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  1. The glutamatergic signaling pathway is involved in molecular learning and human cognitive ability. Specific single variants (SNVs, formerly single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in the genes encoding N-methyl-d-aspart...

    Authors: Li-Ching Lee, Ming-Tsan Su, Hsing-Ying Huang, Ying-Chun Cho, Ting-Kuang Yeh and Chun-Yen Chang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:152
  2. The atypical chemokine receptor 3, ACKR3, is a G protein-coupled receptor, which does not couple to G proteins but recruits βarrestins. At present, ACKR3 is considered a target for cancer and cardiovascular di...

    Authors: Aliza T. Ehrlich, Meriem Semache, Pierre Couvineau, Stefan Wojcik, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Marcus Thelen, Florence Gross, Mireille Hogue, Christian Le Gouill, Emmanuel Darcq, Michel Bouvier and Brigitte L. Kieffer
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:151
  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-related disorder that is associated with pro-inflammatory activation and neurobiological impairments in the brain and leads to a series of affective-like behav...

    Authors: Yi-Hung Chen, Sheng-Yun Xie, Chao-Wei Chen and Dah-Yuu Lu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:150
  4. The Cre/LoxP-based conditional knockout technology is a powerful tool for gene function analysis that allows region- and time-specific gene manipulation. However, inserting a pair of LoxP cassettes to generate...

    Authors: Hirofumi Nishizono, Yuki Hayano, Yoshihisa Nakahata, Yasuhito Ishigaki and Ryohei Yasuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:148
  5. Hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses in patients and animal models. However, a limited number of studies have examined the effect of hypoxia in combination with inflammation (Hypo-Inf) on...

    Authors: Yoon-Sil Yang, Joon Ho Choi and Jong-Cheol Rah
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:147
  6. Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a serious problem. We developed a mouse model of CPSP induced by electrocautery and examined the mechanism of CPSP. In this mouse model, while both incision and electrocaute...

    Authors: Yosuke Katsuda, Kenichi Tanaka, Tomohisa Mori, Michiko Narita, Hideyuki Takeshima, Takashige Kondo, Yoshiyuki Yamabe, Misa Matsufuji, Daisuke Sato, Yusuke Hamada, Keisuke Yamaguchi, Toshikazu Ushijima, Eiichi Inada, Naoko Kuzumaki, Masako Iseki and Minoru Narita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:146
  7. Astrocytes express a plethora of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are crucial for shaping synaptic activity. Upon GPCR activation, astrocytes can respond with transient variations in intracellular Ca2+. I...

    Authors: Yana Van Den Herrewegen, Thomas M. Sanderson, Surajit Sahu, Dimitri De Bundel, Zuner A. Bortolotto and Ilse Smolders
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:144
  8. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) regulates neurotransmitter receptor recycling from endosomes. A missense mutation (D620N) in VPS35 leads to autosomal-dominant, late-onset Parkinson’s disease. Here, we stud...

    Authors: Chelsie A. Kadgien, Anusha Kamesh and Austen J. Milnerwood
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:143
  9. Assessment of neural activity in the specific brain area is critical for understanding the circuit mechanisms underlying altered brain function and behaviors. A number of immediate early genes (IEGs) that are ...

    Authors: Sang Ho Yoon, Woo Seok Song, Sung Pyo Oh, Young Sook Kim and Myoung-Hwan Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:142
  10. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is expressed in both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic neurons. The expression and role of AVP exhibit remarkable divergence between these two neuronal populations. Polysynaptic pa...

    Authors: Wen Han Tong, Samira Abdulai-Saiku and Ajai Vyas
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:141
  11. Previous studies have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the diffusible messengers for enhancing synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Less information is available about ...

    Authors: Hui-Hui Miao, Zhuang Miao, Ji-Gang Pan, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:140
  12. Chronic pain easily leads to concomitant mood disorders, and the excitability of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) pyramidal neurons (PNs) is involved in chronic pain-related anxiety. However, the mechanism by w...

    Authors: Fang-bing Shao, Jun-fan Fang, Si-si Wang, Meng-ting Qiu, Dan-ning Xi, Xiao-ming Jin, Jing-gen Liu, Xiao-mei Shao, Zui Shen, Yi Liang, Jian-qiao Fang and Jun-ying Du
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:139
  13. To understand the information encoded in a connection between the neurons, postsynaptic current (PSC) has been widely measured as a primary index of synaptic strength in the field of neurophysiology. Although ...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Jae Jin Shin and Sang Jeong Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:138
  14. We recently showed that synaptophysin (Syph) and synapsin (Syn) can induce liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) to cluster small synaptic-like microvesicles in living cells which are highly reminiscent of SV ...

    Authors: Goeun Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Seonyoung Jeong, Jeongkun Lee, Daehun Park and Sunghoe Chang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:137
  15. Experimental animals, such as non-human primates (NHPs), mice, Zebrafish, and Drosophila, are frequently employed as models to gain insights into human physiology and pathology. In developmental neuroscience a...

