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  1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3α and GSK-3β. Mice lacking a function...

    Authors: Oksana Kaidanovich-Beilin, Tatiana V Lipina, Keizo Takao, Matthijs van Eede, Satoko Hattori, Christine Laliberté, Mustafa Khan, Kenichi Okamoto, John W Chambers, Paul J Fletcher, Katrina MacAulay, Bradley W Doble, Mark Henkelman, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, John Roder and James R Woodgett
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:35
  2. Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurogenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein. There is currently no treatment to prevent the neurodegeneratio...

    Authors: Jose R Pineda, Raúl Pardo, Diana Zala, Hua Yu, Sandrine Humbert and Frédéric Saudou
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:33
  3. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in sensory, cognitive, and executive functions. Studies of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the ACC provide an understanding of basic cellular and molecul...

    Authors: Long-Jun Wu, Xiangyao Li, Tao Chen, Ming Ren and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:32
  4. Previous studies have shown that beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide triggers the activation of several signal transduction cascades in the hippocampus, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade....

    Authors: Faridis Serrano, Angela Chang, Caterina Hernandez, Robia G Pautler, J David Sweatt and Eric Klann
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:31
  5. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder that affects about 1% of the population worldwide. Despite significant advances in the identification of genetic mutations and si...

    Authors: Zelda H Cheung and Nancy Y Ip
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:29
  6. In mammals, the synchronized activity of cell autonomous clocks in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) enables this structure to function as the master circadian clock, coordinating daily rhythms in physiology an...

    Authors: Clare Guilding, Alun TL Hughes, Timothy M Brown, Sara Namvar and Hugh D Piggins
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:28
  7. Proneurotrophins and mature neurotrophins elicit opposite effects via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and Trk tyrosine kinase receptors, respectively; however the molecular roles of proneurotrophins in the...

    Authors: Hisatsugu Koshimizu, Kazuyuki Kiyosue, Tomoko Hara, Shunsuke Hazama, Shingo Suzuki, Koichi Uegaki, Guhan Nagappan, Eugene Zaitsev, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Yoshiro Tatsu, Akihiko Ogura, Bai Lu and Masami Kojima
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:27
  8. The Na+/Cl--dependent serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) is a critical element in neuronal 5-HT signaling, being responsible for the efficient elimination of 5-HT after release. SERTs are no...

    Authors: Jennifer A Steiner, Ana MarinD Carneiro, Jane Wright, Heinrich JG Matthies, Harish C Prasad, Christian K Nicki, Wolfgang R Dostmann, Carrie C Buchanan, Jackie D Corbin, Sharron H Francis and Randy D Blakely
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:26
  9. Purkinje cells are a class of specialized neurons in the cerebellum, and are among the most metabolically active of all neurons, as they receive immense synaptic stimulation, and provide the only efferent outp...

    Authors: Lisa Chakrabarti, Jeremiah Eng, Nishi Ivanov, Gwenn A Garden and Albert R La Spada
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:24
  10. Dysfunction of alsin, particularly its putative Rab5 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor activity, has been linked to one form of juvenile onset recessive familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2). Multiple...

    Authors: Chen Lai, Chengsong Xie, Hoon Shim, Jayanth Chandran, Brian W Howell and Huaibin Cai
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:23
  11. The signalling mechanisms involved in the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Numerous studies have presented eviden...

    Authors: Stéphane Peineau, Céline S Nicolas, Zuner A Bortolotto, Ratan V Bhat, W Jonathan Ryves, Adrian J Harwood, Pascal Dournaud, Stephen M Fitzjohn and Graham L Collingridge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:22
  12. Epilepsy is a prominent sign of neurological dysfunction in children with various fetal and maternal deficiencies. However, the detailed mechanism and influences underlying epileptic disorders are still unreve...

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Naseer, Li Shupeng and Myeong Ok Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:20
  13. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to cont...

    Authors: Koichi Tanda, Akinori Nishi, Naoki Matsuo, Kazuo Nakanishi, Nobuyuki Yamasaki, Tohru Sugimoto, Keiko Toyama, Keizo Takao and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:19
  14. Long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and muscarinic acethycholin...

