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  1. Synaptic abnormalities, perturbed endosomal recycling mediated by loss of the small GTPase RAB11, and neuroinflammatory signaling have been associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases including the mot...

    Authors: Joy Mitra, Pavana M. Hegde and Muralidhar L. Hegde

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:55

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  2. Gene expression is highly regulated to functionally diversify cells. Genes that cooperate in the same physiological processes occasionally reside within nearby regions in a chromosome. Olfactory marker protein...

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakashima, Kie Nakashima, Akiko Takaku-Nakashima and Makoto Takano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:54

    Content type: Short report

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  3. The growth cone is essential for nerve growth and axon regeneration, which directly form and rearrange the neural network. Recently, to clarify the molecular signaling pathways in the growth cone that utilize ...

    Authors: Michihiro Igarashi and Shujiro Okuda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:53

    Content type: Micro report

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  4. Mushroom body (MB) is a prominent structure essential for olfactory learning and memory in the Drosophila brain. The development of the MB involves the appropriate guidance of axon lobes and sister axon branch...

    Authors: Huaixing Kang, Juan Zhao, Xuan Jiang, Guangxu Li, Wen Huang, Huili Cheng and Ranhui Duan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:52

    Content type: Research

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  5. Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in learning and memory. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the regulation of neural synaptic plasticity. Here, to determ...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Ran Xie, Xiaolin Kou, Yu Liu, Cui Qi, Rui Liu, Weiyan You, Jun Gao and Xiang Gao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:51

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  6. Neonatal seizures are different from adult seizures, and many antiepileptic drugs that are effective in adults often fail to treat neonates. Here, we report that gluconate inhibits neonatal seizure by inhibiti...

    Authors: Zheng Wu, Qingwei Huo, Liang Ren, Fengping Dong, Mengyang Feng, Yue Wang, Yuting Bai, Bernhard Lüscher, Sheng-Tian Li, Guan-Lei Wang, Cheng Long, Yun Wang, Gangyi Wu and Gong Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:50

    Content type: Research

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  7. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small (18–25 nt), single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that play key roles in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. The expression profiles of miRNAs in biofluids and t...

    Authors: Hisashi Uwatoko, Yuka Hama, Ikuko Takahashi Iwata, Shinichi Shirai, Masaaki Matsushima, Ichiro Yabe, Jun Utsumi and Hidenao Sasaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:49

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the authors’ names was spelled incorrectly.

    Authors: Mikiei Tanaka, Hongyun Li, Xijun Zhang, Jatinder Singh, Clifton L. Dalgard, Matthew Wilkerson and Yumin Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:47

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2019 12:25

  9. The microgravity environment in space can impact astronauts’ cognitive and behavioral activities. However, due to the limitations of research conditions, studies of biological changes in the primate brain, suc...

    Authors: Xu Zhang, Xixia Chu, Lei Chen, Juan Fu, Shuai Wang, Jinjing Song, Guanghan Kan, Weizhong Jiang, Guang He, Xiaoping Chen and Weidong Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:46

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  10. Glioblastoma exhibits phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, aggressive invasiveness, therapeutic resistance, and tumor recurrence, which can be explained by the existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In this s...

    Authors: Ryota Tamura, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Oltea Sampetrean, Munehisa Shinozaki, Yukina Morimoto, Chizuru Iwasawa, Raita Fukaya, Yutaka Mine, Hirotaka Masuda, Tetsuo Maruyama, Minoru Narita, Hideyuki Saya, Kazunari Yoshida, Hideyuki Okano and Masahiro Toda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:45

    Content type: Research

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  11. To prevent or ameliorate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) we must understand its molecular basis. AD develops over decades but detailed molecular analysis of AD brains is limited to postmortem tissue where the stresse...

    Authors: Morgan Newman, Nhi Hin, Stephen Pederson and Michael Lardelli

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:43

    Content type: Micro report

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  12. Results of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) highlighted type II cadherins as risk genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To determine whether these cadherins ...

    Authors: Chunlei Wang, Yi-Hsuan Pan, Yue Wang, Gene Blatt and Xiao-Bing Yuan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:40

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. TMP21, a type I transmembrane protein of thep24 protein family, mediates protein trafficking and maturation. Dysregulation of TMP21 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, under...

