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  1. Content type: Research

    Although post-ischemic inflammation induced by the innate immune response is considered an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid ce...

    Authors: Rong Wu, Xiangpen Li, Pengfei Xu, Likui Huang, Jinping Cheng, Xiaolong Huang, Jingru Jiang, Long-Jun Wu and Yamei Tang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:20

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  2. Content type: Review

    Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau aggregates form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagat...

    Authors: Michel Goedert and Maria Grazia Spillantini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:18

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  3. Content type: Review

    The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo ...

    Authors: Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:16

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  4. Content type: Research

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that are sharply increasing in prevalence worldwide. Intriguingly, ASD is often accompanied by an array of systemic aberrations includ...

    Authors: Joon Seo Lim, Mi Young Lim, Yongbin Choi and GwangPyo Ko

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:14

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  5. Content type: Short report

    Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A gene cause one of the most frequent forms of childhood-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (HLD): POLR3-HLD. POLR3A encodes the largest subunit of RNA Pol...

    Authors: Karine Choquet, Sharon Yang, Robyn D. Moir, Diane Forget, Roxanne Larivière, Annie Bouchard, Christian Poitras, Nicolas Sgarioto, Marie-Josée Dicaire, Forough Noohi, Timothy E. Kennedy, Joseph Rochford, Geneviève Bernard, Martin Teichmann, Benoit Coulombe, Ian M. Willis…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:13

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  6. Content type: Research

    Human studies demonstrate that sleep impairment is a concurrent comorbidity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but its etiology remains largely uncertain. One of the prominent theories of ASD suggests that an...

    Authors: Jackie J. Liu, Kevin P. Grace, Richard L. Horner, Miguel A. Cortez, Yiwen Shao and Zhengping Jia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:10

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  7. Content type: Research

    A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the re...

    Authors: Richard T. O’Neil, Xiaojing Wang, Michael V. Morabito and Ronald B. Emeson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:11

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  8. Content type: Review

    Microglia are dynamic immune cells with diverse roles in maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of microglia has been critically implicated in the genesis of neuropathic pain. Per...

    Authors: Josiane C. S. Mapplebeck, Simon Beggs and Michael W. Salter

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:9

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  9. Content type: Research

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and fast-acting treatment for depression. Despite a long history of clinical use, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Recently, a novel cell...

    Authors: Yuki Imoto, Eri Segi-Nishida, Hidenori Suzuki and Katsunori Kobayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:8

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  10. Content type: Research

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized ...

    Authors: Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji and Haruhisa Inoue

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:7

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  11. Content type: Short report

    Deregulation of α-synuclein encoding gene (SNCA) is one of the important facets of Parkinson’s disease (PD) research. DNA methylation status of SNCA-intron1 has been shown to regulate the α-synuclein expression. ...

    Authors: Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Baggio A. Evangelista, Susmita Ghosh, Sambuddha Basu and Yoon-Seong Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:6

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  12. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Recent evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers elic...

    Authors: Daisuke Tanokashira, Naomi Mamada, Fumiko Yamamoto, Kaori Taniguchi, Akira Tamaoka, Madepalli K. Lakshmana and Wataru Araki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:4

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  13. Content type: Research

    Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are ...

    Authors: Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin and Bing-Xing Pan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:3

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  14. Content type: Research

    Sleep-disordered breathing produces cognitive impairments, and is possibly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Intermittent hypoxia treatment (IHT), an experimental model for sleep-disordered breathing, re...

    Authors: Sosuke Yagishita, Seiya Suzuki, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Keiko Iida, Ayako Hirata, Masahiko Suzuki, Akihiko Takashima, Kei Maruyama, Akira Hirasawa and Takeo Awaji

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:2

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  15. Content type: Research

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of various neuronal diseases including ischemia. Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22) is known to protect cells against oxidative stress. However, the prote...

    Authors: Hyo Sang Jo, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Su Bin Cho, Jung Hwan Park, Chi Hern Lee, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Jeong Sohn, Ora Son, Sung-Woo Cho, Duk-Soo Kim, Yeon Hee Yu, Keun Wook Lee, Jinseu Park…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:1

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  16. Content type: Research

    The transition from wakefulness to a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep state at the onset of sleep involves a transition from low-voltage, high-frequency irregular electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms to la...

