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  1. Rabies virus (RV) is the most widely used vector for mapping neural circuits. Previous studies have shown that the RV glycoprotein can be a target to improve the retrograde transsynaptic tracing efficiency. Ho...

    Authors: Fan Jia, Li Li, Haizhou Liu, Pei Lv, Xiangwei Shi, Yang Wu, Chen Ling and Fuqiang Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:109

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  2. Histone modifications are a key mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which is critically involved in the consolidation of multiple forms of memory. However, the roles of histone m...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Myeong Seong Bak, Ahbin Kim, Yujin Kim, Yun-Cheol Chae, Ye Lee Kim, Yang-Sook Chun, Joon-Yong An, Sang-Beom Seo, Sang Jeong Kim and Yong-Seok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:106

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. Recently, a pathological condition called cochlear synaptopathy has been clarified, and as a disorder of the auditory nerve synapses that occurs prior to failure of hair cells, it has been recognized as a majo...

    Authors: Yutaka Koizumi, Kunio Mizutari, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Akihiro Shiotani and Seiji Kakehata

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:105

    Content type: Research

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  4. The perifornical area of the hypothalamus has been known as the center for the defense response, or fight-or-flight response, which is characterized by a concomitant rise in arterial blood pressure, heart rate...

    Authors: Akira Yamashita, Shunpei Moriya, Ryusei Nishi, Jun Kaminosono, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:104

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. Authors: Hyungju Park, Kyung-Seok Han, Jinsoo Seo, Jaekwang Lee, Shashank M. Dravid, Junsung Woo, Heejung Chun, Sukhee Cho, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Woohyun Koh, Bo-Eun Yoon, Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini, Guido Mannaioni, Stephen F. Traynelis, Yong Chul Bae…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:103

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:7

  6. Mitochondrial function is required for brain energy homeostasis and neuroadaptation. Recent studies demonstrate that cocaine affects mitochondrial dynamics and morphological characteristics within the nucleus ...

    Authors: Shannon L. Cole, Ramesh Chandra, Maya Harris, Ishan Patel, Torrance Wang, Hyunjae Kim, Leah Jensen, Scott J. Russo, Gustavo Turecki, Amy M. Gancarz-Kausch, David M. Dietz and Mary Kay Lobo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:101

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that regulates cellular homeostasis. It is constitutively active in neurons and controls the essential steps of neuronal development, leading to its dysfunction in ...

    Authors: Ji-Hye Kwak, You-kyung Lee, Mi-Hee Jun, Mootaek Roh, Hyunhyo Seo, Juhyun Lee, Kyungmin Lee and Jin-A Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:100

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  8. Activation of spinal cord microglia contributes to the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microglial function in neuropathic pain are ...

    Authors: Jiyun Peng, Min-Hee Yi, Heejin Jeong, Przemyslaw Peter McEwan, Jiaying Zheng, Gongxiong Wu, Shashank Ganatra, Yi Ren, Jason R. Richardson, Seog Bae Oh and Long-Jun Wu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:99

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their differentiated neurons (iPSC-neurons) are a widely used cellular model in the research of the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how well they captu...

    Authors: Leonard C. Steg, Gemma L. Shireby, Jennifer Imm, Jonathan P. Davies, Alice Franklin, Robert Flynn, Seema C. Namboori, Akshay Bhinge, Aaron R. Jeffries, Joe Burrage, Grant W. A. Neilson, Emma M. Walker, Leo W. Perfect, Jack Price, Grainne McAlonan, Deepak P. Srivastava…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:98

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. The formation and retention of hippocampus-dependent memories is impacted by neurogenesis, a process that involves the production of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies demonstr...

    Authors: Gavin A. Scott, Dylan J. Terstege, Andrew J. Roebuck, Kelsea A. Gorzo, Alex P. Vu, John G. Howland and Jonathan R. Epp

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:97

    Content type: Research

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  11. Reductions in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system exist across multiple brain regions in schizophrenia and encompass both pre- and postsynaptic components. While reduced midbrain GABAergic inhibitory neurotr...

    Authors: Tertia D. Purves-Tyson, Amelia M. Brown, Christin Weissleder, Debora A. Rothmond and Cynthia Shannon Weickert

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:96

    Content type: Research

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  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviours. ASDs have a strong genetic basis with mutations involved in the dev...

    Authors: Yukti Vyas, Yewon Jung, Kevin Lee, Craig C. Garner and Johanna M. Montgomery

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:95

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  13. The neuronal circuitry for pain signals has been intensively studied for decades. The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PB) was shown to play a crucial role in nociceptive information processing. Previous...

    Authors: Mariko Ito, Masashi Nagase, Suguru Tohyama, Kaori Mikami, Fusao Kato and Ayako M. Watabe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:94

    Content type: Short report

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  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Gi Seok Jeong, Joon Young Chang, Ji Soo Park, Seung-A Lee, DoYeun Park, Junsung Woo, Heeyoung An, C. Justin Lee and Sang-Hoon Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:93

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:17

  15. Functional lateralization of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress and emotional disorders, yet underlying gene expression changes remains unknown. Here, we report molecular signatures lateralize...

