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  1. Content type: Research

    Concerns have risen regarding the potential side effects of clinical exposure of the pediatric population to inhalational anesthetics, and how they might impact cognitive, learning, and memory functions. Howev...

    Authors: Fenglian Xu, Ryden Armstrong, Daniela Urrego, Munir Qazzaz, Mario Pehar, J. N. Armstrong, Tim Shutt and Naweed Syed

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:35

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  2. Content type: Research

    Neonatal astrocytes are diverse in origin, and undergo dramatic change in gene expression, morphological differentiation and  syncytial networking throughout development. Neonatal astrocytes also play multifac...

    Authors: Shiying Zhong, Yixing Du, Conrad M. Kiyoshi, Baofeng Ma, Catherine C. Alford, Qi Wang, Yongjie Yang, Xueyuan Liu and Min Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:34

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  3. Content type: Research

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays essential roles in the regulation of survival and function of neural stem cells (NSCs). Abnormal regulation of this process is associated with developmental and degenerative n...

    Authors: Bo Kyoung Yeo, Caroline Jeeyeon Hong, Kyung Min Chung, Hanwoong Woo, Kyungchan Kim, Seonghee Jung, Eun-Kyoung Kim and Seong-Woon Yu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:31

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  4. Content type: Short report

    Neural network synchrony is a critical factor in regulating information transmission through the nervous system. Improperly regulated neural network synchrony is implicated in pathophysiological conditions suc...

    Authors: Kathryn A. Jewett, Catherine A. Christian, Jonathan T. Bacos, Kwan Young Lee, Jiuhe Zhu and Nien-Pei Tsai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:32

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  5. Content type: Research

    Dementia risk in women is higher than in men, but the molecular neuropathology of this gender difference remains poorly defined. In this study, we used unbiased, discovery-driven quantitative proteomics to ass...

    Authors: Xavier Gallart-Palau, Benjamin S. T. Lee, Sunil S. Adav, Jingru Qian, Aida Serra, Jung Eun Park, Mitchell K. P. Lai, Christopher P. Chen, Raj N. Kalaria and Siu Kwan Sze

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:27

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  6. Content type: Research

    In the adult hippocampus new neurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells (NSCs) present at the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. This process is controlled by Wnt signaling, which plays a co...

    Authors: Muriel D. Mardones, Gabriela A. Andaur, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Jenny F. Henriquez, Felipe Salech, María Isabel Behrens, Andrés Couve, Nibaldo C. Inestrosa and Lorena Varela-Nallar

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:29

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  7. Content type: Research

    The majority of neurons within the central nervous system receive their excitatory inputs via small, actin-rich protrusions called dendritic spines. Spines can undergo rapid morphological alterations according...

    Authors: Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Karl Föhr, Katharina Mangus, Matti Eckert, Juergen Bockmann, Tobias M. Boeckers and Andreas M. Grabrucker

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:28

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  8. Content type: Research

    Insulin plays diverse roles in the brain. Although insulin produced by pancreatic β-cells that crosses the blood–brain barrier is a major source of brain insulin, recent studies suggest that insulin is also pr...

    Authors: Jaemeun Lee, Kyungchan Kim, Seong-Woon Yu and Eun-Kyoung Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:24

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  9. Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

    The editors of Molecular Brain would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 8 (2015).

    Authors: Bong-Kiun Kaang, Min Zhuo and Tim Bliss

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:25

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  10. Content type: Research

    Transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a Ca2+-binding protein that regulates Ca2+ homeostasis through gene regulation and protein-protein interactions. It has been...

    Authors: Britt Mellström, Asta Kastanauskaite, Shira Knafo, Paz Gonzalez, Xose M. Dopazo, Ana Ruiz-Nuño, John G. R. Jefferys, Min Zhuo, Tim V. P. Bliss, Jose R. Naranjo and Javier DeFelipe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:22

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  11. Content type: Methodology

    Aggregation of malformed proteins is a key feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanisms that drive proteinopathy in the brain are poorly understood. We aimed to characterize aggregated protei...

    Authors: Sunil S. Adav, Xavier Gallart-Palau, Kok Hian Tan, Sai Kiang Lim, James P. Tam and Siu Kwan Sze

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:20

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  12. Content type: Research

    Loss of function mutations in RAB18, has been identified in patients with the human neurological and developmental disorder Warburg Micro syndrome. However, the function of RAB18 in brain remains unknown.

    Authors: Qinwei Wu, Xiaqin Sun, Weihua Yue, Tianlan Lu, Yanyan Ruan, Tianda Chen and Dai Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:19

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  13. Content type: Research

    Sleep deprivation during pregnancy is a serious public health problem as it can affect the health of pregnant women and newborns. However, it is not well studied whether sleep deprivation at different stages o...

    Authors: Yan Peng, Wei Wang, Tao Tan, Wenting He, Zhifang Dong, Yu Tian Wang and Huili Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:17

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  14. Content type: Research

    Novel taste memories, critical for animal survival, are consolidated to form long term memories which are dependent on translation regulation in the gustatory cortex (GC) hours following acquisition. However, ...

