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  1. Homeostatic plasticity is necessary for the construction and maintenance of functional neuronal networks, but principal molecular mechanisms required for or modified by homeostatic plasticity are not well unde...

    Authors: Pernille Bülow, Stephanie A. Zlatic, Peter A. Wenner, Gary J. Bassell and Victor Faundez
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:75
  2. Neuroinflammation by activated microglia and astrocytes plays a critical role in progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a negative-feedback regulator that limits pro-infl...

    Authors: Hiroyasu Komiya, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuki Ogawa, Kosuke Suzuki, Akihiro Ogasawara, Keita Takahashi, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Hiroshi Doi and Fumiaki Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:74
  3. Loss-of-function mutations in the human oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) gene cause intellectual disability, a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition. However, the role OPHN1 plays during neuronal development is not well ...

    Authors: Sungdae Kim, Joohyung Kim, Sunyoung Park, Joong-Jean Park and Seungbok Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:73
  4. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is expressed dominantly in the astrocytes and exerts either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in the brain. Although PRDX6 can modulate several signaling cascades involving cognitiv...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Sureka Jasmin, Tanita Pairojana, Hsueh-Kai Chang, Kai-Chi Liang and Ingrid Y. Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:72
  5. Insular cortex is a critical brain region that participates in the interoceptive sensations. Here, we combined the iDISCO + method and Fos immunostaining to confirm that the middle part of the right-side, but ...

    Authors: Kai Qian, Jiaqi Liu, Yiqing Cao, Jing Yang and Shuang Qiu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:71
  6. We have previously reported that cambinol (DDL-112), a known inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2), suppressed extracellular vesicle (EV)/exosome production in vitro in a cell model and reduced tau...

    Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:108

  7. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Pan Wang, Ke Tu, Peng Cao, Yuefan Yang, Hao Zhang, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Hui Yang and Tao Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:69

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:49

  8. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by the segmental deletion of human chromosome 22. This chromosomal deletion is known as high genetic risk factors for various psychiatric disorders. T...

    Authors: Ryo Saito, Chika Miyoshi, Michinori Koebis, Itaru Kushima, Kazuki Nakao, Daisuke Mori, Norio Ozaki, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa and Atsu Aiba
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:68
  9. The rodent whisker-barrel cortex system has been established as an ideal model for studying sensory information integration. The barrel cortex consists of barrel and septa columns that receive information inpu...

    Authors: Mingzhao Su, Junhua Liu, Baocong Yu, Kaixing Zhou, Congli Sun, Mengjie Yang and Chunjie Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:67
  10. GAP-43 is a vertebrate neuron-specific protein and that is strongly related to axon growth and regeneration; thus, this protein has been utilized as a classical molecular marker of these events and growth cone...

    Authors: Masayasu Okada, Yosuke Kawagoe, Yuta Sato, Motohiro Nozumi, Yuya Ishikawa, Atsushi Tamada, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yonehiro Kanemura, Yohei Shinmyo, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Yukihiko Fujii and Michihiro Igarashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:66
  11. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Monica Iannotta, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Rosmara Infantino, Flavia Ricciardi, Claudia Cristiano, Rosa Maria Vitale, Pietro Amodeo, Ida Marabese, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Salvatore Paino, Enza Palazzo, Antonio Calignano, Vincenzo Di Marzo…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:64

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:28

  12. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes memory loss. Most AD researches have focused on neurodegeneration mechanisms. Considering that neurodegenerative changes are not...

    Authors: Kyung-Ran Kim, Yoonsub Kim, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Jong-Sun Kang, Sang Hun Lee, Yujin Kim, Suk-Ho Lee and Won-Kyung Ho
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:62
  13. The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders that is caused by the deletion of a region containing 7 genes on chromosome 15 (MTMR10, FAN1, TRP...

    Authors: Tesshu Hori, Shohei Ikuta, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Chieko Koike
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:61
  14. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in different forms of plasticity in the central nervous system. NMDARs are always assembled in tetrameric form, in which two GluN1 subunits and two ...

    Authors: Qi-Yu Chen, Xu-Hui Li, Jing-Shan Lu, Yinglu Liu, Jung-Hyun Alex Lee, Yu-Xin Chen, Wantong Shi, Kexin Fan and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:60
  15. Intracellular aggregates are a common pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple sys...