    Authors: Xiaojie Zhang, Yili Wu, Fang Cai and Weihong Song

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. Itch contagion has been reported in human when people watch someone scratching in a video. The basic mechanism of contagious itch induced by scratching video is still being investigated. A recent study has rep...

    Authors: Jing-Shan Lu, Qi-Yu Chen, Si-Bo Zhou, Feng-Yi Wu, Ren-Hao Liu, Zhao-Xiang Zhou, Hua Zhang and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) affect performance in behavioural paradigms that depend on cognitive flexibility. Many of these studies involved e...

    Authors: Jisoo Lim, Eosu Kim, Hyun Jong Noh, Shinwon Kang, Benjamin U. Phillips, Dong Goo Kim, Timothy J. Bussey, Lisa Saksida, Christopher J. Heath and Chul Hoon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:37

    Content type: Research

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  16. Chronic pain is commonly accompanied with anxiety disorder, which complicates treatment. In this study, we investigated the analgesic and anxiolytic effects of Formononetin (FMNT), an active component of tradi...

    Authors: Xin-shang Wang, Shao-yu Guan, An Liu, Jiao Yue, Li-ning Hu, Kun Zhang, Liu-kun Yang, Liang Lu, Zhen Tian, Ming-gao Zhao and Shui-bing Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a genetic abnormality in the huntingtin gene that leads to a polyglutamine repeat expansion of the huntingtin protein. The cleaved polyglutam...

    Authors: Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman and Stephen S. G. Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:35

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  18. The physiological functions controlled by T-type channels are intrinsically dependent on their gating properties, and alteration of T-type channel activity is linked to several human disorders. Therefore, it i...

    Authors: Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Leos Cmarko, Renata Rehak, Gerald W. Zamponi, Lubica Lacinova and Norbert Weiss

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:34

    Content type: Research

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  19. Autophagy allows for lysosomal cellular degradation of cytosolic components. In particular, neuronal autophagy is essential for cellular homeostasis and neuronal survival and is tightly regulated by several au...

    Authors: Pureum Jeon, Ju-Hui Park, Yong-Woo Jun, You-Kyung Lee, Deok-Jin Jang and Jin-A Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:33

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  20. Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a key role in the molecular mechanism of memory formation. CaMKII is known to be activated specifically in the activated spines during memory forma...

    Authors: Sanghyun Ye, Ji-il Kim, Jooyoung Kim and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:32

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  21. Merkel discs, located in skin touch domes and whisker hair follicles, are tactile end organs essential for environmental exploration, social interaction, and tactile discrimination. Recent studies from our gro...

    Authors: Mayumi Sonekatsu, Steven Lawrence Gu, Hirosato Kanda and Jianguo G. Gu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:31

    Content type: Micro report

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  22. Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) induces short-term potentiation (STP) plus two types of transcriptionally-independent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP), termed LTP1 and LTP2. We have compared the susceptibil...

    Authors: Pojeong Park, Thomas M. Sanderson, Zuner A. Bortolotto, John Georgiou, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Graham L. Collingridge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:30

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  23. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs in pregnant women. Infants born following prenatal exposure to SSRIs have a higher risk for behavioral abnormalities...

    Authors: Weonjin Yu, Yi-Chun Yen, Young-Hwan Lee, Shawn Tan, Yixin Xiao, Hidayat Lokman, Audrey Khoo Tze Ting, Hasini Ganegala, Taejoon Kwon, Won-Kyung Ho and H. Shawn Je

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is endoproteolytically processed to generate either the neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) or the secreted ectodomain APP alpha (sAPPα). While neurotrophic properties of s...

    Authors: Christian Tackenberg and Roger M. Nitsch

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:27

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  25. A major barrier to the effective conduct of clinical trials of new drug candidates against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to identifying patients for receiving future disease-modifying treatments is the limited ...

    Authors: Henrik Zetterberg and Samantha C. Burnham

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:26

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. Posttraumatic stress disorder is developed by exposure to a threatening and/or a horrifying event and characterized by the presence of anxiety, hyperarousal, avoidance, and sleep abnormality for a prolonged pe...

