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  1. Content type: Research

    The trigemino-thalamic (T-T) and trigemino-parabrachial (T-P) pathways are strongly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and affective/emotional aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. These T-T and T-P p...

    Authors: Chun-Kui Zhang, Zhi-Hong Li, Yu Qiao, Ting Zhang, Ya-Cheng Lu, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li and Jin-Lian Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:22

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  2. Content type: Review

    Neurodegenerative disorders are frequent, incurable diseases characterised by abnormal protein accumulation and progressive neuronal loss. Despite their growing prevalence, the underlying pathomechanism remain...

    Authors: János Bencze, Gábor Miklós Mórotz, Woosung Seo, Viktor Bencs, János Kálmán, Christopher Charles John Miller and Tibor Hortobágyi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:20

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  3. Content type: Research

    Morphine tolerance is a challenging clinical problem that limits the use of morphine in pain treatment, but the mechanisms of morphine tolerance remain unclear. Recent research indicates that long noncoding RN...

    Authors: Jiali Shao, Jian Wang, Jiangju Huang, Chang Liu, Yundan Pan, Qulian Guo and Wangyuan Zou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:21

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  4. Content type: Short report

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neurotoxicity mediated by the accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, causing neuronal loss and progressive cognitive decline. Genetic deletion or chronic phar...

    Authors: Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman, Alison Hamilton, Maryam Vasefi and Stephen S. G. Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:19

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  5. Content type: Research

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of thick samples using superresolution fluorescence microscopy remains challenging due to high level of background noise and fast photobleaching of fluorescence probes. We...

    Authors: Sangjun Park, Wooyoung Kang, Yeong-Dae Kwon, Jaehoon Shim, Siyong Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Sungchul Hohng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:17

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  6. Content type: Research

    Our previous studies demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can impair the postnatal cognitive function of rats by damaging the hippocampus. The present study examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) o...

    Authors: Wei Jiang, Min Guo, Min Gong, Li Chen, Yang Bi, Yun Zhang, Yuan Shi, Ping Qu, Youxue Liu, Jie Chen and Tingyu Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:14

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  7. Content type: Research

    The transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a multifunctional neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) that controls Ca2+ and protein homeostasis through gene regulation and p...

    Authors: Alejandro López-Hurtado, Daniel F. Burgos, Paz González, Xose M. Dopazo, Valentina González, Alberto Rábano, Britt Mellström and Jose R. Naranjo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:13

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  8. Content type: Research

    The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is primarily localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of the protein’s main function...

    Authors: Xu-bo Li, An Liu, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Yu-mei Wu, Ming-gao Zhao and Shui-bing Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:12

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  9. Content type: Research

    Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia, and spontaneous pain. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and autopha...

    Authors: Yibo Piao, Do Hyeong Gwon, Dong-Wook Kang, Tae Woong Hwang, Nara Shin, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Hyo Jung Shin, Yuhua Yin, Jwa-Jin Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Hyun-Woo Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Sang Ryong Kim, Sang-Ha Oh and Dong Woon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:11

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  10. Content type: Short report

    Growing evidence has indicated that prefibrillar form of soluble amyloid beta (sAβ1–42) is the major causative factor in the synaptic dysfunction associated with AD. The molecular changes leading to presynaptic d...

    Authors: Daehun Park and Sunghoe Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:10

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  11. Content type: Research

    Ghrelin exerts a wide range of physiological actions throughout the body and appears to be a promising target for disease therapy. Endogenous ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) are present in extrahypothalamic sites in...

    Authors: Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takefumi Sone, Michiko Narita, Kenichi Tanaka, Yusuke Hamada, Chizuru Iwasawa, Masahiro Shibasaki, Aya Maekawa, Miri Matsuo, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano and Minoru Narita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:6

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  12. Content type: Research

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a critical factor leading to a poor prognosis for ischemic stroke patients. ω-3 fatty acid supplements taken as part of a daily diet have been shown to improve the...

    Authors: Gang Zuo, Dongping Zhang, Rutao Mu, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Zhong Wang, Haiying Li and Gang Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:9

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  13. Content type: Research

    We examined the neuroprotective efficacy of the poly-arginine peptide R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D in a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) model in P7 Sprague-Dawley rats. R18 and R18D peptides were administere...

    Authors: Adam B. Edwards, Jane L. Cross, Ryan S. Anderton, Neville W. Knuckey and Bruno P. Meloni

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:8

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  14. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease driven in large part by accumulated deposits in the brain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage product amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, AD is ...

