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  1. Neuronal activity-regulated gene transcription underlies plasticity-dependent changes in the molecular composition and structure of neurons. A large number of genes regulated by different neuronal plasticity i...

    Authors: Johanna Denkena, Andrea Zaisser, Barbara Merz, Bertram Klinger, Dietmar Kuhl, Nils Blüthgen and Guido Hermey
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:148
  2. Protrudin is a protein that resides in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and is highly expressed in the nervous system. Although mutations in the human protrudin gene (ZFYVE27, also known as SPG33) give r...

    Authors: Michiko Shirane, Hirotaka Shoji, Yutaka Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Katagiri, Shizuka Kobayashi, Toshiya Manabe, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Keiichi I. Nakayama
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:146
  3. Itch is defined as an unpleasant sensation that provokes a desire to scratch. Our understanding of neuronal circuits for itch information transmission and processing in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) has progres...

    Authors: Keisuke Koga, Yuto Shiraishi, Ryo Yamagata, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Miho Shiratori-Hayashi and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:144
  4. Traumatic injury to the spinal cord initiates a series of pathological cellular processes that exacerbate tissue damage at and beyond the original site of injury. This secondary damage includes oxidative stres...

    Authors: Madhuvika Murugan, Jiaying Zheng, Gongxiong Wu, Rochelle Mogilevsky, Xin Zheng, Peiwen Hu, Junfang Wu and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:143
  5. To prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we must understand its molecular basis. The great majority of AD cases arise sporadically with a late onset after 65 years of age (LOAD). However, rar...

    Authors: Karissa Barthelson, Stephen Martin Pederson, Morgan Newman and Michael Lardelli
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:142
  6. α2-Antiplasmin (α2AP), a principal physiological plasmin inhibitor, is mainly produced by the liver and kidneys, but it is also expressed in several parts of the brain, including the hippocampus and cerebral c...

    Authors: Eri Kawashita, Keiichi Ishihara, Haruko Miyaji, Yu Tanishima, Akiko Kiriyama, Osamu Matsuo and Satoshi Akiba
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:140
  7. The comorbidities of depression and chronic pain have long been recognized in the clinic, and several preclinical studies have demonstrated depression-like behaviors in animal models of chronic pain. These fin...

    Authors: Ryuto Hara, Daiki Takahashi, Tatsuhiro Takehara, Taiju Amano and Masabumi Minami
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:139
  8. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs), particularly those that permit efficient gene transfer to neurons from axonal terminals or across the blood–brain barrier, are useful vehicles for structural and f...

    Authors: Kunzhang Lin, Xin Zhong, Lei Li, Min Ying, Tian Yang, Zhijian Zhang, Xiaobin He and Fuqiang Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:138
  9. Mutations in the Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) gene have been linked to familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), PARK17. VPS35 is a key component of the retromer complex, which plays a central role in endosomal t...

    Authors: Keiko Bono, Chikako Hara-Miyauchi, Shunsuke Sumi, Hisayoshi Oka, Yasuyuki Iguchi and Hirotaka James Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:137
  10. Cerebral microinfarcts (MIs) lead to progressive cognitive impairments in the elderly, and there is currently no effective preventative strategy due to uncertainty about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. O...

    Authors: Xiao-fei He, Ge Li, Li-li Li, Ming-yue Li, Feng-yin Liang, Xi Chen and Xi-quan Hu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:135
  11. Most individuals undergo traumatic stresses at some points in their life, but only a small proportion develop stress-related disorders such as anxiety diseases and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Althoug...

    Authors: Min-Jae Jeong, Changhee Lee, Kibong Sung, Jung Hoon Jung, Jung Hyun Pyo and Joung-Hun Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:134
  12. Increased neural activities reduced pH at the synaptic cleft and interstitial spaces. Recent studies have shown that protons function as a neurotransmitter. However, it remains unclear whether protons signal t...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Xu, Mike T. Lin and Xiang-ming Zha
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:132

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:40

  13. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by Aβ accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation. Epidemiological evidence for a negative correlation between cancer and AD...

    Authors: Seong Gak Jeon, Hyun-ju Lee, HyunHee Park, Kyung-Min Han and Hyang-Sook Hoe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:131
  14. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (lncRNA MALAT1) promotes inflammation in Parkinson’s disease (PD...

    Authors: Li-Jun Cai, Li Tu, Xiao-Mo Huang, Jia Huang, Nan Qiu, Guang-Hong Xie, Jian-Xiong Liao, Wei Du, Ying-Yue Zhang and Jin-Yong Tian
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:130
  15. Chronic pain alters cortical and subcortical plasticity, causing enhanced sensory and affective responses to peripheral nociceptive inputs. Previous studies have shown that ketamine had the potential to inhibi...

