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  1. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a primary cause of disability and death across the world. Previously, RNA analysis was widely used to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying TBI; however, the relati...

    Authors: Zhongxiang Zhang, Jiangtao Yu, Pengcheng Wang, Lian Lin, Ruining Liu, Rong Zeng, Haoli Ma and Yan Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:25
  2. Disrupted GABAergic neurons have been extensively described in brain tissues from individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and animal models for ASD. However, the contribution of these aberrant inhibito...

    Authors: Sangyep Shin, Andrea Santi and Shiyong Huang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:24
  3. N-cadherin is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that stabilizes excitatory synapses, by connecting pre- and post-synaptic termini. Upon NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation by glutamate, membrane-proximal domain...

    Authors: M. Asada-Utsugi, K. Uemura, M. Kubota, Y. Noda, Y. Tashiro, T. M. Uemura, H. Yamakado, M. Urushitani, R. Takahashi, S. Hattori, T. Miyakawa, N. Ageta-Ishihara, K. Kobayashi, M. Kinoshita and A. Kinoshita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:23
  4. Previously, we found that brains of adult zebrafish heterozygous for Alzheimer’s disease-related mutations in their presenilin 1 gene (psen1, orthologous to human PSEN1) show greater basal expression levels of hy...

    Authors: Karissa Barthelson, Morgan Newman, Cameron J. Nowell and Michael Lardelli
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:22
  5. We recently found a significant association between exonic copy-number variations in the Rho GTPase activating protein 10 (Arhgap10) gene and schizophrenia in Japanese patients. Special attention was paid to one ...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Hada, Bolati Wulaer, Taku Nagai, Norimichi Itoh, Masahito Sawahata, Akira Sobue, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Daisuke Mori, Itaru Kushima, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Norio Ozaki and Kiyofumi Yamada
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:21
  6. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key players in neuronal excitability and pain signaling. Functional expression of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 is under the control of SUMOylated collapsin response me...

    Authors: Kimberly Gomez, Dongzhi Ran, Cynthia L. Madura, Aubin Moutal and Rajesh Khanna
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:20
  7. Writer’s cramp (WC) is a task-specific focal dystonia that occurs selectively in the hand and arm during writing. Previous studies have shown a role for genetics in the pathology of task-specific focal dystoni...

    Authors: Miaozhen Huang, Esther A. R. Nibbeling, Tjerk J. Lagrand, Ivana A. Souza, Justus L. Groen, Maria A. Gandini, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Johannes H. T. M. Koelman, Noam Adir, Richard J. Sinke, Gerald W. Zamponi, Marina A. J. Tijssen and Dineke S. Verbeek
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:18
  8. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system and plays a crucial role in maintaining the human body's homeostasis. This study aims to investigate the resting state functional connectivity ...

    Authors: Jian Kong, Yiting Huang, Jiao Liu, Siyi Yu, Cheng Ming, Helen Chen, Georgia Wilson, William F. Harvey, Wen Li and Chenchen Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:17
  9. Lysosomal dysfunction is a central pathway associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. Haploinsufficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase GBA (encoding glucocerebrosidase (GCase)) is one of the largest gene...

    Authors: Ria Thomas, Elizabeth B. Moloney, Zachary K. Macbain, Penelope J. Hallett and Ole Isacson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:16
  10. Chronic pruritus is a symptom that commonly observed in neurological diseases. It has been hypothesized that the chronic pruritus may result from sensitization of itch-signaling pathways but the mechanisms rem...

    Authors: Tao Wang, Jin Tao, Yehong Fang and Chao Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:15
  11. Mitochondrial movement in neurons is finely regulated to meet the local demand for energy and calcium buffering. Elaborate transport machinery including motor complexes is required to deliver and localize mito...

    Authors: Bo Kyoung Suh, Seol-Ae Lee, Cana Park, Yeongjun Suh, Soo Jeong Kim, Youngsik Woo, Truong Thi My Nhung, Su Been Lee, Dong Jin Mun, Bon Seong Goo, Hyun Sun Choi, So Jung Kim and Sang Ki Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:14
  12. Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating brain disease that affects about 1% of world population. Among the top genetic associations, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene encodes a zinc finger protein, associated w...

