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  1. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5 receptors) have important roles in synaptic activity in the central nervous system. They modulate neuronal excitability by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ following...

    Authors: Seung-Eon Roh, Yun Hwa Hong, Dong Cheol Jang, Jun Kim and Sang Jeong Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:9
  2. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4 is an important A-type potassium channel and modulates the excitability of neurons in central nervous system. Analysis of the interaction between Kv1.4 and its interac...

    Authors: Chunliang Xie, Haibo Su, Tianyao Guo, Yizhong Yan, Xiaozhen Peng, Rui Cao, Ying Wang, Ping Chen, Xianchun Wang and Songping Liang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:4
  3. The output of the neuronal digital spikes is fulfilled by axonal propagation and synaptic transmission to influence postsynaptic cells. Similar to synaptic transmission, spike propagation on the axon is not se...

    Authors: Zhilai Yang, Erwei Gu, Xianfu Lu and Jin-Hui Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2014 7:1
  4. Neuropeptides are a diverse category of signaling molecules in the nervous system regulating a variety of processes including food intake, social behavior, circadian rhythms, learning, and memory. Both the ide...

    Authors: Joseph P Salisbury, Kristin J Boggio, Yun-Wei A Hsu, Jeniffer Quijada, Anna Sivachenko, Gabriele Gloeckner, Paul J Kowalski, Michael L Easterling, Michael Rosbash and Jeffrey N Agar
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:60
  5. Several etiological reports have shown that chronic pain significantly interferes with sleep. Inadequate sleep due to chronic pain may contribute to the stressful negative consequences of living with pain. How...

    Authors: Hisakatsu Ito, Makoto Yanase, Akira Yamashita, Chigusa Kitabatake, Asami Hamada, Yuki Suhara, Michiko Narita, Daigo Ikegami, Hiroyasu Sakai, Mitsuaki Yamazaki and Minoru Narita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:59
  6. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) and NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) are both ligand-gated ion channels permeable to Ca2+ and Na+. Previous studies have demonstrated functional modulation of NMDARs...

    Authors: Shupeng Li, Qiang Nai, Tatiana V Lipina, John C Roder and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:58
  7. Noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists evoke a behavioral and neurobiological syndrome in experimental animals. We previously reported that phencyclidine (PCP), an NMDA receptor antagonis...

    Authors: Hideko Yamamoto, Etsuko Kamegaya, Wakako Sawada, Ryota Hasegawa, Toshifumi Yamamoto, Yoko Hagino, Yukio Takamatsu, Kazuhide Imai, Hisashi Koga, Masayoshi Mishina and Kazutaka Ikeda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:56
  8. Huntington Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein (Htt). Mutant HTT (mHtt) leads to progressive impairment of several molec...

    Authors: Alba Di Pardo, Silvia Alberti, Vittorio Maglione, Enrico Amico, Etty P Cortes, Francesca Elifani, Giuseppe Battaglia, Carla L Busceti, Ferdinando Nicoletti, JeanPaul G Vonsattel and Ferdinando Squitieri
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:55
  9. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter that mediates a principal form of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. From the presynaptic terminals of neurons, glutamate is released upon exocytosis of the ...

    Authors: Hyungju Park, Kyung-Seok Han, Soo-Jin Oh, Seonmi Jo, Junsung Woo, Bo-Eun Yoon and C Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:54
  10. Sensory input is generally thought to be necessary for refining and consolidating neuronal connections during brain development. We here report that cortical callosal axons in somatosensory cortex require sens...

    Authors: Ying Huang, Ning-Ning Song, Wei Lan, Qiong Zhang, Ling Zhang, Lei Zhang, Ling Hu, Jia-Yin Chen, Chun-Jie Zhao, Lingjiang Li, Lin Xu and Yu-Qiang Ding
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:53
  11. Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are inherited diseases caused by glycosylation defects. Incorrectly glycosylated proteins induce protein misfolding and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The most ...

    Authors: Liangwu Sun, Yingjun Zhao, Kun Zhou, Hudson H Freeze, Yun-wu Zhang and Huaxi Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:52
  12. The angiotensin system has several non-vascular functions in the central nervous system. For instance, inhibition of the brain angiotensin system results in a reduction in neuronal death following acute brain ...

    Authors: Mi-Ha Park, Ha Na Kim, Joon Seo Lim, Jae-Sung Ahn and Jae-Young Koh
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:50
  13. Adult neurogenesis, fundamental for cellular homeostasis in the mammalian olfactory epithelium, requires major shifts in gene expression to produce mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) from multipotent prog...

