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  1. NeuroD1-induced microglia-to-neuron conversion is hotly debated. Recently, we published a paper in Neuron demonstrating that NeuroD1 cannot induce microglia-to-neuron cross-lineage conversion. In the same issue o...

    Authors: Yanxia Rao and Bo Peng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:31
  2. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a regulator of chromatin organization and has direct effects on gene transcription. Mutations in CTCF have been identified in individuals with neurodevelopmental conditions. Ther...

    Authors: Liron Davis, Prudhvi Raj Rayi, Dmitriy Getselter, Hanoch Kaphzan and Evan Elliott
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:30
  3. Olfactory receptors have been detected in extraolfactory organs. Olfactory receptor 78 (Olfr78), proposed to respond to small organic acids, is widely expressed in the kidney, arterioles, colon, and prostate. ...

    Authors: Akiko Nakashima, Noriyuki Nakashima, Kie Nakashima and Makoto Takano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:29
  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (Hif1α) plays a crucial role in brain development. To study the function of Hif1α in early brain development, we generated neuroepithelial cell-specific Hif1α-knockout mice. Hif1α-kno...

    Authors: Daisuke Sakai, Takeru Sugawara, Tomonori Kurokawa, Yuki Murakami, Mitsuhiro Tomosugi, Hiroko Masuta, Hiromi Sakata-Haga, Toshihisa Hatta and Hiroki Shoji
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:28
  5. Abnormal deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the hallmark lesion in Parkinson’s disease (PD). These aggregates, thought to be the culprit of disease pathogenesis, spread th...

    Authors: Joo-Ok Min, Timo Strohäker, Byung-Chul Jeong, Markus Zweckstetter and Seung-Jae Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:27
  6. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by specific social symptoms, restricted interests, stereotyped repetitive behaviors, and delayed language development. The 3q29 mi...

    Authors: Tomoya Takemoto, Masayuki Baba, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Kohei Kitagawa, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Kaoru Seiriki, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Atsushi Kasai, Daisuke Mori, Norio Ozaki, Kazuhiro Takuma, Ryota Hashimoto, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:26

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2022 15:34

  7. The activation and dysregulation of retrotransposons has been identified in the CNS of individuals with the fatal neurodegenerative disorder Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This includes elements from mul...

    Authors: Abigail L. Pfaff, Vivien J. Bubb, John P. Quinn and Sulev Koks
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:25
  8. Alterations in long-range functional connectivity between distinct brain regions are thought to contribute to the encoding of memory. However, little is known about how the activation of an existing network of...

    Authors: Tomonori Takeuchi, Makoto Tamura, Dorothy Tse, Yasushi Kajii, Guillén Fernández and Richard G. M. Morris
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:24
  9. Calsyntenins (CLSTNs) are important synaptic molecules whose molecular functions are not fully understood. Although mutations in calsyntenin (CLSTN) genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders in humans...

    Authors: Keita Mori, Michinori Koebis, Kazuki Nakao, Shizuka Kobayashi, Yuji Kiyama, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshiya Manabe, Yuichi Iino and Atsu Aiba
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:23
  10. The accumulation of neurotoxic proteins characteristic of age-related neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases is associated with the perturbation of metabolism, bioenergetics...

    Authors: Van N. Huynh, Gloria A. Benavides, Michelle S. Johnson, Xiaosen Ouyang, Balu K. Chacko, Edie Osuma, Toni Mueller, John Chatham, Victor M. Darley-Usmar and Jianhua Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:22
  11. It is unclear why orexin-deficient animals, but not wild-type mice, show cataplexy. The current hypothesis predicts simultaneous excitation of cataplexy-inhibiting orexin neurons and cataplexy-inducing amygdal...

    Authors: Shi Zhou, Akira Yamashita, Jingyang Su, Yang Zhang, Wuyang Wang, Liying Hao, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:21
  12. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a critical neurodegenerative condition, has a wide range of effects on brain activity. Synaptic plasticity and neuronal circuits are the most vulnerable in Alzheimer’s disease, but th...