    Authors: Fengping Dong, Joseph Mao, Miranda Chen, Joy Yoon and Yingwei Mao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:12
  13. The neurotrophin Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple bipartite transcripts. Each BDNF transcript is composed by one out of 11 alternatively spliced exons containing the 5′untranslat...

    Authors: Andrea Colliva and Enrico Tongiorgi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:10
  14. Jacob is a synapto-nuclear messenger protein that couples NMDAR activity to CREB-dependent gene expression. In this study, we investigated the nuclear distribution of Jacob and report a prominent targeting to ...

    Authors: Sebastian Samer, Rajeev Raman, Gregor Laube, Michael R. Kreutz and Anna Karpova
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:9
  15. Psychiatric disorders are affected by genetic susceptibility and environmental adversities. Therefore, the regulation of gene expression under certain environments, such as stress, is a key issue in psychiatri...

    Authors: Jungyoung Park, Joonhee Lee, Koeul Choi and Hyo Jung Kang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:7
  16. As a dynamic organelle, mitochondria continuously fuse and divide with adjacent mitochondria. Imbalance in mitochondria dynamics leads to their dysfunction, which implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Howe...

    Authors: So Jung Park, Ji-Eun Bae, Doo Sin Jo, Joon Bum Kim, Na Yeon Park, Jianguo Fang, Yong-Keun Jung, Dong Gyu Jo and Dong-Hyung Cho
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:6
  17. Reduced expression of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), encoded by the Gad1 gene, is a consistent finding in postmortem brains of patients with several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar di...

    Authors: Shigeo Miyata, Toshikazu Kakizaki, Kazuyuki Fujihara, Hideru Obinata, Touko Hirano, Junichi Nakai, Mika Tanaka, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Masahiko Watanabe, Kenji F. Tanaka, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura and Yuchio Yanagawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:5
  18. A novel missense mutation in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the pore forming α1 subunit of the CaV2.1 voltage-gated calcium channel was identified in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia. This mutation leads to a s...

    Authors: Eder Gambeta, Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Laurent Ferron and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:4
  19. To evaluate the genetic effects of sex hormone traits on the development of mental traits in middle-aged adults.

    Authors: Xiao Liang, ShiQiang Cheng, Jing Ye, XiaoMeng Chu, Yan Wen, Li Liu, Xin Qi, YuMeng Jia and Feng Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:3
  20. Formation of temporal association memory and context-specific fear memory is thought to require medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) inputs to the hippocampus during learning events. However, whether the MEC inputs ...

    Authors: Min Soo Kang and Jin-Hee Han
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:2
  21. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a transcription factor that is involved in organizing chromatin structure. A reduction of CTCF expression is known to develop distinct clinical features. Furthermore, conditional...

    Authors: Dong Il Choi, Myeongwon Kim, Somi Kim, Nam-Kyung Yu, Chuljung Kwak, Hyunhyo Seo, Kyungmin Lee and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:1
  22. Corticogenesis is one of the most critical and complicated processes during embryonic brain development. Any slight impairment in corticogenesis could cause neurodevelopmental disorders such as Fragile X syndr...

    Authors: Cristine R. Casingal, Takako Kikkawa, Hitoshi Inada, Yukio Sasaki and Noriko Osumi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:167
  23. Disturbances of attention are a common behavioral feature associated with neuropsychiatric disorders with largely unknown underlying causes. We previously developed an object-based attention test (OBAT) as a s...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuo Kunisawa, Hisayoshi Kubota, Willy Jaya Suento, Kuniaki Saito, Akihiro Mouri and Toshitaka Nabeshima
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:171
  24. Immune molecules, such as cytokines, complement, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins, in the central nervous system are often associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuronal MHC class I (M...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuhiro Hada, Akira Sobue, Norimichi Itoh, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Taku Nagai and Kiyofumi Yamada
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:170
  25. The brain is composed of cells having distinct genomic DNA sequences that arise post-zygotically, known as somatic genomic mosaicism (SGM). One form of SGM is aneuploidy—the gain and/or loss of chromosomes—whi...

