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  1. Synaptic defects represent a major mechanism underlying altered brain functions of patients suffering Alzheimer's disease (AD) [13]. An increasing body of work indicates that the oligomeric forms of β-amyloid (A...

    Authors: Yanfang Rui, Jiaping Gu, Kuai Yu, H Criss Hartzell and James Q Zheng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve learned information. Long-term memory (LTM) formation requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins....

    Authors: David Rosenegger, Cynthia Wright and Ken Lukowiak

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:9

    Content type: Research

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  3. Extensive studies have led to a variety of hypotheses for the molecular basis of depression and related mood disorders, but a definite pathogenic mechanism has yet to be defined. The monoamine hypothesis, in c...

    Authors: Saebom Lee, Jaehoon Jeong, Yongdo Kwak and Sang Ki Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:8

    Content type: Review

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  4. The presenilins form part of a complex of membrane proteins that are involved in the proteolytic cleavage of cell-surface molecules. This article reviews the history of the discovery of the presenilins, their ...

    Authors: David H Small, David W Klaver and Lisa Foa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:7

    Content type: Review

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  5. Direct interaction with the β subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex causes voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium channels. To further characterize the molecular determinants of this interact...

    Authors: Hugo W Tedford, Alexandra E Kisilevsky, Lucienne B Vieira, Diego Varela, Lina Chen and Gerald W Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:6

    Content type: Short report

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  6. The molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neuronal progenitor cells and finally into neurons are gradually being revealed. The lack of convenient means for real-ti...

    Authors: Hiroaki Kanki, Marilia Kimie Shimabukuro, Atsushi Miyawaki and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:5

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled via Gαq/11 to the activation of phospholipase Cβ, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to form inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Thi...

    Authors: Alexander A Nicodemo, Macarena Pampillo, Lucimar T Ferreira, Lianne B Dale, Tamara Cregan, Fabiola M Ribeiro and Stephen SG Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:4

    Content type: Research

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  8. The downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, binds specifically to DNA and several nucleoproteins regulating gene expression and with proteins outside th...

    Authors: Long-Jun Wu, Britt Mellström, Hansen Wang, Ming Ren, Sofia Domingo, Susan S Kim, Xiang-Yao Li, Tao Chen, Jose R Naranjo and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:3

    Content type: Research

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  9. Studies into the mechanisms of corticosteroid action continue to be a rich bed of research, spanning the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology through to immunology and metabolism. However, the vast literat...

    Authors: Therese Riedemann, Alexandre V Patchev, Kwangwook Cho and Osborne FX Almeida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:2

    Content type: Review

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  10. Although some reports indicate that protein synthesis dependent process may be induced by updating information, the role of protein synthesis and degradation in changing the content of pre-existing memory is y...

    Authors: Jun-Hyeok Choi, Jung-Eun Kim and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:1

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells is a promising approach toward functional restoration of the damaged neural tissue, but the injured spinal cord has been shown to be an adverse environment for t...

    Authors: Fujiki Numano, Akihiro Inoue, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Kenichi Shinomiya, Atsushi Okawa and Shigeo Okabe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:37

    Content type: Research

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  12. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3α and GSK-3β. Mice lacking a function...

    Authors: Oksana Kaidanovich-Beilin, Tatiana V Lipina, Keizo Takao, Matthijs van Eede, Satoko Hattori, Christine Laliberté, Mustafa Khan, Kenichi Okamoto, John W Chambers, Paul J Fletcher, Katrina MacAulay, Bradley W Doble, Mark Henkelman, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, John Roder and James R Woodgett

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:35

    Content type: Research

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  13. Previous studies have demonstrated tissue-specific regulation of the rhythm of circadian transcription, suggesting that transcription factor complex CLOCK/BMAL1, essential for maintaining circadian rhythm, reg...

    Authors: Hiroshi Hosoda, Kenichi kato, Hidenori Asano, Motonori Ito, Haruno Kato, Taku Iwamoto, Akinobu Suzuki, Shoichi Masushige and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:34

    Content type: Research

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  14. Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurogenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein. There is currently no treatment to prevent the neurodegeneratio...

    Authors: Jose R Pineda, Raúl Pardo, Diana Zala, Hua Yu, Sandrine Humbert and Frédéric Saudou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:33

    Content type: Research

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  15. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in sensory, cognitive, and executive functions. Studies of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the ACC provide an understanding of basic cellular and molecul...

