponi, Marina A. J. Tijssen and Dineke S. Verbeek
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:18
  33. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system and plays a crucial role in maintaining the human body's homeostasis. This study aims to investigate the resting state functional connectivity ...

    Authors: Jian Kong, Yiting Huang, Jiao Liu, Siyi Yu, Cheng Ming, Helen Chen, Georgia Wilson, William F. Harvey, Wen Li and Chenchen Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:17
  34. Lysosomal dysfunction is a central pathway associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. Haploinsufficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase GBA (encoding glucocerebrosidase (GCase)) is one of the largest gene...

    Authors: Ria Thomas, Elizabeth B. Moloney, Zachary K. Macbain, Penelope J. Hallett and Ole Isacson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:16
  35. Chronic pruritus is a symptom that commonly observed in neurological diseases. It has been hypothesized that the chronic pruritus may result from sensitization of itch-signaling pathways but the mechanisms rem...

    Authors: Tao Wang, Jin Tao, Yehong Fang and Chao Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:15
  36. Mitochondrial movement in neurons is finely regulated to meet the local demand for energy and calcium buffering. Elaborate transport machinery including motor complexes is required to deliver and localize mito...

    Authors: Bo Kyoung Suh, Seol-Ae Lee, Cana Park, Yeongjun Suh, Soo Jeong Kim, Youngsik Woo, Truong Thi My Nhung, Su Been Lee, Dong Jin Mun, Bon Seong Goo, Hyun Sun Choi, So Jung Kim and Sang Ki Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:14
  37. Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating brain disease that affects about 1% of world population. Among the top genetic associations, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene encodes a zinc finger protein, associated w...

    Authors: Fengping Dong, Joseph Mao, Miranda Chen, Joy Yoon and Yingwei Mao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:12
  38. The neurotrophin Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple bipartite transcripts. Each BDNF transcript is composed by one out of 11 alternatively spliced exons containing the 5′untranslat...

    Authors: Andrea Colliva and Enrico Tongiorgi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:10
  39. Jacob is a synapto-nuclear messenger protein that couples NMDAR activity to CREB-dependent gene expression. In this study, we investigated the nuclear distribution of Jacob and report a prominent targeting to ...

    Authors: Sebastian Samer, Rajeev Raman, Gregor Laube, Michael R. Kreutz and Anna Karpova
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:9

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