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  1. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that regulates cellular homeostasis. It is constitutively active in neurons and controls the essential steps of neuronal development, leading to its dysfunction in ...

    Authors: Ji-Hye Kwak, You-kyung Lee, Mi-Hee Jun, Mootaek Roh, Hyunhyo Seo, Juhyun Lee, Kyungmin Lee and Jin-A Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:100
  2. Activation of spinal cord microglia contributes to the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microglial function in neuropathic pain are ...

    Authors: Jiyun Peng, Min-Hee Yi, Heejin Jeong, Przemyslaw Peter McEwan, Jiaying Zheng, Gongxiong Wu, Shashank Ganatra, Yi Ren, Jason R. Richardson, Seog Bae Oh and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:99
  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their differentiated neurons (iPSC-neurons) are a widely used cellular model in the research of the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how well they captu...

    Authors: Leonard C. Steg, Gemma L. Shireby, Jennifer Imm, Jonathan P. Davies, Alice Franklin, Robert Flynn, Seema C. Namboori, Akshay Bhinge, Aaron R. Jeffries, Joe Burrage, Grant W. A. Neilson, Emma M. Walker, Leo W. Perfect, Jack Price, Grainne McAlonan, Deepak P. Srivastava…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:98
  4. The formation and retention of hippocampus-dependent memories is impacted by neurogenesis, a process that involves the production of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies demonstr...

    Authors: Gavin A. Scott, Dylan J. Terstege, Andrew J. Roebuck, Kelsea A. Gorzo, Alex P. Vu, John G. Howland and Jonathan R. Epp
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:97
  5. Reductions in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system exist across multiple brain regions in schizophrenia and encompass both pre- and postsynaptic components. While reduced midbrain GABAergic inhibitory neurotr...

    Authors: Tertia D. Purves-Tyson, Amelia M. Brown, Christin Weissleder, Debora A. Rothmond and Cynthia Shannon Weickert
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:96
  6. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviours. ASDs have a strong genetic basis with mutations involved in the dev...

    Authors: Yukti Vyas, Yewon Jung, Kevin Lee, Craig C. Garner and Johanna M. Montgomery
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:95
  7. The neuronal circuitry for pain signals has been intensively studied for decades. The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PB) was shown to play a crucial role in nociceptive information processing. Previous...

    Authors: Mariko Ito, Masashi Nagase, Suguru Tohyama, Kaori Mikami, Fusao Kato and Ayako M. Watabe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:94
  8. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Gi Seok Jeong, Joon Young Chang, Ji Soo Park, Seung-A Lee, DoYeun Park, Junsung Woo, Heeyoung An, C. Justin Lee and Sang-Hoon Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:93

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:17

  9. Functional lateralization of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress and emotional disorders, yet underlying gene expression changes remains unknown. Here, we report molecular signatures lateralize...

    Authors: Sujin Chae, Jiso Hong, Keunsoo Kang, Anna Shin, Dae-Gun Kim, Sinjeong Lee, Moo-young Kim, Inkyung Jung and Daesoo Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:92
  10. N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, hypolacrima or alacrima, seizure, intellectual disability, motor deficits, and other neurological symptoms. The....

    Authors: Makoto Asahina, Reiko Fujinawa, Hiroto Hirayama, Ryuichi Tozawa, Yasushi Kajii and Tadashi Suzuki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:91

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:127

  11. Homer is a postsynaptic scaffold protein, which has long and short isoforms. The long form of Homer consists of an N-terminal target-binding domain and a C-terminal multimerization domain, linking multiple pro...

    Authors: Teiichi Furuichi, Yuko Muto, Tetsushi Sadakata, Yumi Sato, Kanehiro Hayashi, Yoko Shiraishi-Yamaguchi and Yo Shinoda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:90
  12. The type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors) are class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by endogenous lipids called endocannabinoids to modulate neuronal excitabi...

    Authors: Hajar Miranzadeh Mahabadi, Haseeb Bhatti, Robert B. Laprairie and Changiz Taghibiglou
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:89
  13. The ACC is an important brain area for the processing of pain-related information. Studies of synaptic connections within the ACC provide an understanding of basic cellular and molecular mechanisms for brain f...