    Authors: Valerie T. Y. Tan, Bruce G. Mockett, Shane M. Ohline, Karen D. Parfitt, Hollie E. Wicky, Katie Peppercorn, Lucia Schoderboeck, Mohamad Fairuz bin Yahaya, Warren P. Tate, Stephanie M. Hughes and Wickliffe C. Abraham

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:7

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  15. Content type: Research

    The epithalamus, which is dorsal to the thalamus, consists of the habenula, pineal gland and third ventricle choroid plexus and plays important roles in the stress response and sleep–wake cycle in vertebrates....

    Authors: Bin Liu, Kaixing Zhou, Xiaojing Wu and Chunjie Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:5

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  16. Content type: Research

    Neuronal inhibition is mediated by glycine and/or GABA. Inferior colliculus (IC) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic inputs, whereas inhibition in hippocampus (HC) predominantly relies on GABA. Astrocyte...

    Authors: Elsa Ghirardini, Simon L. Wadle, Vanessa Augustin, Jasmin Becker, Sina Brill, Julia Hammerich, Gerald Seifert and Jonathan Stephan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:4

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  17. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by tissue atrophy involving the brain and the spinal cord, where reactive inflammation contributes to the neurodegenerative processes. Recently, the presence of synapse alte...

    Authors: M. Medelin, V. Giacco, A. Aldinucci, G. Castronovo, E. Bonechi, A. Sibilla, M. Tanturli, M. Torcia, L. Ballerini, F. Cozzolino and C. Ballerini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:3

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  18. Content type: Methodology

    The adult brain actively controls its metabolic homeostasis via the circulatory system at the blood brain barrier interface. The mechanisms underlying the functional coupling from neuron to vessel remain poorl...

    Authors: Gregory W. Kirschen, Rachel Kéry, Hanxiao Liu, Afrinash Ahamad, Liang Chen, Wendy Akmentin, Ramya Kumar, Joel Levine, Qiaojie Xiong and Shaoyu Ge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:2

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  19. Content type: Review

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. In altered cells, metabolic...

    Authors: Alexandre Vallée and Jean-Noël Vallée

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:1

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  20. Content type: Research

    In Drosophila, precise regulation of BMP signaling is essential for normal synaptic growth at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and neuronal survival in the adult brain. However, the molecular mechanisms un...

    Authors: Keunjung Heo, Minyeop Nahm, Min-Jung Lee, Young-Eun Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Seung Hyun Kim and Seungbok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:62

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  21. Content type: Research

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy in the current form is hard to be used to image the neural connectivity of thick tissue samples due to problems such as slow imaging speed, severe photobleaching of flu...

    Authors: Jongjin Lee, Sangjun Park, Wooyoung Kang and Sungchul Hohng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:63

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  22. Content type: Research

    Memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been shown to share similar molecular signatures, including new gene expression. Calpain is a Ca2+-dependent protease that exerts its effects through the...

    Authors: Taikai Nagayoshi, Kiichiro Isoda, Nori Mamiya and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:61

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  23. Content type: Research

    The tree shrew, as a primate-like animal model, has been used for studying high brain functions such as social emotion and spatial learning memory. However, little is known about the excitatory synaptic transm...

    Authors: Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Qi-Yu Chen, Jing-Shan Lu, Tao Chen and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:58

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  24. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity. While accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hyper-phosphorylation of tau are parts of the et...

    Authors: Kyoung-Doo Hwang, Myeong Seong Bak, Sang Jeong Kim, Sangmyung Rhee and Yong-Seok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:57

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  25. Content type: Research

    Accumulating evidence suggests that subcellular-scale structures such as dendritic spine and mitochondria may be involved in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Previ...

    Authors: Akito Nakao, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Koji Ohira, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Nobuteru Usuda, Shunsuke Ishii, Kazuyoshi Murata and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:60

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  26. Content type: Research

    Genomic variation includes single-nucleotide variants, small insertions or deletions (indels), and copy number variants (CNVs). CNVs affect gene expression by altering the genome structure and transposable ele...

    Authors: Yuka Hama, Masataka Katsu, Ichigaku Takigawa, Ichiro Yabe, Masaaki Matsushima, Ikuko Takahashi, Takayuki Katayama, Jun Utsumi and Hidenao Sasaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:54

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  27. Content type: Short report

    Protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), a constitutively active, atypical protein kinase C isoform, maintains a high level of expression in the brain after the induction of learning and long-term potentiation (LTP). Fur...