    Authors: Parsa Mirzayi, Parnian Shobeiri, Amirali Kalantari, George Perry and Nima Rezaei
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:20
  13. To diagnose autism spectrum disorder (ASD), researchers have sought biomarkers whose alterations correlate with the susceptibility to ASD. However, biomarkers closely related to the pathophysiology of ASD are ...

    Authors: Gaeun Park, Se Jin Jeon, In Ok Ko, Ji Hwan Park, Kyo Chul Lee, Min-Sik Kim, Chan Young Shin, Hyeonjin Kim and Yong-Seok Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:19
  14. SorLA is a member of the Vps10p-domain (Vps10p-D) receptor family of type-I transmembrane proteins conveying neuronal endosomal sorting. The extracellular/luminal moiety of SorLA has a unique mosaic domain com...

    Authors: Lars Binkle, Marcel Klein, Uwe Borgmeyer, Dietmar Kuhl and Guido Hermey
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:18
  15. Recent research has suggested that the mesolimbic dopamine network that mainly terminates in the nucleus accumbens may positively control the peripheral immune system. The activation of dopamine receptors in n...

    Authors: Daisuke Sato, Yusuke Hamada, Michiko Narita, Tomohisa Mori, Hiroyuki Tezuka, Yukari Suda, Kenichi Tanaka, Sara Yoshida, Hideki Tamura, Akihiro Yamanaka, Emiko Senba, Naoko Kuzumaki and Minoru Narita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:17
  16. Epilepsy has been extensively studied as a common neurological disease. Efforts have been made on rodent and other animal models to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of epilepsy and develop new drugs for treatm...

    Authors: Xiangyu Yang, Zhitang Chen, Ziying Wang, Guang He, Zhiqiang Li, Yongyong Shi, Neng Gong, Binglei Zhao, Yifang Kuang, Eiki Takahashi and Weidong Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:16
  17. Coenzyme Q8A encodes the homologue of yeast coq8, an ATPase that is required for the biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10, an essential component of the electron transport chain. Mutations in COQ8A in humans result in Co...

    Authors: Angelia J. Hura, Hannah R. Hawley, Wei Jun Tan, Rebecca J. Penny, Jessie C. Jacobsen and Helen L. Fitzsimons
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:15
  18. Ischemic stroke, caused by a lack of blood supply in brain tissues, is the third leading cause of human death and disability worldwide, and usually results in sensory and motor dysfunction, cognitive impairmen...

    Authors: Weichen Hou, Yulei Hao, Li Sun, Yang Zhao, Xiangyu Zheng and Lei Song
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:14
  19. Retrograde tracers based on viral vectors are powerful tools for the imaging and manipulation of upstream neural networks projecting to a specific brain region, and they play important roles in structural and ...

    Authors: Zengpeng Han, Nengsong Luo, Jiaxin Kou, Lei Li, Zihong Xu, Siyuan Wei, Yang Wu, Jie Wang, Chaohui Ye, Kunzhang Lin and Fuqiang Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:13
  20. Chronic pain damages the balance between excitation and inhibition in the sensory cortex. It has been confirmed that the activity of cortical glutamatergic pyramidal cells increases after chronic pain. However...

    Authors: Da-Yu Zhu, Ting-Ting Cao, Hong-Wei Fan, Ming-Zhe Zhang, Hao-Kai Duan, Jing Li, Xia-Jing Zhang, Yun-Qing Li, Pan Wang and Tao Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:12
  21. Emerging evidence suggests that the mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in the modulation of pain. As chronic pain conditions are associated with hypodopaminergic tone in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), ...

    Authors: Daisuke Sato, Michiko Narita, Yusuke Hamada, Tomohisa Mori, Kenichi Tanaka, Hideki Tamura, Akihiro Yamanaka, Ryosuke Matsui, Dai Watanabe, Yukari Suda, Emiko Senba, Moe Watanabe, Edita Navratilova, Frank Porreca, Naoko Kuzumaki and Minoru Narita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:10
  22. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by repeated conflicting manic and depressive states. In addition to genetic factors, complex gene–environment interactions, which alter the ...