    Authors: Whitney S. McDonald, Kyoko Miyamoto, Richard Rivera, Grace Kennedy, Beatriz S. V. Almeida, Marcy A. Kingsbury and Jerold Chun
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:169
  26. Dysfunctional dendritic arborization is a key feature of many developmental neurological disorders. Across various human brain regions, basal dendritic complexity is known to increase along a caudal-to-rostral...

    Authors: Brian D. Swinehart, Katherine M. Bland, Z. Logan Holley, Andrew J. Lopuch, Zachary O. Casey, Christopher J. Handwerk and George S. Vidal
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:168
  27. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is essential for inducing the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation in muscle fibers, and LRP4 plays a critical role in dendritic development and ...

    Authors: Min Yan, Amin Guo, Peng Chen, Hongyang Jing, Dongyan Ren, Yanzi Zhong, Yongqiang Wu, Erkang Fei, Xinsheng Lai, Suqi Zou and Shunqi Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:166
  28. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) is a major component of the retromer complex that mediates the retrograde transport of cargo proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Mutations such as D620N in t...

    Authors: Sarivin Vanan, Xiaoxia Zeng, Sook Yoong Chia, Katarina Varnäs, Mei Jiang, Ke Zhang, Wuan Ting Saw, Parasuraman Padmanabhan, Wei-Ping Yu, Zhi-Dong Zhou, Christer Halldin, Balázs Gulyás, Eng-King Tan and Li Zeng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:164
  29. Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 42 is caused by a mutation in CACNA1G, which encodes the low voltage-gated calcium channel CaV3.1 (T-type). Patients with SCA42 exhibit a pure form of cerebellar ataxia. We encountere...

    Authors: Naoyuki Hara, Hiroyuki Morino, Yukiko Matsuda, Kenichi Satoh, Kouichi Hashimoto, Hirofumi Maruyama and Hideshi Kawakami
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:163
  30. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylase and a candidate gene for depression. Nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B3, is reported as a potential inhibitor o...

    Authors: Zhuxi Liu, Caiqin Li, Xuelian Fan, Yifang Kuang, Xu Zhang, Lei Chen, Jinjing Song, Ying Zhou, Eiki Takahashi, Guang He and Weidong Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:162
  31. Previous studies have shown that CCL2 may cause chronic pain, but the exact mechanism of central sensitization is unclear. In this article, we further explore the presynaptic role of CCL2. Behavioral experimen...

    Authors: Sui-Bin Ma, Hang Xian, Wen-Bin Wu, Shuo-Yao Ma, Yu-Ke Liu, Yu-Tong Liang, Huan Guo, Jun-Jun Kang, Ying-Ying Liu, Hui Zhang, Sheng-Xi Wu, Ceng Luo and Rou-Gang Xie
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:161
  32. CHD8 encodes a chromatin-remodeling factor and is one of the most recurrently mutated genes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although we have recently shown that mice heterozygous for Chd8 muta...

    Authors: Atsuki Kawamura, Yoshifumi Abe, Fumiko Seki, Yuta Katayama, Masaaki Nishiyama, Norio Takata, Kenji F. Tanaka, Hideyuki Okano and Keiichi I. Nakayama
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:160
  33. Paranodal axoglial junctions are essential for rapid nerve conduction and the organization of axonal domains in myelinated axons. Neurofascin155 (Nfasc155) is a glial cell adhesion molecule that is also requir...

    Authors: Kazuo Kunisawa, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Takeshi Shimizu, Kenta Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Osanai, Akihiro Mouri, Qian Shi, Manzoor A. Bhat, Atsushi Nambu and Kazuhiro Ikenaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:159
  34. Neuropathic pain induced by a nerve injury can lead to chronic pain. Recent studies have reported hyperactive neural activities in the nociceptive-related area of the brain as a result of chronic pain. Althoug...