    Authors: Nam-Kyung Yu, Heesoo Uhm, Jaehoon Shim, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Sangsu Bae, Todd Charlton Sacktor, Sungchul Hohng and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:56

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  28. Content type: Research

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential...

    Authors: Chunfang Dai, Yannan Liu and Zhifang Dong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:52

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  29. Content type: Research

    Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel (CAAC) that is expressed broadly in mammalian tissues including the brain. We have previously reported that Best1 is expressed in hippocampal astrocyte...

    Authors: Soo-Jin Oh, Junsung Woo, Young-Sun Lee, Minhee Cho, Eunju Kim, Nam-Chul Cho, Jae-Yong Park, Ae Nim Pae, C. Justin Lee and Eun Mi Hwang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:51

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  30. Content type: Research

    Alterations in the strength of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus is believed to serve a vital function in the storage and recall of new information in the mammalian brain. These alterations involve the re...

    Authors: Fredrick E. Henry, William Hockeimer, Alex Chen, Shreesh P. Mysore and Michael A. Sutton

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:50

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  31. Content type: Research

    Dopamine is important for motor control and involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm. We previously found that dopamine-deficient (DD) mice became hyperactive in a novel environment 72 h after the last i...

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yoko Hagino, Taishi Takeda, Shinya Kasai, Miho Tanaka, Yukio Takamatsu, Kazuto Kobayashi and Kazutaka Ikeda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:49

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  32. Content type: Research

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an important glycosaminoglycan and is mainly found in the extracellular matrix as CS proteoglycans. In the brain, CS proteoglycans are highly concentrated in perineuronal nets (PNNs...

    Authors: Nozomu Yoshioka, Shinji Miyata, Atsushi Tamada, Yumi Watanabe, Asami Kawasaki, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Kosei Takeuchi and Michihiro Igarashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:47

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  33. Content type: Research

    Common pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) include cytoplasmic aggregation of several RNA-binding proteins. Out of these RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43, FUS/TLS and RGNEF have been shown...

    Authors: Zachary C. E. Hawley, Danae Campos-Melo and Michael J. Strong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:46

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  34. Content type: Research

    Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although many victims are initially resuscitated, they often suffer from serious brain injury, even leading to a “persistent vegetative stat...

    Authors: Dao-jie Xu, Bin Wang, Xuan Zhao, Yi Zheng, Jiu-lin Du and Ying-wei Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:44

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  35. Content type: Research

    Deep brain stimulation in thalamic regions has been proposed as a treatment for epilepsy. The electrical current excites thalamocortical activity which is controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneu...

    Authors: Wei Jen Chang, Wei Pang Chang and Bai Chuang Shyu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:42

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  36. Content type: Review

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induces neuronal injuries, with almost 50% of infected individuals developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although highly activate antiretrovira...

    Authors: Wenjuan Ru and Shao-Jun Tang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:40

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  37. Content type: Research

    We have recently shown that pharmacological blockade of mGlu2 metabotropic glutamate receptors protects vulnerable neurons in the 4-vessel occlusion model of transient global ischemia, whereas receptor activat...

    Authors: Federica Mastroiacovo, Slavianka Moyanova, Milena Cannella, Anderson Gaglione, Remy Verhaeghe, Giovanna Bozza, Michele Madonna, Marta Motolese, Anna Traficante, Barbara Riozzi, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, David Lodge and Ferdinando Nicoletti

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:39

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  38. Content type: Research

    Lewy body dementias are the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia in the elderly after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The two clinical subgroups of Lewy body dementias, namely, dementia with Lewy b...

    Authors: Arnab Datta, Yuek Ling Chai, Jing Min Tan, Jasinda H. Lee, Paul T. Francis, Christopher P. Chen, Siu Kwan Sze and Mitchell K. P. Lai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:36

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  39. Content type: Research

    The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid receptor, whose exact role in anxiety remains unknown. The present study was conducted to explore the possible mechanisms by which GPR55 regulat...

    Authors: Qi-xin Shi, Liu-kun Yang, Wen-long Shi, Lu Wang, Shi-meng Zhou, Shao-yu Guan, Ming-gao Zhao and Qi Yang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:38

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  40. Content type: Research

    Calmodulin (CaM) is an important signaling molecule that regulates a vast array of cellular functions by activating second messengers involved in cell function and plasticity. Low voltage-activated calcium cha...

    Authors: Hadhimulya Asmara, Ileana Micu, Arsalan P. Rizwan, Giriraj Sahu, Brett A. Simms, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Jordan D. T. Engbers, Peter K. Stys, Gerald W. Zamponi and Ray W. Turner

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:37

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