    Authors: Paula M Heron, Arnold J Stromberg, Patrick Breheny and Timothy S McClintock
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:49
  14. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a genetic disorder characterized by severe ataxia associated with progressive loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptor plays a key ro...

    Authors: Serena Notartomaso, Cristina Zappulla, Francesca Biagioni, Milena Cannella, Domenico Bucci, Giada Mascio, Pamela Scarselli, Francesco Fazio, Filippo Weisz, Luana Lionetto, Maurizio Simmaco, Roberto Gradini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Michele Signore, Aldamaria Puliti and Ferdinando Nicoletti
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:48
  15. Exosomes, small extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, have been suggested to be involved in both the metabolism and aggregation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Despite thei...

    Authors: Kyongman An, Igor Klyubin, Youngkyu Kim, Jung Hoon Jung, Alexandra J Mably, Sean T O’Dowd, Timothy Lynch, Daniel Kanmert, Cynthia A Lemere, Gina M Finan, Joon Won Park, Tae-Wan Kim, Dominic M Walsh, Michael J Rowan and Joung-Hun Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:47
  16. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and two immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, have been found to be involved in regulating the appetite-suppressing effect of amphetamine (AMPH). The present study investigated...

    Authors: Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Ching-Han Yu, Jiuan-Miaw Liao and Dong-Yih Kuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:46
  17. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is widely used totreat depression and anxiety disorders, but cellular mechanisms underlyingthe antidepressant effect of FLX remain largely unknown. T...

    Authors: Koji Ohira, Rika Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Iwanaga and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:43
  18. A luminex-based screen of cytokine expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nerve of type 1 diabetic rodents revealed interleukin-1 (IL-1α) and IL-1β to be significantly depressed. We, therefore, tested the...

    Authors: Ali Saleh, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Darrell R Smith, Savitha Balakrishnan, Lori Tessler, Emily Schartner, Andre Bilodeau, Randy Van Der Ploeg and Paul Fernyhough
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:45
  19. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of a large number of drugs currently in therapeutic use. Likewise, the glutamate ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in certain...

    Authors: Ana Vicente-Sánchez, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, María Rodríguez-Muñoz and Javier Garzón
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:42
  20. Mammalian sires participate in infant care. We previously demonstrated that sires of a strain of nonmonogamous laboratory mice initiate parental retrieval behavior in response to olfactory and auditory signals...

    Authors: Shirin Akther, Natalia Korshnova, Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Stanislav M Cherepanov, Olga Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Alla B Salmina, Tomoko Nishimura, Azam AKM Fakhrul, Hirokazu Hirai, Ichiro Kato, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Shin Takasawa, Hiroshi Okamoto and Haruhiro Higashida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:41
  21. The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) participates in normal post-transcriptional control of cytokine and chemokine gene expression, dysregulation of which contributes to the HIV-associated neurocognit...

    Authors: Jonathan Liu, Jeanne M Sisk, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements and Kenneth W Witwer
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:40
  22. Intracellular Ca2+ regulates many aspects of neuronal function through Ca2+ binding to EF hand-containing Ca2+ sensors that in turn bind target proteins to regulate their function. Amongst the sensors are the neu...

    Authors: Victoria M Martin, James R Johnson, Lee P Haynes, Jeff W Barclay and Robert D Burgoyne
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:39
  23. αCaMKII plays central and essential roles in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. αCaMKII is activated via binding with Ca2+/CaM in response to elevated Ca2+ concentration. Furthermore, prolonged in...

    Authors: Ken-ichi Kato, Taku Iwamoto and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:37
  24. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels with essential roles in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the CNS. As co-receptors for glutamate and glycine, gating of the NMDA receptor/channe...

    Authors: Lu Han, Verónica A Campanucci, James Cooke and Michael W Salter
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:36
  25. In autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinsonism (PARK2), the pathogenetic process from the loss of function of a ubiquitin ligase parkin to the death of dopamine neurons remains unclear. A dominant hypothesis ...

    Authors: Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Hodaka Yamakado, Takao Morita, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Ryosuke Takahashi and Makoto Kinoshita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:35
  26. Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a hallmark of various retinal diseases including glaucoma, retinal ischemia, and diabetic retinopathy. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-media...

    Authors: Ning Bai, Tomomi Aida, Michiko Yanagisawa, Sayaka Katou, Kenji Sakimura, Masayoshi Mishina and Kohichi Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:34
  27. Down’s syndrome (DS) is caused by triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 and is characterized by a decrease in the overall size of the brain. One of the brain regions most affected is the cerebellu...