    Authors: Sujin Chae, Jiso Hong, Keunsoo Kang, Anna Shin, Dae-Gun Kim, Sinjeong Lee, Moo-young Kim, Inkyung Jung and Daesoo Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:92

    Content type: Research

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  16. N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, hypolacrima or alacrima, seizure, intellectual disability, motor deficits, and other neurological symptoms. The....

    Authors: Makoto Asahina, Reiko Fujinawa, Hiroto Hirayama, Ryuichi Tozawa, Yasushi Kajii and Tadashi Suzuki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:127

  17. Homer is a postsynaptic scaffold protein, which has long and short isoforms. The long form of Homer consists of an N-terminal target-binding domain and a C-terminal multimerization domain, linking multiple pro...

    Authors: Teiichi Furuichi, Yuko Muto, Tetsushi Sadakata, Yumi Sato, Kanehiro Hayashi, Yoko Shiraishi-Yamaguchi and Yo Shinoda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:90

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. The type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors) are class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by endogenous lipids called endocannabinoids to modulate neuronal excitabi...

    Authors: Hajar Miranzadeh Mahabadi, Haseeb Bhatti, Robert B. Laprairie and Changiz Taghibiglou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:89

    Content type: Micro report

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  19. The ACC is an important brain area for the processing of pain-related information. Studies of synaptic connections within the ACC provide an understanding of basic cellular and molecular mechanisms for brain f...

    Authors: Jung-Hyun Alex Lee, Zhuang Miao, Qi-Yu Chen, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:88

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Microglia, resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system, can display a range of reaction states and thereby exhibit distinct biological functions across development, adulthood and under disease...

    Authors: Lara Friess, Mathilde Cheray, Lily Keane, Kathleen Grabert and Bertrand Joseph

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:87

    Content type: Research

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  21. Immunogold labeling allows localization of proteins at the electron microscopy (EM) level of resolution, and quantification of signals. The present paper summarizes methodological issues and experiences gained...

    Authors: Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng, Virginia Crocker, Sandra Lara Moreira and Rita Azzam

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:86

    Content type: Methodology

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  22. Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presenilin (PS) is highly expressed in the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable in AD. Previous studies of PS fu...

    Authors: Sang Hun Lee, Vadim Y. Bolshakov and Jie Shen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:85

    Content type: Research

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  23. Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability including hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. We have previously reported hippocampal mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) hy...

    Authors: Jesús David Urbano-Gámez, Juan José Casañas, Itziar Benito and María Luz Montesinos

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:84

    Content type: Research

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  24. Mutation of the gene PARK7 (DJ1) causes monogenic autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans. Subsequent alterations of PARK7 protein function lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, a major element in PD ...

    Authors: Hui Yung Chin, Michael Lardelli, Lyndsey Collins-Praino and Karissa Barthelson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:83

    Content type: Micro report

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  25. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with aging and age-related hearing loss (AHL). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of hearing loss remain unclear. Cdk5 regulatory subunit-ass...

    Authors: Toru Miwa, Fan-yan Wei and Kazuhito Tomizawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:82

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The neurotransmitter serotonin, involved in the regulation of pain and emotion, is critically regulated by the 5‐HT1A autoreceptor and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). Polymorphisms of these genes affect mood a...

    Authors: Isabel Ellerbrock, Angelica Sandström, Jeanette Tour, Silvia Fanton, Diana Kadetoff, Martin Schalling, Karin B. Jensen, Rouslan Sitnikov and Eva Kosek

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:81

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Homozygous mutations in the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase gene, GBA1, cause Gaucher’s disease (GD), while heterozygous mutations in GBA1 are a strong risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), whose pathological ha...

    Authors: Etsuro Nakanishi, Norihito Uemura, Hisako Akiyama, Masato Kinoshita, Sawamura Masanori, Yosuke Taruno, Hodaka Yamakado, Shu-ichi Matsuzawa, Shunichi Takeda, Yoshio Hirabayashi and Ryosuke Takahashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:80

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Astrocytes are critical regulators of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously shown that astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) have increased intracellular Ca2+ levels follo...

    Authors: Riku Kawanabe, Kohei Yoshihara, Izuho Hatada and Makoto Tsuda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:79

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  29. Reconsolidation has been considered a process in which a consolidated memory is turned into a labile stage. Within the reconsolidation window, the labile memory can be either erased or strengthened. Manipulati...

    Authors: Boren Lin, Khaled Alganem, Sinead M. O’Donovan, Zhen Jin, FarzanehSadat Naghavi, Olivia A. Miller, Tyler C. Ortyl, Ye Chun Ruan, Robert E. McCullumsmith and Jianyang Du

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:78

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors are highly expressed and functional in the early postnatal life, and are known to positively modulate NMDA receptor function. Here, we examined the expression of NMDA rec...