    Authors: Long-Jun Wu, Xiangyao Li, Tao Chen, Ming Ren and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:32

    Content type: Research

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  16. Previous studies have shown that beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide triggers the activation of several signal transduction cascades in the hippocampus, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade....

    Authors: Faridis Serrano, Angela Chang, Caterina Hernandez, Robia G Pautler, J David Sweatt and Eric Klann

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:31

    Content type: Research

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  17. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder that affects about 1% of the population worldwide. Despite significant advances in the identification of genetic mutations and si...

    Authors: Zelda H Cheung and Nancy Y Ip

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:29

    Content type: Review

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  18. In mammals, the synchronized activity of cell autonomous clocks in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) enables this structure to function as the master circadian clock, coordinating daily rhythms in physiology an...

    Authors: Clare Guilding, Alun TL Hughes, Timothy M Brown, Sara Namvar and Hugh D Piggins

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:28

    Content type: Research

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  19. Proneurotrophins and mature neurotrophins elicit opposite effects via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and Trk tyrosine kinase receptors, respectively; however the molecular roles of proneurotrophins in the...

    Authors: Hisatsugu Koshimizu, Kazuyuki Kiyosue, Tomoko Hara, Shunsuke Hazama, Shingo Suzuki, Koichi Uegaki, Guhan Nagappan, Eugene Zaitsev, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Yoshiro Tatsu, Akihiko Ogura, Bai Lu and Masami Kojima

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:27

    Content type: Research

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  20. The Na+/Cl--dependent serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) is a critical element in neuronal 5-HT signaling, being responsible for the efficient elimination of 5-HT after release. SERTs are no...

    Authors: Jennifer A Steiner, Ana MarinD Carneiro, Jane Wright, Heinrich JG Matthies, Harish C Prasad, Christian K Nicki, Wolfgang R Dostmann, Carrie C Buchanan, Jackie D Corbin, Sharron H Francis and Randy D Blakely

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:26

    Content type: Research

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  21. Purkinje cells are a class of specialized neurons in the cerebellum, and are among the most metabolically active of all neurons, as they receive immense synaptic stimulation, and provide the only efferent outp...

    Authors: Lisa Chakrabarti, Jeremiah Eng, Nishi Ivanov, Gwenn A Garden and Albert R La Spada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:24

    Content type: Research

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  22. Dysfunction of alsin, particularly its putative Rab5 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor activity, has been linked to one form of juvenile onset recessive familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2). Multiple...

    Authors: Chen Lai, Chengsong Xie, Hoon Shim, Jayanth Chandran, Brian W Howell and Huaibin Cai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:23

    Content type: Research

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  23. The signalling mechanisms involved in the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Numerous studies have presented eviden...

    Authors: Stéphane Peineau, Céline S Nicolas, Zuner A Bortolotto, Ratan V Bhat, W Jonathan Ryves, Adrian J Harwood, Pascal Dournaud, Stephen M Fitzjohn and Graham L Collingridge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:22

    Content type: Research

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  24. Epilepsy is a prominent sign of neurological dysfunction in children with various fetal and maternal deficiencies. However, the detailed mechanism and influences underlying epileptic disorders are still unreve...

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Naseer, Li Shupeng and Myeong Ok Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:20

    Content type: Research

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  25. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to cont...

    Authors: Koichi Tanda, Akinori Nishi, Naoki Matsuo, Kazuo Nakanishi, Nobuyuki Yamasaki, Tohru Sugimoto, Keiko Toyama, Keizo Takao and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:19

    Content type: Research

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  26. Long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and muscarinic acethycholin...

    Authors: Bryony A Dickinson, Jihoon Jo, Heon Seok, Gi Hoon Son, Daniel J Whitcomb, Ceri H Davies, Morgan Sheng, Graham L Collingridge and Kwangwook Cho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:18

    Content type: Research

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  27. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present in the adult mammalian brain and sustain life-long adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In culture, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is sufficient ...

    Authors: Dengke K Ma, Karthikeyan Ponnusamy, Mi-Ryoung Song, Guo-li Ming and Hongjun Song

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:16

    Content type: Research

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  28. In vitro reactions are useful to identify putative enzyme substrates, but in vivo validation is required to identify actual enzyme substrates that have biological meaning. To investigate in vivo effects of prolyl...