    Authors: Sharon Inberg, Eyal Jacob, Alina Elkobi, Efrat Edry, Akiva Rappaport, T. Ian Simpson, J. Douglas Armstrong, Noam Shomron, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor and Kobi Rosenblum

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:13

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  15. Content type: Research

    We reported that zinc neurotoxicity, a key mechanism of ischemic neuronal death, was mediated by poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) over-activation following NAD+/ATP depletion in cortical cultures. Because AMP-ac...

    Authors: Jae-Won Eom, Jong-Min Lee, Jae-Young Koh and Yang-Hee Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:14

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  16. Content type: Short report

    CD38 is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, both of which are involved in the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Recently, C...

    Authors: Somi Kim, TaeHyun Kim, Hye-Ryeon Lee, Eun-Hye Jang, Hyun-Hee Ryu, Minkyung Kang, So-Young Rah, Juyoun Yoo, Bolam Lee, Jae-Ick Kim, Chae Seok Lim, Sang Jeong Kim, Uh-Hyun Kim, Yong-Seok Lee and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:16

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  17. Content type: Research

    Protection of cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury is an important strategy for treating ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated whether co-culture with endo...

    Authors: Jinju Wang, Yusen Chen, Yi Yang, Xiang Xiao, Shuzhen Chen, Cheng Zhang, Bradley Jacobs, Bin Zhao, Ji Bihl and Yanfang Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:12

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  18. Content type: Research

    A reduction of the number of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (PV+) GABAergic interneurons or a decrease in PV immunoreactivity was reported in several mouse models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This include...

    Authors: Federica Filice, Karl Jakob Vörckel, Ayse Özge Sungur, Markus Wöhr and Beat Schwaller

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:10

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  19. Content type: Research

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that mediate acid-induced responses in neurons. ASICs are important for mechanosensation, learning and memory, fear, pain, and neuronal injury...

    Authors: Junjun Wu, Tiandong Leng, Lan Jing, Nan Jiang, Daijie Chen, Youjia Hu, Zhi-Gang Xiong and Xiang-ming Zha

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:9

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  20. Content type: Research

    Wnt5a, originally identified as a guidance cue for commissural axons, activates a non-canonical pathway critical for cortical axonal morphogenesis. The molecular signaling cascade underlying this event remains...

    Authors: Shin-ichiro Horigane, Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Satoshi Kamijo, Hajime Fujii, Michiko Okamura, Makoto Kinoshita, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura and Haruhiko Bito

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:8

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  21. Content type: Research

    The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating motor functions and has a unique laminated architecture. Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons and represent the only output from the cerebellar cortex. Tyrosine ...

    Authors: Ying Huang, Qiong Zhang, Ning-Ning Song, Lei Zhang, Yu-Ling Sun, Ling Hu, Jia-Ying Chen, Weidong Zhu, Jue Li and Yu-Qiang Ding

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:7

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  22. Content type: Research

    Mutation of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) causes autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite of its ubiquitous expression in brain, its roles in non-neuronal cells such as neural...

    Authors: Insup Choi, Dong-Joo Choi, Haijie Yang, Joo Hong Woo, Mi-Yoon Chang, Joo Yeon Kim, Woong Sun, Sang-Myun Park, Ilo Jou, Sang-Hun Lee and Eun-Hye Joe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:5

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2016 9:18

  23. Content type: Research

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are key mediators of acidosis-induced responses in neurons. However, little is known about the relative abundance of different ASIC subunits in the brain. Such data are fundam...

    Authors: Junjun Wu, Yuanyuan Xu, Yu-Qing Jiang, Jiangping Xu, Youjia Hu and Xiang-ming Zha

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:4

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  24. Content type: Research

    Vertebrate-specific neuronal genes are expected to play a critical role in the diversification and evolution of higher brain functions. Among them, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored netrin-G subf...

    Authors: Qi Zhang, Hiromichi Goto, Sachiko Akiyoshi-Nishimura, Pavel Prosselkov, Chie Sano, Hiroshi Matsukawa, Kunio Yaguchi, Toshiaki Nakashiba and Shigeyoshi Itohara

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:6

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  25. Content type: Research

    The conditions under which memory generalization occurs are not well understood. Although it is believed that fear memory generalization is gradually established after learning, it is not clear whether experie...

    Authors: Ayano Fujinaka, Ruoshi Li, Masanobu Hayashi, Deependra Kumar, Gopakumar Changarathil, Keisuke Naito, Kousuke Miki, Taihei Nishiyama, Michael Lazarus, Takeshi Sakurai, Nohjin Kee, Satomi Nakajima, Szu-Han Wang and Masanori Sakaguchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:2

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  26. Content type: Research

    Rasd1 is a member of the Ras family of monomeric G proteins that was first identified as a dexamethasone inducible gene in the pituitary corticotroph cell line AtT20. Using microarrays...

    Authors: Michael P. Greenwood, Mingkwan Greenwood, Andre S. Mecawi, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Julian F. R. Paton and David Murphy

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:1

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  27. Content type: Research

    Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a genetically heterogeneous disease. To date, 36 dominantly inherited loci have been reported, and 31 causative genes have been identified.