    Authors: Tiziana Imbriglio, Remy Verhaeghe, Nico Antenucci, Stefania Maccari, Giuseppe Battaglia, Ferdinando Nicoletti and Milena Cannella

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:77

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:114

  31. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative fatal disorder in which motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord degenerate. A single infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) delays disease p...

    Authors: Hirotoshi Magota, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Ryo Ukai, Ryo Kiyose, Rie Onodera, Jeffery D. Kocsis and Osamu Honmou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:76

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  32. Homeostatic plasticity is necessary for the construction and maintenance of functional neuronal networks, but principal molecular mechanisms required for or modified by homeostatic plasticity are not well unde...

    Authors: Pernille Bülow, Stephanie A. Zlatic, Peter A. Wenner, Gary J. Bassell and Victor Faundez

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Neuroinflammation by activated microglia and astrocytes plays a critical role in progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a negative-feedback regulator that limits pro-infl...

    Authors: Hiroyasu Komiya, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuki Ogawa, Kosuke Suzuki, Akihiro Ogasawara, Keita Takahashi, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Hiroshi Doi and Fumiaki Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:74

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Loss-of-function mutations in the human oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) gene cause intellectual disability, a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition. However, the role OPHN1 plays during neuronal development is not well ...

    Authors: Sungdae Kim, Joohyung Kim, Sunyoung Park, Joong-Jean Park and Seungbok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:73

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is expressed dominantly in the astrocytes and exerts either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in the brain. Although PRDX6 can modulate several signaling cascades involving cognitiv...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Sureka Jasmin, Tanita Pairojana, Hsueh-Kai Chang, Kai-Chi Liang and Ingrid Y. Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:72

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Insular cortex is a critical brain region that participates in the interoceptive sensations. Here, we combined the iDISCO + method and Fos immunostaining to confirm that the middle part of the right-side, but ...

    Authors: Kai Qian, Jiaqi Liu, Yiqing Cao, Jing Yang and Shuang Qiu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:71

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. We have previously reported that cambinol (DDL-112), a known inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2), suppressed extracellular vesicle (EV)/exosome production in vitro in a cell model and reduced tau...

    Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:108

  38. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Pan Wang, Ke Tu, Peng Cao, Yuefan Yang, Hao Zhang, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Hui Yang and Tao Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:69

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:49

  39. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by the segmental deletion of human chromosome 22. This chromosomal deletion is known as high genetic risk factors for various psychiatric disorders. T...

    Authors: Ryo Saito, Chika Miyoshi, Michinori Koebis, Itaru Kushima, Kazuki Nakao, Daisuke Mori, Norio Ozaki, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa and Atsu Aiba

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:68

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The rodent whisker-barrel cortex system has been established as an ideal model for studying sensory information integration. The barrel cortex consists of barrel and septa columns that receive information inpu...

    Authors: Mingzhao Su, Junhua Liu, Baocong Yu, Kaixing Zhou, Congli Sun, Mengjie Yang and Chunjie Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:67

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. GAP-43 is a vertebrate neuron-specific protein and that is strongly related to axon growth and regeneration; thus, this protein has been utilized as a classical molecular marker of these events and growth cone...

    Authors: Masayasu Okada, Yosuke Kawagoe, Yuta Sato, Motohiro Nozumi, Yuya Ishikawa, Atsushi Tamada, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yonehiro Kanemura, Yohei Shinmyo, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Yukihiko Fujii and Michihiro Igarashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:66

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Monica Iannotta, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Rosmara Infantino, Flavia Ricciardi, Claudia Cristiano, Rosa Maria Vitale, Pietro Amodeo, Ida Marabese, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Salvatore Paino, Enza Palazzo, Antonio Calignano, Vincenzo Di Marzo…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:64

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:28

  43. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes memory loss. Most AD researches have focused on neurodegeneration mechanisms. Considering that neurodegenerative changes are not...

    Authors: Kyung-Ran Kim, Yoonsub Kim, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Jong-Sun Kang, Sang Hun Lee, Yujin Kim, Suk-Ho Lee and Won-Kyung Ho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:62

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders that is caused by the deletion of a region containing 7 genes on chromosome 15 (MTMR10, FAN1, TRP...

    Authors: Tesshu Hori, Shohei Ikuta, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Chieko Koike

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:61

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in different forms of plasticity in the central nervous system. NMDARs are always assembled in tetrameric form, in which two GluN1 subunits and two ...

    Authors: Qi-Yu Chen, Xu-Hui Li, Jing-Shan Lu, Yinglu Liu, Jung-Hyun Alex Lee, Yu-Xin Chen, Wantong Shi, Kexin Fan and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:60

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Intracellular aggregates are a common pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple sys...

    Authors: Shun Kubota, Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Kenichi Tanaka, Hiroyasu Komiya, Atsuko Katsumoto, Shingo Ikeda, Shunta Hashiguchi, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Keita Takahashi, Misako Kunii, Mikiko Tada, Hideyuki Takeuchi and Fumiaki Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:59

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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