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  1. To understand the information encoded in a connection between the neurons, postsynaptic current (PSC) has been widely measured as a primary index of synaptic strength in the field of neurophysiology. Although ...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Jae Jin Shin and Sang Jeong Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:138
  2. We recently showed that synaptophysin (Syph) and synapsin (Syn) can induce liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) to cluster small synaptic-like microvesicles in living cells which are highly reminiscent of SV ...

    Authors: Goeun Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Seonyoung Jeong, Jeongkun Lee, Daehun Park and Sunghoe Chang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:137
  3. Experimental animals, such as non-human primates (NHPs), mice, Zebrafish, and Drosophila, are frequently employed as models to gain insights into human physiology and pathology. In developmental neuroscience a...

    Authors: Ryuichi Nakajima, Hideo Hagihara and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:135
  4. Cumulative evidence shows that gut microbiome can influence brain function and behavior via the inflammatory processes. However, the role of interaction between gut dysbiosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) in th...

    Authors: Yujing Chen, Peilin Meng, Shiqiang Cheng, Yumeng Jia, Yan Wen, Xuena Yang, Yao Yao, Chuyu Pan, Chun’e Li, Huijie Zhang, Jingxi Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Feng Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:133
  5. The medium-chain fatty acids octanoic acid (C8) and decanoic acid (C10) are gaining attention as beneficial brain fuels in several neurological disorders. The protective effects of C8 and C10 have been propose...

    Authors: Jens V. Andersen, Emil W. Westi, Emil Jakobsen, Nerea Urruticoechea, Karin Borges and Blanca I. Aldana
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:132
  6. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs) are a major subpopulation of GABAergic cells in CA1 hippocampus that receive excitation from pyramidal cells (PCs), and, in turn, provide feedback inhibition onto...

    Authors: Anne-Sophie Racine, François-Xavier Michon, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:130
  7. Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is a typical characteristic of high altitude environment and causes a spectrum of pathophysiological effects, including headaches, gliovascular dysfunction and cognitive retardation. Her...

    Authors: Yang Zhou, Huanyu Lu, Ying Liu, Zaihua Zhao, Qian Zhang, Chong Xue, Yuankang Zou, Zipeng Cao and Wenjing Luo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:129
  8. Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that impairs control and coordination of movement. Here we tested whether treatment with the histo...

    Authors: Maxinne Watchon, Luan Luu, Katherine J. Robinson, Kristy C. Yuan, Alana De Luca, Hannah J. Suddull, Madelaine C. Tym, Gilles J. Guillemin, Nicholas J. Cole, Garth A. Nicholson, Roger S. Chung, Albert Lee and Angela S. Laird
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:128
  9. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies that are characterized by seizures and developmental delay. DEEs are primarily attributed to genetic causes and an increasin...

    Authors: Robin N. Stringer, Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Ivana A. Souza, Judy Ibrahim, Tomas Vacik, Waseem Mahmoud Fathalla, Jozef Hertecant, Gerald W. Zamponi, Lubica Lacinova and Norbert Weiss
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:126
  10. Widespread sleep deprivation is a continuing public health problem in the United States and worldwide affecting adolescents and adults. Acute sleep deprivation results in decrements in spatial memory and cogni...

    Authors: Marie E. Gaine, Ethan Bahl, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Jacob J. Michaelson, Ted Abel and Lisa C. Lyons
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:125
  11. To understand the role of intracellular zinc ion (Zn2+) dysregulation in mediating age-related neurodegenerative changes, particularly neurotoxicity resulting from the generation of excessive neurotoxic amyloid-β...

    Authors: Wen-bo Chen, Yu-xiang Wang, Hong-gang Wang, Di An, Dan Sun, Pan Li, Tao Zhang, Wan-ge Lu and Yan-qiang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:124
  12. Cerebral ischemia, a common cerebrovascular disease, is characterized by functional deficits and apoptotic cell death. Autophagy, a type of programmed cell death, plays critical roles in controlling neuronal d...

    Authors: Yuan Yao, Yingshi Ji, Jinghong Ren, Huanyu Liu, Rajesh Khanna and Li Sun
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:123
  13. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, with aging being considered the greatest risk factor for developing PD. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is known to participate in the aging ...

    Authors: Tae-Young Ha, Yu Ree Choi, Hye Rin Noh, Seon-Heui Cha, Jae-Bong Kim and Sang Myun Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:122
  14. Accumulating evidence indicates that the actin regulator cofilin is overactivated in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but whether this abnormality contributes to synaptic and cognitive impairments in AD is unclear. I...

    Authors: Haiwang Zhang, Youssif Ben Zablah, An Liu, Dongju Lee, Haorui Zhang, Yanghong Meng, Changxi Zhou, Xingde Liu, Yiming Wang and Zhengping Jia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:121
  15. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a malformation of the cerebral cortex with poorly-defined epileptogenic zones (EZs), and poor surgical outcome in FCD is associated with inaccurate localization of the EZ. Hen...