    Authors: Hiroyuki Morino, Yukiko Matsuda, Keiko Muguruma, Ryosuke Miyamoto, Ryosuke Ohsawa, Toshiyuki Ohtake, Reiko Otobe, Masahiko Watanabe, Hirofumi Maruyama, Kouichi Hashimoto and Hideshi Kawakami

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:89

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  28. Content type: Research

    Growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible protein 45 beta (Gadd45b) is serving as a neuronal activity sensor. Brain ischemia induces the expression of Gadd45b, which stimulates recovery after stroke and may play ...

    Authors: Guo-qian He, Wen-ming Xu, Jin-fang Li, Shuai-shuai Li, Bin Liu, Xiao-dan Tan and Chang-qing Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:88

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  29. Content type: Methodology

    Food intake of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an intermittent feeder, is attributed to several behavioral elements including foraging, feeding initiation and termination, and food ingestion. Despite...

    Authors: Wei Qi, Zhe Yang, Ziao Lin, Jin-Yong Park, Greg S. B. Suh and Liming Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:87

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  30. Content type: Research

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is considered to be an etiologic hormone in motion sickness (MS). The present study was designed to investigate whether individual differences in AVP expression in the paraventricula...

    Authors: Li-Hua Xu, Guan-Rong Tang, Juan-Juan Yang, Hong-Xia Liu, Jian-Cheng Li and Zheng-Lin Jiang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:86

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  31. Content type: Short report

    Transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B) has been identified as a risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration, which is the second most common form of progressive dementia in people under 65 years of age. M...

    Authors: Mi-Hee Jun, Jeong-Ho Han, Yu-Kyung Lee, Deok-Jin Jang, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Jin-A Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:85

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  32. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by senile plaques, extracellular deposits composed primarily of amyloid–beta (Aβ), and neurofibrillary tangles, which are abnormal intracellular inclusions containing ...

    Authors: Kiwamu Watanabe, Kengo Uemura, Megumi Asada, Masato Maesako, Haruhiko Akiyama, Shun Shimohama, Ryosuke Takahashi and Ayae Kinoshita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:82

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  33. Content type: Research

    Structural and functional changes of the hippocampus are correlated with psychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. Genetic deletion of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF...

    Authors: Keita Sasaki, Olaposi Idowu Omotuyi, Mutsumi Ueda, Kazuyuki Shinohara and Hiroshi Ueda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:83

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  34. Content type: Research

    Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are assumed to play important roles in the perception of nociceptive signals and the associated emotional responses. However, the neuronal types within the ACC th...

    Authors: Sukjae Joshua Kang, Chuljung Kwak, Jaehyun Lee, Su-Eon Sim, Jaehoon Shim, Taehyuk Choi, Graham L. Collingridge, Min Zhuo and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:81

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  35. Content type: Research

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are being applied in regenerative medicine and for the in vitro modeling of human intractable disorders. In particular, neural cells derived from disease-specific human induce...

    Authors: Daisuke Shimojo, Kazunari Onodera, Yukiko Doi-Torii, Yasuharu Ishihara, Chinatsu Hattori, Yukino Miwa, Satoshi Tanaka, Rina Okada, Manabu Ohyama, Masanobu Shoji, Atsushi Nakanishi, Manabu Doyu, Hideyuki Okano and Yohei Okada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:79

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  36. Content type: Research

    Various protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms contribute to the phosphorylating activity that modulates neurotransmitter release. In previous studies we showed that nPKCε is confined in the presynaptic site of the n...

    Authors: Teresa Obis, Erica Hurtado, Laura Nadal, Marta Tomàs, Mercedes Priego, Anna Simon, Neus Garcia, Manel M. Santafe, Maria A. Lanuza and Josep Tomàs

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:80

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  37. Content type: Research

    Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is caused by the microdeletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, and is characterized by a spectrum of cognitive and behavioural features.

    Authors: Shahryar Khattak, Elise Brimble, Wenbo Zhang, Kirill Zaslavsky, Emma Strong, P. Joel Ross, Jason Hendry, Seema Mital, Michael W. Salter, Lucy R. Osborne and James Ellis

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:77

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  38. Content type: Research

    Constitutive and regulated internalization of cell surface proteins has been extensively investigated. The regulated internalization has been characterized as a principal mechanism for removing cell-surface re...

    Authors: Xiao-Qian Fang, Haifa Qiao, Bradley R. Groveman, Shuang Feng, Melissa Pflueger, Wen-Kuan Xin, Mohammad K. Ali, Shuang-Xiu Lin, Jindong Xu, Florian Duclot, Mohamed Kabbaj, Wei Wang, Xin-Sheng Ding, Teresa Santiago-Sim, Xing-Hong Jiang, Michael W. Salter…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:75

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  39. Content type: Research

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and it causes long-lasting visceral pain and discomfort. AMPA receptor mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) has b...

    Authors: Shui-Bing Liu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Lin-Feng Cheng, Jiao Shi, Jing-Shan Lu and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2015 8:76

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