    Authors: Bryony A Dickinson, Jihoon Jo, Heon Seok, Gi Hoon Son, Daniel J Whitcomb, Ceri H Davies, Morgan Sheng, Graham L Collingridge and Kwangwook Cho
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:18
  15. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present in the adult mammalian brain and sustain life-long adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In culture, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is sufficient ...

    Authors: Dengke K Ma, Karthikeyan Ponnusamy, Mi-Ryoung Song, Guo-li Ming and Hongjun Song
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:16
  16. In vitro reactions are useful to identify putative enzyme substrates, but in vivo validation is required to identify actual enzyme substrates that have biological meaning. To investigate in vivo effects of prolyl...

    Authors: Bertrand Perroud, Rudy J Alvarado, Glenda M Espinal, Alex R Morado, Brett S Phinney and Craig H Warden
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:14
  17. It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the impo...

    Authors: Ji-Yun Peng and Bao-Ming Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:12
  18. Activation of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is important for learning, memory and persistent pain. Genetic enhancement of NMDA receptor function by overexpressing NR2B subunit significantly enhances hip...

    Authors: Ming-Gao Zhao, Hiroki Toyoda, Yu-Kun Wang and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:11
  19. The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in terminating the action of dopamine by rapid reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. Previous studies have revealed that the DAT carboxyl terminus (DAT-CT) ...

    Authors: Heping Zhang, Shupeng Li, Min Wang, Brian Vukusic, Zdenek B Pristupa and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:10
  20. Although nutrients, including amino acids and their metabolites such as serotonin (5-HT), are strong modulators of anxiety-related behavior, the metabolic pathway(s) responsible for this physiological modulati...

    Authors: Masaaki Kanai, Hiroshi Funakoshi, Hisaaki Takahashi, Tomoko Hayakawa, Shinya Mizuno, Kunio Matsumoto and Toshikazu Nakamura
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:8
  21. The formation of long-term memory (LTM) and the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) depend on macromolecule synthesis, translation, and transcription in neurons. vesl-1S (V ASP/E na-related gene upregula...

    Authors: Naoko Inoue, Harumi Nakao, Rika Migishima, Toshiaki Hino, Minoru Matsui, Fumihiko Hayashi, Kazuki Nakao, Toshiya Manabe, Atsu Aiba and Kaoru Inokuchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:7
  22. Previous studies have demonstrated essential roles for alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII) in learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP). However, previous studies have a...

    Authors: Shunsuke Hasegawa, Takahiro Furuichi, Taro Yoshida, Kengo Endoh, Kenichi Kato, Megumi Sado, Ryouta Maeda, Aya Kitamoto, Takahisa Miyao, Ryosuke Suzuki, Seiichi Homma, Shoichi Masushige, Yasushi Kajii and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:6
  23. Elevated SNCA gene expression and intracellular accumulation of the encoded α-synuclein (aSyn) protein are associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD). To date, few enzymes have been examined for th...

    Authors: Valerie Cullen, Maria Lindfors, Juliana Ng, Anders Paetau, Erika Swinton, Piotr Kolodziej, Heather Boston, Paul Saftig, John Woulfe, Mel B Feany, Liisa Myllykangas, Michael G Schlossmacher and Jaana Tyynelä
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:5
  24. Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neuro...

    Authors: Lucilia B Lepsch, Carolina D Munhoz, Elisa M Kawamoto, Lidia M Yshii, Larissa S Lima, Maria F Curi-Boaventura, Thais ML Salgado, Rui Curi, Cleopatra S Planeta and Cristoforo Scavone
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:3
  25. Mossy fibers, the dentate granule cell axons, are generated throughout an animal's lifetime. Mossy fiber paths and synapses are primarily restricted to the stratum lucidum within the CA3 region. Brain-derived ...

    Authors: Makoto Tamura, Naohiro Tamura, Takamitsu Ikeda, Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya, Norio Matsuki and Maki K Yamada
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:2
  26. Newborn neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus incorporate into the dentate gyrus and mature. Numerous studies have focused on hippocampal neurogenesis because of its importance in learning a...

    Authors: Hyoung-Gon Ko, Deok-Jin Jang, Junehee Son, Chuljung Kwak, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Young-Hoon Ji, Yun-Sil Lee, Hyeon Son and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:1
  27. Adolescence is a vulnerable period in that stress experienced during this time can affect the incidence of psychiatric disorders later, during adulthood. Neurogenesis is known to be involved in the postnatal d...