    Authors: Shun Kubota, Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Kenichi Tanaka, Hiroyasu Komiya, Atsuko Katsumoto, Shingo Ikeda, Shunta Hashiguchi, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Keita Takahashi, Misako Kunii, Mikiko Tada, Hideyuki Takeuchi and Fumiaki Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:59
  16. Mitochondrial structural changes are associated with the regulation of mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. PRKN is known to be involved with various mechanisms of mitochondrial qual...

    Authors: Mutsumi Yokota, Soichiro Kakuta, Takahiro Shiga, Kei-ichi Ishikawa, Hideyuki Okano, Nobutaka Hattori, Wado Akamatsu and Masato Koike
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:58
  17. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder resulting from an aberrant expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the ataxin-3 protein and subsequent neuronal death. The underlying i...

    Authors: Anna S. Sowa, Taissia G. Popova, Tina Harmuth, Jonasz J. Weber, Priscila Pereira Sena, Jana Schmidt, Jeannette Hübener-Schmid and Thorsten Schmidt
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:57
  18. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of impaired social behavior and communication. Recent studies have suggested that the oxytocin sy...

    Authors: Kohei Kitagawa, Kensuke Matsumura, Masayuki Baba, Momoka Kondo, Tomoya Takemoto, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Kaoru Seiriki, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Atsushi Kasai, Kazuhiro Takuma, Ryota Hashimoto, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:56
  19. Our previous study showed the intrinsic ability of descending noradrenergic neurons projecting from the locus coeruleus to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) to suppress itch-related behaviors. Noradrenaline and α1A-ad...

    Authors: Yuto Shiraishi, Keisuke Koga, Ryo Yamagata, Izuho Hatada, Miho Shiratori-Hayashi and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:55
  20. TMEM132D is a human gene identified with multiple risk alleles for panic disorders, anxiety and major depressive disorders. Defining a conserved family of transmembrane proteins, TMEM132D and its homologs are sti...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Wei Jiang, Shuo Luo, Xiaoyu Yang, Changnan Wang, Bingying Wang, Yongjun Dang, Yin Shen and Dengke K. Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:54
  21. The HapMap Project is a major international research effort to construct a resource to facilitate the discovery of relationships between human genetic variations and health and disease. The Ser19Stop single nu...

    Authors: Hisako Sugimoto, Takuro Horii, Jun-Na Hirota, Yoshitake Sano, Yo Shinoda, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Yasuki Ishizaki, Hajime Hirase, Izuho Hatada, Teiichi Furuichi and Tetsushi Sadakata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:52
  22. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yukiko Ochiai, Taishi-Clark Takeda, Yoko Hagino, Kazuto Kobayashi and Kazutaka Ikeda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:51

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2020 13:126

  23. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among gut microbiota disturbances and serum and spinal cord metabolic disorders in neuropathic pain. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and serum and spinal cor...

    Authors: Peng Chen, Chen Wang, Yan-na Ren, Zeng-jie Ye, Chao Jiang and Zhi-bing Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:50
  24. Antibiotics affect gut microbial composition, leading to Gut–Brain-Axis imbalance and neurobehavioral changes. However, the intestinal dysbacteriosis associated behavior changes are not consistently reported. ...

    Authors: Pan Wang, Ke Tu, Peng Cao, Yuefan Yang, Hao Zhang, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Hui Yang and Tao Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:49

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:69

  25. Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6) on synaptic vesicle (SV) is critical for the presynaptic regulation of quantal size at the glutamatergic synapses by converting the chemical gradient (ΔpH) into membrane potential (Δ...

    Authors: Unghwi Lee, Seung Hyun Ryu and Sunghoe Chang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:47
  26. The corticostriatal circuit plays an important role in the regulation of reward- and aversion-types of behaviors. Specifically, the projection from the prelimbic cortex (PL) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has ...

    Authors: Fei Zeng, Qiaosheng Zhang, Yaling Liu, Guanghao Sun, Anna Li, Robert S. Talay and Jing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:45
  27. Memory reconsolidation is thought to maintain or enhance an original memory or add new information to the memory. Retrieved inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory is enhanced through memory reconsolidation by activa...