    Authors: Isabel D. Friesner, Erik Martinez, Haocheng Zhou, Jonathan Douglas Gould, Anna Li, Zhe Sage Chen, Qiaosheng Zhang and Jing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:129
  16. The amygdala plays an important role in the emotional-affective aspects of behaviors and pain, but can also modulate sensory aspect of pain (“nociception”), likely through coupling to descending modulatory sys...

    Authors: Guangchen Ji and Volker Neugebauer
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:128
  17. In the central nervous system, hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1–4) channels have been implicated in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. It has been reported that HCN chan...

    Authors: Taku Nakagawa, Toshiharu Yasaka, Noriyuki Nakashima, Mitsue Takeya, Kensuke Oshita, Makoto Tsuda, Ken Yamaura and Makoto Takano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:127
  18. Dopamine is involved in many important brain functions, including voluntary motor movement. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system can induce motor impairments, including Parkinson’s disease. We previously fou...

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yukiko Ochiai, Taishi-Clark Takeda, Yoko Hagino, Kazuto Kobayashi and Kazutaka Ikeda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:126

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:51

  19. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is amongst the most prevalent early onset dementias and even though it is clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous, a crucial involvement of metabolic perturbation...

    Authors: Blanca I. Aldana, Yu Zhang, Pia Jensen, Abinaya Chandrasekaran, Sofie K. Christensen, Troels T. Nielsen, Jørgen E. Nielsen, Poul Hyttel, Martin R. Larsen, Helle S. Waagepetersen and Kristine K. Freude
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:125
  20. Glutamate toxicity is a pathomechanism that contributes to neuronal cell death in a wide range of acute and chronic neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-...

    Authors: Simon F. Merz, C. Peter Bengtson, Clara Tepohl, Anna M. Hagenston, Hilmar Bading and Carlos Bas-Orth
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:124
  21. Variants of the cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein (CYFIP) gene family, CYFIP1 and CYFIP2, are associated with numerous neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. According to several studies, CYFIP1 re...

    Authors: Gyu Hyun Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Hyae Rim Kang, Seung-Hyun Lee, Jiwon Shin, Chan Hee Lee, Hyojin Kang, Ruiying Ma, Chunmei Jin, Yoonhee Kim, Su Yeon Kim, Seok-Kyu Kwon, Se-Young Choi, Kea Joo Lee and Kihoon Han
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:123
  22. Altered levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been reported in neurologically diseased human brains. Therefore, it is important to understand how the expression of BDNF is controlled under pa...

    Authors: Mamoru Fukuchi, Ryohei Saito, Shojiro Maki, Nami Hagiwara, Yumena Nakajima, Satoru Mitazaki, Hironori Izumi and Hisashi Mori
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:122
  23. The release of dopamine (DA) into target brain areas is considered an essential event for the modulation of many physiological effects. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in pain rel...

    Authors: Soroush Darvish-Ghane, Clémentine Quintana, Jean-Martin Beaulieu and Loren J. Martin
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:121
  24. The transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has beneficial effects on spinal cord injury (SCI). However, while there are many subtypes of NPC...

    Authors: Keita Kajikawa, Kent Imaizumi, Munehisa Shinozaki, Shinsuke Shibata, Tomoko Shindo, Takahiro Kitagawa, Reo Shibata, Yasuhiro Kamata, Kota Kojima, Narihito Nagoshi, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:120
  25. Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels are important mediators of nociceptive signaling, but their roles in the transmission of itch remains poorly understood. Here we report a key involvement of these channels as key...

    Authors: Vinicius M. Gadotti, Joanna M. Kreitinger, Nicholas B. Wageling, Dylan Budke, Philippe Diaz and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:119
  26. Repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a transcription repressor and its expression is regulated by the Wnt pathway through β-catenin. Metabotropic...

    Authors: Jéssica M. de Souza, Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman, Fabiola M. Ribeiro and Stephen S. G. Ferguson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:118
  27. Serotonin (5-HT) is a well-known modulator of behavioral, physiological, and emotional functions of the forebrain region. We recently discovered alterations of serotonergic synaptic modulations in both, the pr...

    Authors: Fumihito Saitow, Toru Takumi and Hidenori Suzuki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:115
  28. MicroRNAs perform important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sequencing as well as functional studies using antisense oligonucleotides indicate important roles for microRNAs dur...