    Authors: Hiroko Sugawara, Miki Bundo, Takaoki Kasahara, Yutaka Nakachi, Junko Ueda, Mie Kubota-Sakashita, Kazuya Iwamoto and Tadafumi Kato
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:9
  23. Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 C (MEF2C), one of the transcription factors of the MADS-BOX family, is involved in embryonic brain development, neuronal formation and differentiation, as well as in the growth and pr...

    Authors: Zhikun Zhang and Yongxiang Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:8
  24. Systems neuroscience is focused on how ensemble properties in the brain, such as the activity of neuronal circuits, gives rise to internal brain states and behavior. Many of the studies in this field have trad...

    Authors: Yang Shen, Alessandro Luchetti, Giselle Fernandes, Won Do Heo and Alcino J. Silva
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:7
  25. It is well known that acute exposure to physical stress produces a transient antinociceptive effect (called stress-induced analgesia [SIA]). One proposed mechanism for SIA involves noradrenaline (NA) in the ce...

    Authors: Sawako Uchiyama, Kohei Yoshihara, Riku Kawanabe, Izuho Hatada, Keisuke Koga and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:6
  26. Soluble amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα) is a regulator of neuronal and memory mechanisms, while also having neurogenic and neuroprotective effects in the brain. As adult hippocampal neurogenesis is imp...

    Authors: Shane M. Ohline, Connie Chan, Lucia Schoderboeck, Hollie E. Wicky, Warren P. Tate, Stephanie M. Hughes and Wickliffe C. Abraham
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:5
  27. Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative pathogenic bacterium causing meningitis. It penetrates the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, which are vital event...

    Authors: Bojie Xu, Ruicheng Yang, Bo Yang, Liang Li, Jiaqi Chen, Jiyang Fu, Xinyi Qu, Dong Huo, Chen Tan, Huanchun Chen, Zhong Peng and Xiangru Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:4
  28. Low-voltage-activated T-type Ca2+ channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Therefore, their recruitment at the plasma membrane is critical in determ...

    Authors: Leos Cmarko, Robin N. Stringer, Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Tomas Vacik, Lubica Lacinova and Norbert Weiss
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:1
  29. Brain metastasis is a common and lethal complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is mostly diagnosed only after symptoms develop, at which point very few treatment options are available. Therefor...

    Authors: Yanjun Xu, Zhiyu Huang, Xiaoqing Yu, Kaiyan Chen and Yun Fan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:176
  30. Ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), generates a rapidly-acting antidepressant effect. It exerts psychomimetic effects, yet demands a further investigation of its m...

    Authors: Dae Hee Han, Ilgang Hong, Ja Eun Choi, Pojeong Park, Jun-Yeong Baek, HyoJin Park, Soichiro Ide, Masayoshi Mishina, Kazutaka Ikeda and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:174
  31. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are pivotal neuromodulators that regulate a broad range of brain functions, often in concert. Despite their physiological importance, untangling the relationship between D...

    Authors: Chihiro Nakamoto, Yuhei Goto, Yoko Tomizawa, Yuko Fukata, Masaki Fukata, Kasper Harpsøe, David E. Gloriam, Kazuhiro Aoki and Tomonori Takeuchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:173
  32. Despite the established roles of the dopaminergic system in promoting arousal, the effects of loss of dopamine on the patterns of sleep and wakefulness remain elusive. Here, we examined the sleep architecture ...

    Authors: Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Mika Kanuka, Kaeko Tanaka, Masayo Fujita, Ayaka Nakai, Chika Tatsuzawa, Kazuto Kobayashi, Kazutaka Ikeda and Yu Hayashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:170
  33. Rho-associated kinase isoform 2 (ROCK2) is an attractive drug target for several neurologic disorders. A critical barrier to ROCK2-based research and therapeutics is the lack of a mouse model that enables inve...