    Authors: Hotaka Fukushima, Yue Zhang and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:44
  28. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates attention through dopamine D1 and D2-receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We previously developed an object-based attention test (OBAT) to evaluate attent...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuo Kunisawa, Moeka Tanabe, Aika Yanagawa, Kuniaki Saito, Akihiro Mouri and Toshitaka Nabeshima
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:43
  29. Fear dysregulation is one of the symptoms found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. The functional abnormality of the hippocampus is known to be implicated in the development of such pathology. ...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Tanita Pairojana, Pavithra Suresh, Chee-Hing Yang, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Shun-Ping Huang, Chien-Chang Chen, Narawut Pakaprot, Supin Chompoopong, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi and Ingrid Y. Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:42
  30. The SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (Shank3) protein is a core organizer of the macromolecular complex in excitatory postsynapses, and its defects cause numerous synaptopathies, including autism spec...

    Authors: Chunmei Jin, Yeunkum Lee, Hyojin Kang, Kwon Jeong, Joori Park, Yinhua Zhang, Hyae Rim Kang, Ruiying Ma, Hyunyoung Seong, Yoonhee Kim, Hosung Jung, Jin Young Kim, Yoon Ki Kim and Kihoon Han
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:39
  31. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a crucial role in integrating peripheral information regarding visceral functions. Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) inhibitory neurons are abundant in the NTS, and...

    Authors: Mei-Yu Shi, Lu-Feng Ding, Yu-Hong Guo, Yu-Xiao Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi and Pak-Ming Lau
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:38
  32. Olig2 is an important transcription factor essential for the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes and neurons during developmental stages. However, Olig2 distribution pat...

    Authors: Hui Wang, Liang Xu, Chuying Lai, Kaiyu Hou, Junliang Chen, Yaowei Guo, Abhijeet Sambangi, Shreya Swaminathan, Chunming Xie, Zheng Wu and Gong Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:36
  33. Pathogen infection triggers pain via activation of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are the main components of innate immunity and have been implicated in pain...

    Authors: Junting Huang, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Zizhen Zhang and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:35
  34. The elevated plus maze test is a widely used test for assessing anxiety-like behavior and screening novel therapeutic agents in rodents. Previous studies have shown that a variety of internal factors and proce...

    Authors: Hirotaka Shoji and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:34
  35. GABAergic interneurons play a critical role in tuning neural networks in the central nervous system, and their defects are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently, the mDlx enhancer is solely use...

    Authors: Chiaki Hoshino, Ayumu Konno, Nobutake Hosoi, Ryosuke Kaneko, Ryo Mukai, Junichi Nakai and Hirokazu Hirai
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:33
  36. Axon regeneration in the central nervous system is inefficient. However, the neurons in the peripheral nervous system display robust regeneration after injury, indicating that axonal regeneration is differenti...

    Authors: Hyemin Kim, Jinyoung Lee and Yongcheol Cho
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:31
  37. Metabolites underlying brain function and pathology are not as well understood as genes. Here, we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further understand the mechanisms of memory processing in sleep. As hi...

    Authors: Iyo Koyanagi, Kazuhiro Sonomura, Toshie Naoi, Takaaki Ohnishi, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Taka-Aki Sato and Masanori Sakaguchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:30
  38. Intelligence predicts important life and health outcomes, but the biological mechanisms underlying differences in intelligence are not yet understood. The use of genetically determined metabotypes (GDMs) to un...

    Authors: Jian Yang, Binbin Zhao, Li Qian, Fengjie Gao, Yanjuan Fan, Xiaoyan He, Qingyan Ma, Lihong Yang, Bin Yan, Wei Wang and Xiancang Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:29
  39. Neuropathic pain (NP) remains an untreatable disease due to the complex pathophysiology that involves the whole pain neuraxis including the forebrain. Sensory dysfunctions such as allodynia and hyperalgesia ar...

    Authors: Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Monica Iannotta, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Rosmara Infantino, Flavia Ricciardi, Claudia Cristiano, Rosa Maria Vitale, Pietro Amodeo, Ida Marabese, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Salvatore Paino, Enza Palazzo, Antonio Calignano, Vincenzo Di Marzo…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:28

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:64

  40. CACNA1A pathogenic variants have been linked to several neurological disorders including familial hemiplegic migraine and cerebellar conditions. More recently, de novo variants have been associated with severe ea...

    Authors: Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Laurent Ferron, A. Micheil Innes and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:27
  41. The synaptic tag and capture (STC) hypothesis provides an important theoretical basis for understanding the synaptic basis of associative learning. We recently provided pharmacological evidence that calcium-pe...

    Authors: Pojeong Park, Heather Kang, John Georgiou, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Graham L. Collingridge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:26

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