    Authors: Arpna Srivastava, Krishan Kumar, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, Manjari Tripathi, Vivek Dubey, Devina Sharma, Nitin Yadav, M. C. Sharma, Sanjeev Lalwani, Ramesh Doddamani, P. Sarat Chandra and Aparna Banerjee Dixit
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:120
  16. Epigenetic abnormalities play a crucial role in many tumors, including glioma. RNA methylation occurs as an epigenetic modification similar to DNA methylation and histone modification. m6A methylation is the most...

    Authors: Ting Pan, Fan Wu, Liwen Li, Shiyan Wu, Fang Zhou, Ping Zhang, Caixing Sun and Liang Xia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:119
  17. Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders, and the change in the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is considered as the underlying pathological mechanism. Parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) i...

    Authors: Ying Sun, Le Ma, Jianhua Chen, Weidi Wang, Shiyu Peng, Ying Cheng, Yu Zhang, Jinghong Chen and Peijun Ju
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:118
  18. We have previously reported that cellular prion protein (PrPC) can down-regulate NMDA receptor activity and in a copper dependent manner. Here, we employed AAV9 to introduce murine cellular prion protein into mou...

    Authors: Sun Huang, Stefanie A. Black, Junting Huang, Peter K. Stys and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:117
  19. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with severe neurological sequelae and a high mortality rate, in which Escherichia coli is one of the primary Gram-negative etiological bacteria. Menin...

    Authors: Jiyang Fu, Liang Li, Dong Huo, Ruicheng Yang, Bo Yang, Bojie Xu, Xiaopei Yang, Menghong Dai, Chen Tan, Huanchun Chen and Xiangru Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:116
  20. T-type calcium channels are important regulators of neuronal excitability. The mammalian brain expresses three T-type channel isoforms (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3) with distinct biophysical properties that are ...

    Authors: Fernando R. Fernandez, Mircea C. Iftinca, Gerald W. Zamponi and Ray W. Turner
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:115
  21. Clock genes not only regulate the circadian rhythm of physiological activities but also participate in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Previous studies have documented the abnormal expression of clock genes...

    Authors: Hao Wu, Yong Liu, Lishuo Liu, Qiang Meng, Changwang Du, Kuo Li, Shan Dong, Yong Zhang, Huanfa Li and Hua Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:113
  22. Memory and long term potentiation require de novo protein synthesis. A key regulator of this process is mTORC1, a complex comprising the mTOR kinase. Growth factors activate mTORC1 via a pathway involving PI3-...

    Authors: Dany Khamsing, Solène Lebrun, Isabelle Fanget, Nathanaël Larochette, Christophe Tourain, Vincent de Sars, Maia Brunstein, Martin Oheim, Damien Carrel, François Darchen and Claire Desnos
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:112
  23. The morphological dynamics of astrocytes are altered in the hippocampus during memory induction. Astrocyte–neuron interactions on synapses are called tripartite synapses. These control the synaptic function in...

    Authors: Moonseok Choi, Sang-Min Lee, Dongsoo Kim, Heh-In Im, Hye-Sun Kim and Yun Ha Jeong
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:111
  24. Cerebrovascular dysfunction is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the greatest risk factors for AD is the apolipoprotein E4 (E4) allele. The APOE4 genotype has been shown to negatively impa...

    Authors: Joseph O. Ojo, Jon M. Reed, Gogce Crynen, Prashanthi Vallabhaneni, James Evans, Benjamin Shackleton, Maximillian Eisenbaum, Charis Ringland, Anastasia Edsell, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford and Corbin Bachmeier
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:110
  25. Rabies virus (RV) is the most widely used vector for mapping neural circuits. Previous studies have shown that the RV glycoprotein can be a target to improve the retrograde transsynaptic tracing efficiency. Ho...

    Authors: Fan Jia, Li Li, Haizhou Liu, Pei Lv, Xiangwei Shi, Yang Wu, Chen Ling and Fuqiang Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:109
  26. Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:108

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

  27. Histone modifications are a key mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which is critically involved in the consolidation of multiple forms of memory. However, the roles of histone m...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Myeong Seong Bak, Ahbin Kim, Yujin Kim, Yun-Cheol Chae, Ye Lee Kim, Yang-Sook Chun, Joon-Yong An, Sang-Beom Seo, Sang Jeong Kim and Yong-Seok Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:106
  28. Recently, a pathological condition called cochlear synaptopathy has been clarified, and as a disorder of the auditory nerve synapses that occurs prior to failure of hair cells, it has been recognized as a majo...

    Authors: Yutaka Koizumi, Kunio Mizutari, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Akihiro Shiotani and Seiji Kakehata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:105
  29. The perifornical area of the hypothalamus has been known as the center for the defense response, or fight-or-flight response, which is characterized by a concomitant rise in arterial blood pressure, heart rate...