    Authors: Audrey J. Weber, Ashley B. Adamson, Kelsey M. Greathouse, Julia P. Andrade, Cameron D. Freeman, Jung Vin Seo, Rosaria J. Rae, Courtney K. Walker and Jeremy H. Herskowitz
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:169
  34. Avoidance memory is destabilized when recalled concurrently with conflicting information, and must undergo a hippocampus-dependent restabilization process called reconsolidation to persist. CaMKII is a serine/...

    Authors: Andressa Radiske, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Janine I. Rossato, Gênedy Apolinário, João R. de Oliveira, Lia R. M. Bevilaqua and Martín Cammarota
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:167
  35. T-type calcium channels are known molecular targets of certain phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids. Here we explored the modulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels by terpenes derived from cannabis plants...

    Authors: Vinicius M. Gadotti, Sun Huang and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:166
  36. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) can be an early non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) with pathology involving mainly the pontine nuclei. Beyond the brainstem, it is unclear if RBD patients comorbid...

    Authors: Mikaeel Valli, Sang Soo Cho, Carme Uribe, Mario Masellis, Robert Chen, Alexander Mihaescu and Antonio P. Strafella
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:165
  37. Authors: Adan Hernandez, Chunfeng Tan, Florian Plattner, Aric F. Logsdon, Karine Pozo, Mohammad A. Yousuf, Tanvir Singh, Ryan C. Turner, Brandon P. Lucke-Wold, Jason D. Huber, Charles L. Rosen and James A. Bibb
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:164

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2018 11:64

  38. We have reported that the transcription factor Olig2 labels a subpopulation of astrocytes (Olig2-astrocytes), which show distribution patterns different from those of GFAP-expressing astrocytes (GFAP-astrocyte...

    Authors: Kouko Tatsumi, Kaoru Kinugawa, Ayami Isonishi, Masahiro Kitabatake, Hiroaki Okuda, Shoko Takemura, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Eiichiro Mori and Akio Wanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:163
  39. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the role of the prelimbic cortex in contextual fear memory remain elusive. Here we examined the kinesin family of molecular motor proteins (KIFs) in the prelimbic c...

    Authors: Nadine F. Joseph, Aya Zucca, Jenna L. Wingfield, Isabel Espadas, Damon Page and Sathyanarayanan V. Puthanveettil
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:162
  40. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multi-system neurodegenerative disorder. Patients with PD often suffer chronic pain. In the present study, we investigated motor, sensory and emotional changes in three different ...

    Authors: Zhaoxiang Zhou, Penghai Ye, Xu-Hui Li, Yuxiang Zhang, Muhang Li, Qi-Yu Chen, Jing-Shan Lu, Man Xue, Yanan Li, Weiqi Liu, Lin Lu, Wantong Shi, Ping-Yi Xu and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:161

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2022 15:58

  41. Songbirds are one of the few animal taxa that possess vocal learning abilities. Different species of songbirds exhibit species-specific learning programs during song acquisition. Songbirds with open-ended voca...

    Authors: Shin Hayase, Chengru Shao, Masahiko Kobayashi, Chihiro Mori, Wan-chun Liu and Kazuhiro Wada
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:160
  42. Neuroinflammation is an escalation factor shared by a vast range of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to neuropsychiatric disorders. CNS immune status emerges by the int...

    Authors: Giulia Panattoni, Roberta Amoriello, Christian Memo, Agnes Thalhammer, Clara Ballerini and Laura Ballerini
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:159
  43. Alterations in the canonical processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein generate proteoforms that contribute to the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease. Modified composition of γ-secretase or mutations in its subunits h...

    Authors: Shekhar Kedia, Kousik Mandal, Pallavi Rao Netrakanti, Mini Jose, Sangram S. Sisodia and Deepak Nair
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:158

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