    Authors: Fumihiko Hayashi, Noriko Takashima, Akiko Murayama and Kaoru Inokuchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:22
  28. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with pathogenic mutations has been found in patients with cognitive disorders. However, little is known about whether pathogenic mtDNA mutations and the resultant mitochondrial respir...

    Authors: Daisuke Tanaka, Kazuto Nakada, Keizo Takao, Emi Ogasawara, Atsuko Kasahara, Akitsugu Sato, Hiromichi Yonekawa, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Jun-Ichi Hayashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:21
  29. We have previously demonstrated that PDGF receptor activation indirectly inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) currents by modifying the cytoskeleton. PDGF receptor ligand is also neuroprotective in hippocampal...

    Authors: Michael A Beazely, Manjula Weerapura and John F MacDonald
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:20
  30. Temporal control of brain and behavioral states emerges as a consequence of the interaction between circadian and homeostatic neural circuits. This interaction permits the daily rhythm of sleep and wake, regul...

    Authors: Oliver J Marston, Rhîannan H Williams, Maria M Canal, Rayna E Samuels, Neil Upton and Hugh D Piggins
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:19
  31. α-synuclein (α-syn) is a main component of Lewy bodies (LB) that occur in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with LB (DLB) and multi-system atrophy. α-syn mutations o...

    Authors: Liyan Qiao, Shusei Hamamichi, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Talene A Yacoubian, Scott Wilson, Zuo-Lei Xie, Lisa D Speake, Rachael Parks, Donna Crabtree, Qiuli Liang, Stephen Crimmins, Lonnie Schneider, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Yi Zhou…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:17
  32. Phenylethanolamines selectively bind to NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate-subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors and negatively modulate receptor activity. To investigate the structural and function...

    Authors: Fui-Mee Ng, Matthew T Geballe, James P Snyder, Stephen F Traynelis and Chian-Ming Low
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:16
  33. Deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is generated from γ-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). In addition to APP, γ-secretase ...

    Authors: Ting Yang, Dilyara Arslanova, Yongli Gu, Corinne Augelli-Szafran and Weiming Xia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:15
  34. Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) participate in many important physiological processes. However, the lack of effective and selective blockers has hindered the study of these channels, mostly due to the lack of...

    Authors: Soo-Jin Oh, Jung Hwan Park, Sungyu Han, Jae Kyun Lee, Eun Joo Roh and C Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:14
  35. Although long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is very persistent, current studies have provided evidence that various manipulations or pharmacological treatment when applied shortly after LTP indu...

    Authors: Ying-Ching Liang, Chiung-Chun Huang and Kuei-Sen Hsu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:13
  36. In previous work, we investigated dieldrin cytotoxicity and signaling cell death mechanisms in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Dieldrin has been reported to be one of the environmental factors correlated with Parkins...

    Authors: Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Masashi Kitazawa, Yongjie Yang, Vellareddy Anantharam and Arthi Kanthasamy
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:12
  37. Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1) gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia....

    Authors: Keizo Takao, Keiko Toyama, Kazuo Nakanishi, Satoko Hattori, Hironori Takamura, Masatoshi Takeda, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Ryota Hashimoto
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:11
  38. Several myelin-associated factors that inhibit axon growth of mature neurons, including Nogo66, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), can associate with a common ...

    Authors: Eyleen LK Goh, Ju Kim Young, Kenichiro Kuwako, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Zhigang He, John W Griffin and Guo-li Ming
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:10
  39. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region requires the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Studies using genetic and pharmacological approaches have reported inconsistent re...

    Authors: Xue-Han Zhang, Long-Jun Wu, Bo Gong, Ming Ren, Bao-Ming Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:9
  40. Calpastatin is an endogenous inhibitor of calpain, intracellular calcium-activated protease. It has been suggested to be involved in molecular mechanisms of long-term plasticity and excitotoxic pathways. Howev...

    Authors: Ryuichi Nakajima, Keizo Takao, Shu-Ming Huang, Jiro Takano, Nobuhisa Iwata, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Takaomi C Saido
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2008 1:7

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