    Authors: Luiz F. Almeida Silva, Cristina R. Reschke, Ngoc T. Nguyen, Elena Langa, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Rogerio R. Gerbatin, Fernanda R. Temp, Mayara L. de Freitas, Ronan M. Conroy, Gary P. Brennan, Tobias Engel and David C. Henshall
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:114
  29. As the main organelles for the clearance of damaged proteins and damaged organelles, the function of lysosomes is crucial for maintaining the intracellular homeostasis of long-lived neurons. A stable acidic en...

    Authors: Mengling Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xueshun Xie, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Yunhai Zhang, Jiang Wu, Jianqiang Ni, Haiying Li and Gang Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:113
  30. The dopamine (DA) system has a profound impact on reward-motivated behavior and is critically involved in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although DA defects are found in ...

    Authors: Owen Y. Chao, Salil S. Pathak, Hao Zhang, Nathan Dunaway, Jay-Shake Li, Claudia Mattern, Susanne Nikolaus, Joseph P. Huston and Yi-Mei Yang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:111
  31. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviours. Multiple ASD-associated mutations have been identified in the Shank family of proteins that play ...

    Authors: Yukti Vyas, Kevin Lee, Yewon Jung and Johanna M. Montgomery
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:110
  32. Leptin, secreted by peripheral adipocytes, binds the leptin receptor (Lepr) in the hypothalamus, thereby contributing to the regulation of satiety and body weight. Lepr is expressed in the embryonic brain as e...

    Authors: Zhonggan Ren, Yitong Liu, Wentong Hong, Xinjie Pan, Pifang Gong, Qiong Liu, Guomin Zhou and Song Qin
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:109
  33. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the formation of toxic, fibrillar form alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) protein aggregates in dopaminergic neurons. Accumulating evidence has shown a multifactorial interpla...

    Authors: Alysia Ross, Viktoria Xing, Ting Ting Wang, Samantha C. Bureau, Giovana A. Link, Teresa Fortin, Hui Zhang, Shawn Hayley and Hongyu Sun
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:108
  34. The insular cortex (IC) is the primary gustatory cortex, and it is a critical structure for encoding and retrieving the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory. In the CTA, consumption of an appetitive tastant...

    Authors: Konami Abe, Marin Kuroda, Yosuke Narumi, Yuki Kobayashi, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Teiichi Furuichi and Yoshitake Sano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:107
  35. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is commonly comorbid with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The incidence of these pain conditions is prevalent in women and prone to mental stress. Chronic pain symptoms in patient...

    Authors: Jia-Heng Li, Jia-Le Yang, Si-Qi Wei, Zhuo-Lin Li, Anna A. Collins, Min Zou, Feng Wei and Dong-Yuan Cao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:106
  36. Proper dendrite morphogenesis and neuronal migration are crucial for cerebral cortex development and neural circuit formation. In this study, we sought to determine if the histone deacetylase HDAC6 plays a rol...

    Authors: Ji-ye Kim, Hee-Gon Hwang, Joo-Yong Lee, Minkyu Kim and Jeong-Yoon Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:105
  37. Brain injury causes astrocytes to become reactive (astrogliosis). In this study, we compared astrogliosis in acutely injured cortex and striatum of adult FVB/N mice induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP, a c...

    Authors: Haijie Yang, Jiawei An, Insup Choi, Kihwang Lee, Sang-Myun Park, Ilo Jou and Eun-Hye Joe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:103
  38. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-established risk factor for the development of dementia in PD. A growing body of evid...

    Authors: Zhiqiang Jiang, Yilin Huang, Piao Zhang, Chongyin Han, Yueer Lu, Zongchao Mo, Zhanyu Zhang, Xin Li, Sisi Zhao, Fuqiang Cai, Lizhen Huang, Chunbo Chen, Zhihong Shi, Yuhu Zhang and Fei Ling
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:102
  39. The defining features of a neuron are its functional and anatomical connections with thousands of other neurons in the brain. Together, these neurons form functional networks that direct animal behavior. Curre...

    Authors: Audrey Tze Ting Khoo, Paul Jong Kim, Ho Min Kim and H. Shawn Je
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:101
  40. Cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying how chronic pain induces maladaptive alterations to local circuits in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while emerging, remain unresolved. Consistent evidence sho...

    Authors: John Cheriyan and Patrick L. Sheets
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:100
  41. The serotonin (5-HT) system is the target of multiple anxiolytics, including Buspirone, which is a partial agonist of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A). Similarly, ligands of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A...

    Authors: Anes Ju, Beatriz Fernandez-Arroyo, Yifan Wu, Débora Jacky and Anna Beyeler
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:99

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