    Authors: Ryuichi Nakajima, Hideo Hagihara and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:135
  16. Cumulative evidence shows that gut microbiome can influence brain function and behavior via the inflammatory processes. However, the role of interaction between gut dysbiosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) in th...

    Authors: Yujing Chen, Peilin Meng, Shiqiang Cheng, Yumeng Jia, Yan Wen, Xuena Yang, Yao Yao, Chuyu Pan, Chun’e Li, Huijie Zhang, Jingxi Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Feng Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:133
  17. The medium-chain fatty acids octanoic acid (C8) and decanoic acid (C10) are gaining attention as beneficial brain fuels in several neurological disorders. The protective effects of C8 and C10 have been propose...

    Authors: Jens V. Andersen, Emil W. Westi, Emil Jakobsen, Nerea Urruticoechea, Karin Borges and Blanca I. Aldana
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:132
  18. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs) are a major subpopulation of GABAergic cells in CA1 hippocampus that receive excitation from pyramidal cells (PCs), and, in turn, provide feedback inhibition onto...

    Authors: Anne-Sophie Racine, François-Xavier Michon, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:130
  19. Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is a typical characteristic of high altitude environment and causes a spectrum of pathophysiological effects, including headaches, gliovascular dysfunction and cognitive retardation. Her...

    Authors: Yang Zhou, Huanyu Lu, Ying Liu, Zaihua Zhao, Qian Zhang, Chong Xue, Yuankang Zou, Zipeng Cao and Wenjing Luo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:129
  20. Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that impairs control and coordination of movement. Here we tested whether treatment with the histo...

    Authors: Maxinne Watchon, Luan Luu, Katherine J. Robinson, Kristy C. Yuan, Alana De Luca, Hannah J. Suddull, Madelaine C. Tym, Gilles J. Guillemin, Nicholas J. Cole, Garth A. Nicholson, Roger S. Chung, Albert Lee and Angela S. Laird
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:128
  21. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies that are characterized by seizures and developmental delay. DEEs are primarily attributed to genetic causes and an increasin...

    Authors: Robin N. Stringer, Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Ivana A. Souza, Judy Ibrahim, Tomas Vacik, Waseem Mahmoud Fathalla, Jozef Hertecant, Gerald W. Zamponi, Lubica Lacinova and Norbert Weiss
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:126
  22. Widespread sleep deprivation is a continuing public health problem in the United States and worldwide affecting adolescents and adults. Acute sleep deprivation results in decrements in spatial memory and cogni...

    Authors: Marie E. Gaine, Ethan Bahl, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Jacob J. Michaelson, Ted Abel and Lisa C. Lyons
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:125
  23. To understand the role of intracellular zinc ion (Zn2+) dysregulation in mediating age-related neurodegenerative changes, particularly neurotoxicity resulting from the generation of excessive neurotoxic amyloid-β...

    Authors: Wen-bo Chen, Yu-xiang Wang, Hong-gang Wang, Di An, Dan Sun, Pan Li, Tao Zhang, Wan-ge Lu and Yan-qiang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:124
  24. Cerebral ischemia, a common cerebrovascular disease, is characterized by functional deficits and apoptotic cell death. Autophagy, a type of programmed cell death, plays critical roles in controlling neuronal d...

    Authors: Yuan Yao, Yingshi Ji, Jinghong Ren, Huanyu Liu, Rajesh Khanna and Li Sun
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:123
  25. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, with aging being considered the greatest risk factor for developing PD. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is known to participate in the aging ...

    Authors: Tae-Young Ha, Yu Ree Choi, Hye Rin Noh, Seon-Heui Cha, Jae-Bong Kim and Sang Myun Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:122
  26. Accumulating evidence indicates that the actin regulator cofilin is overactivated in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but whether this abnormality contributes to synaptic and cognitive impairments in AD is unclear. I...

    Authors: Haiwang Zhang, Youssif Ben Zablah, An Liu, Dongju Lee, Haorui Zhang, Yanghong Meng, Changxi Zhou, Xingde Liu, Yiming Wang and Zhengping Jia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:121
  27. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a malformation of the cerebral cortex with poorly-defined epileptogenic zones (EZs), and poor surgical outcome in FCD is associated with inaccurate localization of the EZ. Hen...

    Authors: Arpna Srivastava, Krishan Kumar, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, Manjari Tripathi, Vivek Dubey, Devina Sharma, Nitin Yadav, M. C. Sharma, Sanjeev Lalwani, Ramesh Doddamani, P. Sarat Chandra and Aparna Banerjee Dixit
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:120
  28. Epigenetic abnormalities play a crucial role in many tumors, including glioma. RNA methylation occurs as an epigenetic modification similar to DNA methylation and histone modification. m6A methylation is the most...

    Authors: Ting Pan, Fan Wu, Liwen Li, Shiyan Wu, Fang Zhou, Ping Zhang, Caixing Sun and Liang Xia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:119
  29. Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders, and the change in the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is considered as the underlying pathological mechanism. Parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) i...