    Authors: Joohyeon Hong, Jungryun Lee, Kiyeong Song, Go Eun Ha, Yong Ryoul Yang, Ji Su Ma, Masahiro Yamamoto, Hee-Sup Shin, Pann-Ghill Suh and Eunji Cheong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:100

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  17. Content type: Research

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous multipurpose protein, is also known as redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1). It is involved in DNA repair and redox signaling and, in turn, oxidative stress...

    Authors: Hyunjung Baek, Chae Seong Lim, Hee Sun Byun, Hyun Sil Cho, Yu Ran Lee, Yong Sup Shin, Hyun-Woo Kim, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Dong Woon Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Gang Min Hur and Jin Bong Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:99

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  18. Content type: Research

    Early-life sensory input plays a crucial role in brain development. Although deprivation of orofacial sensory input at perinatal stages disrupts the establishment of the barrel cortex and relevant callosal con...

    Authors: Jin-Bao Zhang, Ling Chen, Zhu-Man Lv, Xue-Yuan Niu, Can-Can Shao, Chan Zhang, Michal Pruski, Ying Huang, Cong-Cong Qi, Ning-Ning Song, Bing Lang and Yu-Qiang Ding

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:98

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  19. Content type: Research

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in supporting the proliferation and/or survival of murine neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs); however, the downstream effectors of this fa...

    Authors: Shigeki Ohta, Tomonori Yaguchi, Hironobu Okuno, Hervé Chneiweiss, Yutaka Kawakami and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:96

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  20. Content type: Research

    Alternate splicing of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) pre-RNA is negatively regulated by the small nucleolar RNA, Snord115, loss of which is observed in nearly all individuals with Pra...

    Authors: Alastair S. Garfield, Jennifer R. Davies, Luke K. Burke, Hannah V. Furby, Lawrence S. Wilkinson, Lora K. Heisler and Anthony R. Isles

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:95

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  21. Content type: Research

    Heantos-4 is a refined combination of plant extracts currently approved to treat opiate addiction in Vietnam. In addition to its beneficial effects on withdrawal and prevention of relapse, reports of sedation ...

    Authors: Stuart M. Cain, Soyon Ahn, Esperanza Garcia, Yiming Zhang, Zeina Waheed, John R. Tyson, Yi Yang, Tran Van Sung, Anthony G. Phillips and Terrance P. Snutch

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:94

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  22. Content type: Research

    ABAT deficiency (OMIM 613163) is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by recessive variants in the gene 4-aminobutyric acid transaminase (ABAT), which is responsible for both the catalysis of GABA and main...

    Authors: A. Besse, A. K. Petersen, J. V. Hunter, V. Appadurai, S. R. Lalani and P. E. Bonnen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:93

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  23. Content type: Research

    Two pharmacologically distinct types of local protein synthesis are required for synapse- specific long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia: one for initiation and the other for maintenance. ApCPEB, a rap...

    Authors: Seung-Hee Lee, Jaehoon Shim, Ye-Hwang Cheong, Sun-Lim Choi, Yong-Woo Jun, Sue-Hyun Lee, Yeon-Su Chae, Jin-Hee Han, Yong-Seok Lee, Jin-A Lee, Chae-Seok Lim, Kausik Si, Stefan Kassabov, Igor Antonov, Eric R. Kandel, Bong-Kiun Kaang…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:91

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  24. Content type: Research

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1(DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses that share cognitive impairments in common, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and m...

    Authors: Lin Cui, Wei Sun, Ming Yu, Nan Li, Li Guo, Huating Gu and Yu Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:89

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  25. Content type: Research

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitate understanding of the etiology of diseases, discovery of new drugs and development of novel therapeutic interventions. A frequently used starti...

    Authors: Koki Fujimori, Toshiki Tezuka, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Hirobumi Tada, Takuya Matsumoto, Miho Isoda, Ryota Hashimoto, Nubutaka Hattori, Takuya Takahashi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Wado Akamatsu and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:88

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  26. Content type: Research

    PERK (EIF2AK3) is an ER-resident eIF2α kinase required for behavioral flexibility and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression via its translational control. Motivated by the recent disco...

    Authors: Siying Zhu, Barbara C. McGrath, Yuting Bai, Xin Tang and Douglas R. Cavener

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:87

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  27. Content type: Research

    The risk of tumorigenicity is a hurdle for regenerative medicine using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Although teratoma formation is readily distinguishable, the malignant transformation of iPSC deriv...