    Authors: Bertrand Perroud, Rudy J Alvarado, Glenda M Espinal, Alex R Morado, Brett S Phinney and Craig H Warden

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:14

    Content type: Short report

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  29. It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the impo...

    Authors: Ji-Yun Peng and Bao-Ming Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:12

    Content type: Research

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  30. Activation of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is important for learning, memory and persistent pain. Genetic enhancement of NMDA receptor function by overexpressing NR2B subunit significantly enhances hip...

    Authors: Ming-Gao Zhao, Hiroki Toyoda, Yu-Kun Wang and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:11

    Content type: Research

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  31. The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT) ...

    Authors: Heping Zhang, Shupeng Li, Min Wang, Brian Vukusic, Zdenek B Pristupa and Fang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Although nutrients, including amino acids and their metabolites such as serotonin (5-HT), are strong modulators of anxiety-related behavior, the metabolic pathway(s) responsible for this physiological modulati...

    Authors: Masaaki Kanai, Hiroshi Funakoshi, Hisaaki Takahashi, Tomoko Hayakawa, Shinya Mizuno, Kunio Matsumoto and Toshikazu Nakamura

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:8

    Content type: Research

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  33. The formation of long-term memory (LTM) and the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) depend on macromolecule synthesis, translation, and transcription in neurons. vesl-1S (V ASP/E na-related gene upregula...

    Authors: Naoko Inoue, Harumi Nakao, Rika Migishima, Toshiaki Hino, Minoru Matsui, Fumihiko Hayashi, Kazuki Nakao, Toshiya Manabe, Atsu Aiba and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:7

    Content type: Research

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  34. Previous studies have demonstrated essential roles for alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII) in learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP). However, previous studies have a...

    Authors: Shunsuke Hasegawa, Takahiro Furuichi, Taro Yoshida, Kengo Endoh, Kenichi Kato, Megumi Sado, Ryouta Maeda, Aya Kitamoto, Takahisa Miyao, Ryosuke Suzuki, Seiichi Homma, Shoichi Masushige, Yasushi Kajii and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:6

    Content type: Research

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  35. Elevated SNCA gene expression and intracellular accumulation of the encoded α-synuclein (aSyn) protein are associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD). To date, few enzymes have been examined for th...

    Authors: Valerie Cullen, Maria Lindfors, Juliana Ng, Anders Paetau, Erika Swinton, Piotr Kolodziej, Heather Boston, Paul Saftig, John Woulfe, Mel B Feany, Liisa Myllykangas, Michael G Schlossmacher and Jaana Tyynelä

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:5

    Content type: Research

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  36. Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neuro...

    Authors: Lucilia B Lepsch, Carolina D Munhoz, Elisa M Kawamoto, Lidia M Yshii, Larissa S Lima, Maria F Curi-Boaventura, Thais ML Salgado, Rui Curi, Cleopatra S Planeta and Cristoforo Scavone

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:3

    Content type: Research

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  37. Mossy fibers, the dentate granule cell axons, are generated throughout an animal's lifetime. Mossy fiber paths and synapses are primarily restricted to the stratum lucidum within the CA3 region. Brain-derived ...

    Authors: Makoto Tamura, Naohiro Tamura, Takamitsu Ikeda, Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya, Norio Matsuki and Maki K Yamada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning a...

    Authors: Hyoung-Gon Ko, Deok-Jin Jang, Junehee Son, Chuljung Kwak, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Young-Hoon Ji, Yun-Sil Lee, Hyeon Son and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Adolescence is a vulnerable period in that stress experienced during this time can affect the incidence of psychiatric disorders later, during adulthood. Neurogenesis is known to be involved in the postnatal d...

    Authors: Fumihiko Hayashi, Noriko Takashima, Akiko Murayama and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with pathogenic mutations has been found in patients with cognitive disorders. However, little is known about whether pathogenic mtDNA mutations and the resultant mitochondrial respir...

    Authors: Daisuke Tanaka, Kazuto Nakada, Keizo Takao, Emi Ogasawara, Atsuko Kasahara, Akitsugu Sato, Hiromichi Yonekawa, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Jun-Ichi Hayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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