    Authors: Akira Yamashita, Shunpei Moriya, Ryusei Nishi, Jun Kaminosono, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:104
  30. Authors: Hyungju Park, Kyung-Seok Han, Jinsoo Seo, Jaekwang Lee, Shashank M. Dravid, Junsung Woo, Heejung Chun, Sukhee Cho, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Woohyun Koh, Bo-Eun Yoon, Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini, Guido Mannaioni, Stephen F. Traynelis, Yong Chul Bae…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:103

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:7

  31. Mitochondrial function is required for brain energy homeostasis and neuroadaptation. Recent studies demonstrate that cocaine affects mitochondrial dynamics and morphological characteristics within the nucleus ...

    Authors: Shannon L. Cole, Ramesh Chandra, Maya Harris, Ishan Patel, Torrance Wang, Hyunjae Kim, Leah Jensen, Scott J. Russo, Gustavo Turecki, Amy M. Gancarz-Kausch, David M. Dietz and Mary Kay Lobo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:101
  32. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that regulates cellular homeostasis. It is constitutively active in neurons and controls the essential steps of neuronal development, leading to its dysfunction in ...

    Authors: Ji-Hye Kwak, You-kyung Lee, Mi-Hee Jun, Mootaek Roh, Hyunhyo Seo, Juhyun Lee, Kyungmin Lee and Jin-A Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:100
  33. Activation of spinal cord microglia contributes to the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microglial function in neuropathic pain are ...

    Authors: Jiyun Peng, Min-Hee Yi, Heejin Jeong, Przemyslaw Peter McEwan, Jiaying Zheng, Gongxiong Wu, Shashank Ganatra, Yi Ren, Jason R. Richardson, Seog Bae Oh and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:99
  34. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their differentiated neurons (iPSC-neurons) are a widely used cellular model in the research of the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how well they captu...

    Authors: Leonard C. Steg, Gemma L. Shireby, Jennifer Imm, Jonathan P. Davies, Alice Franklin, Robert Flynn, Seema C. Namboori, Akshay Bhinge, Aaron R. Jeffries, Joe Burrage, Grant W. A. Neilson, Emma M. Walker, Leo W. Perfect, Jack Price, Grainne McAlonan, Deepak P. Srivastava…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:98
  35. The formation and retention of hippocampus-dependent memories is impacted by neurogenesis, a process that involves the production of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies demonstr...

    Authors: Gavin A. Scott, Dylan J. Terstege, Andrew J. Roebuck, Kelsea A. Gorzo, Alex P. Vu, John G. Howland and Jonathan R. Epp
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:97
  36. Reductions in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system exist across multiple brain regions in schizophrenia and encompass both pre- and postsynaptic components. While reduced midbrain GABAergic inhibitory neurotr...

    Authors: Tertia D. Purves-Tyson, Amelia M. Brown, Christin Weissleder, Debora A. Rothmond and Cynthia Shannon Weickert
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:96
  37. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviours. ASDs have a strong genetic basis with mutations involved in the dev...

    Authors: Yukti Vyas, Yewon Jung, Kevin Lee, Craig C. Garner and Johanna M. Montgomery
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:95
  38. The neuronal circuitry for pain signals has been intensively studied for decades. The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PB) was shown to play a crucial role in nociceptive information processing. Previous...

    Authors: Mariko Ito, Masashi Nagase, Suguru Tohyama, Kaori Mikami, Fusao Kato and Ayako M. Watabe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:94
  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Gi Seok Jeong, Joon Young Chang, Ji Soo Park, Seung-A Lee, DoYeun Park, Junsung Woo, Heeyoung An, C. Justin Lee and Sang-Hoon Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:93

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:17

  40. Functional lateralization of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress and emotional disorders, yet underlying gene expression changes remains unknown. Here, we report molecular signatures lateralize...

    Authors: Sujin Chae, Jiso Hong, Keunsoo Kang, Anna Shin, Dae-Gun Kim, Sinjeong Lee, Moo-young Kim, Inkyung Jung and Daesoo Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:92
  41. N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, hypolacrima or alacrima, seizure, intellectual disability, motor deficits, and other neurological symptoms. The....

    Authors: Makoto Asahina, Reiko Fujinawa, Hiroto Hirayama, Ryuichi Tozawa, Yasushi Kajii and Tadashi Suzuki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:91

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:127

  42. Homer is a postsynaptic scaffold protein, which has long and short isoforms. The long form of Homer consists of an N-terminal target-binding domain and a C-terminal multimerization domain, linking multiple pro...

    Authors: Teiichi Furuichi, Yuko Muto, Tetsushi Sadakata, Yumi Sato, Kanehiro Hayashi, Yoko Shiraishi-Yamaguchi and Yo Shinoda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:90
  43. The type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors) are class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by endogenous lipids called endocannabinoids to modulate neuronal excitabi...

    Authors: Hajar Miranzadeh Mahabadi, Haseeb Bhatti, Robert B. Laprairie and Changiz Taghibiglou
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:89

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