    Authors: Keiko Sugai, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Tomoko Shofuda, Hayato Fukusumi, Soya Kawabata, Yuichiro Nishiyama, Yuichiro Higuchi, Kenji Kawai, Miho Isoda, Daisuke Kanematsu, Tomoko Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Jun Kohyama, Akio Iwanami, Hiroshi Suemizu, Eiji Ikeda, Morio Matsumoto…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:85

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  28. Content type: Research

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) regulates axonal growth cone extension, and increased CRMP2 phosphorylation may lead to axonal degeneration. Axonal and synaptic pathology is an important feature ...

    Authors: Huayang Xing, Yun-An Lim, Joyce R. Chong, Jasinda H. Lee, Dag Aarsland, Clive G. Ballard, Paul T. Francis, Christopher P. Chen and Mitchell K. P. Lai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:84

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  29. Content type: Research

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to participate in numerous brain functions, such as memory storage, emotion, attention, as well as perception of acute and chronic pain. ACC-dependent brain functions o...

    Authors: Li-qing Ma, Li Ning, Zhiru Wang and Ying-wei Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:82

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  30. Content type: Research

    Acute ischemic stroke causes significant chronic disability worldwide. We designed this study to clarify the mechanism by which hypothermia helps alleviate acute ischemic stroke. In a middle cerebral artery oc...

    Authors: Jung Ho Lee, Eun Jang Yoon, Jeho Seo, Adriana Kavoussi, Yong Eun Chung, Sung Phil Chung, Incheol Park, Chul Hoon Kim and Je Sung You

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:81

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  31. Content type: Research

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) exhibit a functional interaction, as CB1 regulates pre-synaptic glutamate release and mGluR5 activation increases endocannabinoi...

    Authors: Edleusa M. L. Batista, Juliana G. Doria, Talita H. Ferreira-Vieira, Juliana Alves-Silva, Stephen S. G. Ferguson, Fabricio A. Moreira and Fabiola M. Ribeiro

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:80

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  32. Content type: Research

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the activ...

    Authors: Qun-Yong Zhou, Katherine J. Burton, Matthew L. Neal, Yu Qiao, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Yanjun Sun, Xiangmin Xu, Yuanye Ma and Xiaohan Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:78

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  33. Content type: Research

    The C (-1019) G rs6295 promoter polymorphism of the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene is associated with major depression in several but not all studies, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms mediate resil...

    Authors: Christine Luckhart, Tristan J. Philippe, Brice Le François, Faranak Vahid-Ansari, Sean D. Geddes, Jean-Claude Béïque, Diane C. Lagace, Mireille Daigle and Paul R. Albert

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:77

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  34. Content type: Research

    Mice heterozygous for a complete deletion (CD) equivalent to the most common deletion found in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) recapitulate relevant features of the neurocognitive phenotype, su...

    Authors: Cristina Borralleras, Susana Mato, Thierry Amédée, Carlos Matute, Christophe Mulle, Luis A. Pérez-Jurado and Victoria Campuzano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:76

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  35. Content type: Research

    Metabolic defects and neuronal apoptosis initiated by traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to subsequent neurodegeneration. They are all regulated by mechanisms centered around mitochondrion. Type-1 cannabi...

    Authors: Zhen Xu, Xiao-Ai Lv, Qun Dai, Yu-Qing Ge and Jie Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:75

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  36. Content type: Research

    Itch and pain share similar mechanisms. It has been well documented that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for pain-related perception. ACC has also been approved to be a potential pruritus-asso...

    Authors: Ting-Ting Zhang, Feng-Yan Shen, Li-Qing Ma, Wen Wen, Bin Wang, Yuan-Zhi Peng, Zhi-Ru Wang and Xuan Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:73

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  37. Content type: Research

    Astrocytes have been reported to exist in two states, the resting and the reactive states. Morphological changes in the reactive state of astrocytes include an increase in thickness and number of processes, an...

    Authors: Moonseok Choi, Sangzin Ahn, Eun-Jeong Yang, Hyunju Kim, Young Hae Chong and Hye-Sun Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:72

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  38. Content type: Research

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are involved in the control of sleep-wake states. Our previous studies have indicated that calcium (Ca2+) modulation in the DRN plays an important role in ra...

    Authors: Su-Ying Cui, Sheng-Jie Li, Xiang-Yu Cui, Xue-Qiong Zhang, Bin Yu, Yuan-Li Huang, Qing Cao, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Hui Ye, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang and Yong-He Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:71

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