    Authors: Marianna Szemes, Rachel L Davies, Claire LP Garden and Maria M Usowicz
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:33
  28. Pain and natural rewards such as food elicit different behavioral effects. Both pain and rewards, however, have been shown to alter synaptic activities in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key component of the br...

    Authors: David S Tukey, Michelle Lee, Duo Xu, Sarah E Eberle, Yossef Goffer, Toby R Manders, Edward B Ziff and Jing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:32
  29. A long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1_2 (NEAT1_2), constitutes nuclear bodies known as “paraspeckles”. Mutations of RNA binding proteins, including TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (...

    Authors: Yoshinori Nishimoto, Shinichi Nakagawa, Tetsuro Hirose, Hirotaka James Okano, Masaki Takao, Shinsuke Shibata, Satoshi Suyama, Ken-ichiro Kuwako, Takao Imai, Shigeo Murayama, Norihiro Suzuki and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:31
  30. Type B GABA receptors (GABA Rs) play a critical role in synaptic transmission. We carried out studies to determine whether neuronal cell surface expression of GABAB-Rs might be regulated by the Nogo receptor 1...

    Authors: Rachana Murthy, Jeeyong Kim, Xiankui Sun, Roman J Giger, David J Fink and Marina Mata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:30
  31. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their effective antimicrobial properties, are being widely used in a broad range of applications. These include, but are not limited to, antibacterial materials, the text...

    Authors: Fenglian Xu, Cortt Piett, Svetlana Farkas, Munir Qazzaz and Naweed I Syed
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:29
  32. Inflammation in injured tissue has both repair functions and cytotoxic consequences. However, the issue of whether brain inflammation has a repair function has received little attention. Previously, we demonst...

    Authors: Hey-Kyeong Jeong, Kyung-min Ji, Jun Kim, Ilo Jou and Eun-Hye Joe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:28
  33. GSK3β is involved in a wide range of physiological functions, and is presumed to act in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, from bipolar disorder to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In contrast, the GSK3α isoz...

    Authors: Hervé Maurin, Benoit Lechat, Ilse Dewachter, Laurence Ris, Justin V Louis, Peter Borghgraef, Herman Devijver, Tomasz Jaworski and Fred Van Leuven
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:27
  34. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, adult onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. There is emerging evidence that alterations in RNA metabolism may be critical in the pathoge...

    Authors: Danae Campos-Melo, Cristian A Droppelmann, Zhongping He, Kathryn Volkening and Michael J Strong
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:26
  35. Bergmann glia (BG) are unipolar cerebellar astrocytes. The somata of mature BG reside in the Purkinje cell layer and extend radially arranged processes to the pial surface. BG have multiple branched processes,...

    Authors: Yuichi Hiraoka, Okiru Komine, Mai Nagaoka, Ning Bai, Katsuto Hozumi and Kohichi Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:25
  36. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are regulated by several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as receptor tyrosine kinases. Serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptors are expressed throughout the brain inc...

    Authors: Maryam S Vasefi, Kai Yang, Jerry Li, Jeff S Kruk, John J Heikkila, Michael F Jackson, John F MacDonald and Michael A Beazely
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:24
  37. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of NMDARs is implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Native NMDARs are heteromultimeric pr...

    Authors: Ning Bai, Hideki Hayashi, Tomomi Aida, Kazuhiko Namekata, Takayuki Harada, Masayoshi Mishina and Kohichi Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:22
  38. Dravet syndrome is a devastating infantile-onset epilepsy syndrome with cognitive deficits and autistic traits caused by genetic alterations in SCN1A gene encoding the α-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channe...

    Authors: Norimichi Higurashi, Taku Uchida, Christoph Lossin, Yoshio Misumi, Yohei Okada, Wado Akamatsu, Yoichi Imaizumi, Bo Zhang, Kazuki Nabeshima, Masayuki X Mori, Shutaro Katsurabayashi, Yukiyoshi Shirasaka, Hideyuki Okano and Shinichi Hirose
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:19
  39. GABAergic deficit is one of the major mechanisms underlying epileptic seizures. Previous studies have mainly focused on alterations of synaptic GABAergic inhibition during epileptogenesis. Recent work suggeste...

    Authors: Yajie Sun, Zheng Wu, Shuzhen Kong, Dongyun Jiang, Anar Pitre, Yun Wang and Gong Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2013 6:21

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