    Authors: Ying Sun, Le Ma, Jianhua Chen, Weidi Wang, Shiyu Peng, Ying Cheng, Yu Zhang, Jinghong Chen and Peijun Ju
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:118
  30. We have previously reported that cellular prion protein (PrPC) can down-regulate NMDA receptor activity and in a copper dependent manner. Here, we employed AAV9 to introduce murine cellular prion protein into mou...

    Authors: Sun Huang, Stefanie A. Black, Junting Huang, Peter K. Stys and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:117
  31. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with severe neurological sequelae and a high mortality rate, in which Escherichia coli is one of the primary Gram-negative etiological bacteria. Menin...

    Authors: Jiyang Fu, Liang Li, Dong Huo, Ruicheng Yang, Bo Yang, Bojie Xu, Xiaopei Yang, Menghong Dai, Chen Tan, Huanchun Chen and Xiangru Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:116
  32. T-type calcium channels are important regulators of neuronal excitability. The mammalian brain expresses three T-type channel isoforms (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3) with distinct biophysical properties that are ...

    Authors: Fernando R. Fernandez, Mircea C. Iftinca, Gerald W. Zamponi and Ray W. Turner
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:115
  33. Clock genes not only regulate the circadian rhythm of physiological activities but also participate in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Previous studies have documented the abnormal expression of clock genes...

    Authors: Hao Wu, Yong Liu, Lishuo Liu, Qiang Meng, Changwang Du, Kuo Li, Shan Dong, Yong Zhang, Huanfa Li and Hua Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:113
  34. Memory and long term potentiation require de novo protein synthesis. A key regulator of this process is mTORC1, a complex comprising the mTOR kinase. Growth factors activate mTORC1 via a pathway involving PI3-...

    Authors: Dany Khamsing, Solène Lebrun, Isabelle Fanget, Nathanaël Larochette, Christophe Tourain, Vincent de Sars, Maia Brunstein, Martin Oheim, Damien Carrel, François Darchen and Claire Desnos
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:112
  35. The morphological dynamics of astrocytes are altered in the hippocampus during memory induction. Astrocyte–neuron interactions on synapses are called tripartite synapses. These control the synaptic function in...

    Authors: Moonseok Choi, Sang-Min Lee, Dongsoo Kim, Heh-In Im, Hye-Sun Kim and Yun Ha Jeong
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:111
  36. Cerebrovascular dysfunction is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the greatest risk factors for AD is the apolipoprotein E4 (E4) allele. The APOE4 genotype has been shown to negatively impa...

    Authors: Joseph O. Ojo, Jon M. Reed, Gogce Crynen, Prashanthi Vallabhaneni, James Evans, Benjamin Shackleton, Maximillian Eisenbaum, Charis Ringland, Anastasia Edsell, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford and Corbin Bachmeier
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:110
  37. Rabies virus (RV) is the most widely used vector for mapping neural circuits. Previous studies have shown that the RV glycoprotein can be a target to improve the retrograde transsynaptic tracing efficiency. Ho...

    Authors: Fan Jia, Li Li, Haizhou Liu, Pei Lv, Xiangwei Shi, Yang Wu, Chen Ling and Fuqiang Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:109
  38. Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:108

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

  39. Histone modifications are a key mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which is critically involved in the consolidation of multiple forms of memory. However, the roles of histone m...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Myeong Seong Bak, Ahbin Kim, Yujin Kim, Yun-Cheol Chae, Ye Lee Kim, Yang-Sook Chun, Joon-Yong An, Sang-Beom Seo, Sang Jeong Kim and Yong-Seok Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:106
  40. Recently, a pathological condition called cochlear synaptopathy has been clarified, and as a disorder of the auditory nerve synapses that occurs prior to failure of hair cells, it has been recognized as a majo...

    Authors: Yutaka Koizumi, Kunio Mizutari, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Akihiro Shiotani and Seiji Kakehata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:105
  41. The perifornical area of the hypothalamus has been known as the center for the defense response, or fight-or-flight response, which is characterized by a concomitant rise in arterial blood pressure, heart rate...

    Authors: Akira Yamashita, Shunpei Moriya, Ryusei Nishi, Jun Kaminosono, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:104
  42. Authors: Hyungju Park, Kyung-Seok Han, Jinsoo Seo, Jaekwang Lee, Shashank M. Dravid, Junsung Woo, Heejung Chun, Sukhee Cho, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Woohyun Koh, Bo-Eun Yoon, Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini, Guido Mannaioni, Stephen F. Traynelis, Yong Chul Bae…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:103

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:7

  43. Mitochondrial function is required for brain energy homeostasis and neuroadaptation. Recent studies demonstrate that cocaine affects mitochondrial dynamics and morphological characteristics within the nucleus ...

    Authors: Shannon L. Cole, Ramesh Chandra, Maya Harris, Ishan Patel, Torrance Wang, Hyunjae Kim, Leah Jensen, Scott J. Russo, Gustavo Turecki, Amy M. Gancarz-Kausch, David M. Dietz and Mary Kay Lobo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:101

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