    Authors: Mikiei Tanaka, Hongyun Li, Xijun Zhang, Jatinder Singh, Clifton L. Dalgard, Matthew Wilkerson and Yumin Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2019 12:47

  27. It is now generally accepted that the extra-skeleton functionalities of bone are multifaceted. Its endocrine functions came first to light when it was realized that osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, maintai...

    Authors: Chang Shan, Arijit Ghosh, Xing-zhi Guo, Shu-min Wang, Yan-fang Hou, Sheng-tian Li and Jian-min Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Information from direct experience and observation of others is integrated in the brain to enable appropriate responses to environmental stimuli. Fear memory can be acquired by observing a conspecific’s distre...

    Authors: Hiroshi Nomura, Chie Teshirogi, Daisuke Nakayama, Masabumi Minami and Yuji Ikegaya

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Lysosome-associated membrane protein 5 (LAMP5) is a mammalian ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein, UNC-46, which functions as a sorting factor to localize the vesicular GABA transporter UNC-47 to synap...

    Authors: Michinori Koebis, Shinji Urata, Yo Shinoda, Shigeo Okabe, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Kazuki Nakao, Atsu Aiba and Teiichi Furuichi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS [MIM 270550]) is an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the SACS gene. Over 200 SACS mutations have been identified. Mos...

    Authors: Roxanne Larivière, Nicolas Sgarioto, Brenda Toscano Márquez, Rébecca Gaudet, Karine Choquet, R. Anne McKinney, Alanna J. Watt and Bernard Brais

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. A number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, share intra- and/or extracellular deposition of protein aggregates as a common cor...

    Authors: Jae-Young Koh, Ha Na Kim, Jung Jin Hwang, Yang-Hee Kim and Sang Eun Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:18

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  32. Hypomyelination in the central nerves system (CNS) is one of the most obviously pathological features in Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the...

    Authors: Fan Yang, Yudong Guan, Xiao Feng, Arndt Rolfs, Hartmut Schlüter and Jiankai Luo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are the most common neurodegenerative diseases and have been suggested to share common pathological and physiological links. Understanding the cross-talk b...

    Authors: Jack Kelly, Rana Moyeed, Camille Carroll, Diego Albani and Xinzhong Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Spinophilin is a scaffolding protein enriched in dendritic spines with integral roles in the regulation of spine density and morphology, and the modulation of synaptic plasticity. The ability of spinophilin to...

    Authors: Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alison Hamilton, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires and Stephen S. G. Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:15

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Studies have shown that a normal circadian rhythm is crucial to learning and memory. Circadian rhythm disturbances that occur at early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggravate the progression of the diseas...

    Authors: Li Wang, Rui Zhang, Xiaohong Hou, Changtu Wang, Shuai Guo, Na Ning, Cong Sun, Yuan Yuan, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher and Xiaohui Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:14

    Content type: Research

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  36. The cerebellum regulates complex animal behaviors, such as motor control and spatial recognition, through communication with many other brain regions. The major targets of the cerebellar projections are the th...

    Authors: Nobuyuki Sakayori, Shigeki Kato, Masateru Sugawara, Susumu Setogawa, Hotaka Fukushima, Rie Ishikawa, Satoshi Kida and Kazuto Kobayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. This study describes the functional interaction between Cav3.2 calcium channels and the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). β-ENaC subunits showed overlapping expression with endogenous Cav3.2 calcium channels i...

    Authors: Agustin Garcia-Caballero, Maria A. Gandini, Shuo Huang, Lina Chen, Ivana A. Souza, Yan L. Dang, M. Jackson Stutts and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Chronic opiate exposure induces neuroadaptations in the mesocorticolimbic system including ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons, whose soma size is decreased following opiate exposure. Yet it is ...

    Authors: Sarah C. Simmons, Katie Wheeler and Michelle S. Mazei-Robison

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Correction to: Molecular Brain (2018) 11:52 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13041-018-0394-3

    Authors: Bong Soo Seok, Feng Cao, Erika Bélanger-Nelson, Chloé Provost, Steve Gibbs, Zhengping Jia and Valérie Mongrain

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:9

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2018 11:52

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