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  1. Short report

    Heme molecule functions as an endogenous agonist of astrocyte TLR2 to contribute to secondary brain damage after intracerebral hemorrhage

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was recently shown to contribute to secondary brain damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), although the molecular mechanisms of this contribution are elusive. In this study, w...

    Hyunjung Min, Boomin Choi, Yong Ho Jang, Ik-Hyun Cho and Sung Joong Lee

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:27

    Published on: 24 June 2017

  2. Review

    The role of 5-HT receptors in depression

    Depression is a polygenic and highly complex psychiatric disorder that remains a major burden on society. Antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are some of the most commonly...

    Christine N. Yohn, Mark M. Gergues and Benjamin Adam Samuels

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:28

    Published on: 24 June 2017

  3. Review

    Synaptoimmunology - roles in health and disease

    Mounting evidence suggests that the nervous and immune systems are intricately linked. Many proteins first identified in the immune system have since been detected at synapses, playing different roles in norma...

    Robert Nisticò, Eric Salter, Celine Nicolas, Marco Feligioni, Dalila Mango, Zuner A. Bortolotto, Pierre Gressens, Graham L. Collingridge and Stephane Peineau

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:26

    Published on: 20 June 2017

  4. Research

    Ketamine-induced apoptosis in the mouse cerebral cortex follows similar characteristic of physiological apoptosis and can be regulated by neuronal activity

    The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is ...

    Qi Wang, Feng-yan Shen, Rong Zou, Jing-jing Zheng, Xiang Yu and Ying-wei Wang

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:24

    Published on: 17 June 2017

  5. Research

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient iPSC-derived astrocytes impair autophagy via non-cell autonomous mechanisms

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a devastating neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons and the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates. The latter suggests impai...

    Martin Madill, Katya McDonagh, Jun Ma, Alice Vajda, Paul McLoughlin, Timothy O’Brien, Orla Hardiman and Sanbing Shen

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:22

    Published on: 13 June 2017

  6. Research

    TREM2 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Although post-ischemic inflammation induced by the innate immune response is considered an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid ce...

    Rong Wu, Xiangpen Li, Pengfei Xu, Likui Huang, Jinping Cheng, Xiaolong Huang, Jingru Jiang, Long-Jun Wu and Yamei Tang

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:20

    Published on: 7 June 2017

  7. Research

    ApoE isoforms differentially regulates cleavage and secretion of BDNF

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic or late onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is decreased by 3 to 4-fold in the brains of AD patients a...

    Abhik Sen, Thomas J. Nelson and Daniel L. Alkon

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:19

    Published on: 1 June 2017

  8. Review

    Propagation of Tau aggregates

    Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau aggregates form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagat...

    Michel Goedert and Maria Grazia Spillantini

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:18

    Published on: 30 May 2017

  9. Review

    Cortical kainate receptors and behavioral anxiety

    The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo ...

    Min Zhuo

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:16

    Published on: 18 May 2017

  10. Short report

    Absence of neurological abnormalities in mice homozygous for the Polr3a G672E hypomyelinating leukodystrophy mutation

    Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A gene cause one of the most frequent forms of childhood-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (HLD): POLR3-HLD. POLR3A encodes the largest subunit of RNA Pol...

    Karine Choquet, Sharon Yang, Robyn D. Moir, Diane Forget, Roxanne Larivière, Annie Bouchard, Christian Poitras, Nicolas Sgarioto, Marie-Josée Dicaire, Forough Noohi, Timothy E. Kennedy, Joseph Rochford, Geneviève Bernard, Martin Teichmann, Benoit Coulombe, Ian M. Willis…

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:13

    Published on: 13 April 2017

  11. Research

    Neuroligin 3 R451C mutation alters electroencephalography spectral activity in an animal model of autism spectrum disorders

    Human studies demonstrate that sleep impairment is a concurrent comorbidity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but its etiology remains largely uncertain. One of the prominent theories of ASD suggests that an...

    Jackie J. Liu, Kevin P. Grace, Richard L. Horner, Miguel A. Cortez, Yiwen Shao and Zhengping Jia

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:10

    Published on: 7 April 2017

  12. Research

    Comparative analysis of A-to-I editing in human and non-human primate brains reveals conserved patterns and context-dependent regulation of RNA editing

    A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the re...

    Richard T. O’Neil, Xiaojing Wang, Michael V. Morabito and Ronald B. Emeson

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:11

    Published on: 6 April 2017

  13. Review

    Molecules in pain and sex: a developing story

    Microglia are dynamic immune cells with diverse roles in maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of microglia has been critically implicated in the genesis of neuropathic pain. Per...

    Josiane C. S. Mapplebeck, Simon Beggs and Michael W. Salter

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:9

    Published on: 7 March 2017

  14. Research

    Proteasome impairment in neural cells derived from HMSN-P patient iPSCs

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized ...

    Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji and Haruhisa Inoue

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:7

    Published on: 15 February 2017

  15. Review

    TBK1: a new player in ALS linking autophagy and neuroinflammation

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons, resulting in progressive muscle weakness and death by respiratory failure. Protein and RNA aggregates a...

    James A. Oakes, Maria C. Davies and Mark O. Collins

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:5

    Published on: 2 February 2017

  16. Research

    The neurotoxicity of amyloid β-protein oligomers is reversible in a primary neuron model

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Recent evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers elic...

    Daisuke Tanokashira, Naomi Mamada, Fumiko Yamamoto, Kaori Taniguchi, Akira Tamaoka, Madepalli K. Lakshmana and Wataru Araki

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:4

    Published on: 31 January 2017

  17. Research

    Acute stress enhances the glutamatergic transmission onto basoamygdala neurons embedded in distinct microcircuits

    Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are ...

    Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin and Bing-Xing Pan

    Molecular Brain 2017 10:3

    Published on: 9 January 2017

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