    Authors: Myeounghoon Cha, Songyeon Choi, Kyeongmin Kim and Bae Hwan Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:158
  35. We investigated whether enhanced interoceptive bodily states of fear would facilitate recognition of the fearful faces. Participants performed an emotional judgment task after a bodily imagery task inside a fu...

    Authors: Won-Mo Jung, Ye-Seul Lee, In-Seon Lee, Christian Wallraven, Yeonhee Ryu and Younbyoung Chae
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:157
  36. Long-term memory formation is supported by functional and structural changes of neuronal networks, which rely on de novo gene transcription and protein synthesis. The modulation of the neuronal transcriptome i...

    Authors: David V. C. Brito, Kubra Gulmez Karaca, Janina Kupke, Lukas Frank and Ana M. M. Oliveira
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:156
  37. Olig2 transcription factor is essential for the maintenance of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the pMN domain and their sequential specification into motor neurons (MNs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC...

    Authors: Min Jiang, Dan Yu, Binghua Xie, Hao Huang, Wenwen Lu, Mengsheng Qiu and Zhong-Min Dai
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:155
  38. Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1/L1) is the only autonomous transposable element in the human genome that currently mobilises in both germline and somatic tissues. Recent studies have identified correlation...

    Authors: Abigail L. Savage, Ana Illera Lopez, Alfredo Iacoangeli, Vivien J. Bubb, Bradley Smith, Claire Troakes, Nada Alahmady, Sulev Koks, Gerald G. Schumann, Ammar Al-Chalabi and John P. Quinn
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:154
  39. Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is an important subtype of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and is the route for neuronal cysteine uptake. CoCl2 is not only a hypoxia-mimetic reagent but also an...

    Authors: Han-Byeol Kim, Ji-Young Yoo, Seung-Yeon Yoo, Jun-Ho Lee, Wonseok Chang, Hye-Sun Kim, Tai-Kyoung Baik and Ran-Sook Woo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:153
  40. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Kohei Koga, Akihiro Yamada, Qian Song, Xu-Hui Li, Qi-Yu Chen, Ren-Hao Liu, Jun Ge, Cheng Zhan, Hidemasa Furue, Min Zhuo and Tao Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:152

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2020 13:49

  41. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline with accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles that usually begins 15–30 years before...

    Authors: Md. Ali Bin Saifullah, Okiru Komine, Yutao Dong, Kazuya Fukumoto, Akira Sobue, Fumito Endo, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido, Koji Yamanaka and Hiroyuki Mizoguchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:147
  42. The canonical physiological role of leptin is to regulate hunger and satiety acting on specific hypothalamic nuclei. Beyond this key metabolic function; leptin also regulates many aspects of development and fu...

    Authors: Camille Dumon, Yasmine Belaidouni, Diabe Diabira, Suzanne M. Appleyard, Gary A. Wayman and Jean-Luc Gaiarsa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:151
  43. The Sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) has emerged as an interesting pharmacological target because it inhibits analgesia mediated by mu-opioid receptors (MOR), and also facilitates the development of neuropathic pain. Ba...

    Authors: Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, Elsa Cortés-Montero, María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Manuel Merlos and Javier Garzón-Niño
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:150
  44. Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels are important contributors to nervous system function. Post-translational modification of these channels has emerged as an important mechanism to control channel a...

    Authors: Vendula Ficelova, Ivana A. Souza, Leos Cmarko, Maria A. Gandini, Robin N. Stringer, Gerald W. Zamponi and Norbert Weiss
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:149
  45. Activity-dependent local protein synthesis is critical for synapse-specific, persistent plasticity. Abnormalities in local protein synthesis have been implicated in psychiatric disorders. We have recently iden...

    Authors: Alan Jung Park, Mahesh Shivarama Shetty, Jay M. Baraban and Ted Abel
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:145

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:48

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