    Authors: Jung-Hyun Alex Lee, Zhuang Miao, Qi-Yu Chen, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:88
  14. Microglia, resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system, can display a range of reaction states and thereby exhibit distinct biological functions across development, adulthood and under disease...

    Authors: Lara Friess, Mathilde Cheray, Lily Keane, Kathleen Grabert and Bertrand Joseph
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:87
  15. Immunogold labeling allows localization of proteins at the electron microscopy (EM) level of resolution, and quantification of signals. The present paper summarizes methodological issues and experiences gained...

    Authors: Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng, Virginia Crocker, Sandra Lara Moreira and Rita Azzam
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:86
  16. Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presenilin (PS) is highly expressed in the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable in AD. Previous studies of PS fu...

    Authors: Sang Hun Lee, Vadim Y. Bolshakov and Jie Shen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:85
  17. Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability including hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. We have previously reported hippocampal mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) hy...

    Authors: Jesús David Urbano-Gámez, Juan José Casañas, Itziar Benito and María Luz Montesinos
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:84
  18. Mutation of the gene PARK7 (DJ1) causes monogenic autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans. Subsequent alterations of PARK7 protein function lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, a major element in PD ...

    Authors: Hui Yung Chin, Michael Lardelli, Lyndsey Collins-Praino and Karissa Barthelson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:83
  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with aging and age-related hearing loss (AHL). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of hearing loss remain unclear. Cdk5 regulatory subunit-ass...

    Authors: Toru Miwa, Fan-yan Wei and Kazuhito Tomizawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:82
  20. The neurotransmitter serotonin, involved in the regulation of pain and emotion, is critically regulated by the 5‐HT1A autoreceptor and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). Polymorphisms of these genes affect mood a...

    Authors: Isabel Ellerbrock, Angelica Sandström, Jeanette Tour, Silvia Fanton, Diana Kadetoff, Martin Schalling, Karin B. Jensen, Rouslan Sitnikov and Eva Kosek
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:81
  21. Homozygous mutations in the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase gene, GBA1, cause Gaucher’s disease (GD), while heterozygous mutations in GBA1 are a strong risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), whose pathological ha...

    Authors: Etsuro Nakanishi, Norihito Uemura, Hisako Akiyama, Masato Kinoshita, Sawamura Masanori, Yosuke Taruno, Hodaka Yamakado, Shu-ichi Matsuzawa, Shunichi Takeda, Yoshio Hirabayashi and Ryosuke Takahashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:80
  22. Astrocytes are critical regulators of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously shown that astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) have increased intracellular Ca2+ levels follo...

    Authors: Riku Kawanabe, Kohei Yoshihara, Izuho Hatada and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:79
  23. Reconsolidation has been considered a process in which a consolidated memory is turned into a labile stage. Within the reconsolidation window, the labile memory can be either erased or strengthened. Manipulati...

    Authors: Boren Lin, Khaled Alganem, Sinead M. O’Donovan, Zhen Jin, FarzanehSadat Naghavi, Olivia A. Miller, Tyler C. Ortyl, Ye Chun Ruan, Robert E. McCullumsmith and Jianyang Du
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:78
  24. mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors are highly expressed and functional in the early postnatal life, and are known to positively modulate NMDA receptor function. Here, we examined the expression of NMDA rec...

    Authors: Tiziana Imbriglio, Remy Verhaeghe, Nico Antenucci, Stefania Maccari, Giuseppe Battaglia, Ferdinando Nicoletti and Milena Cannella
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:77

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:114

  25. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative fatal disorder in which motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord degenerate. A single infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) delays disease p...

    Authors: Hirotoshi Magota, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Ryo Ukai, Ryo Kiyose, Rie Onodera, Jeffery D. Kocsis and Osamu Honmou
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:76
  26. Homeostatic plasticity is necessary for the construction and maintenance of functional neuronal networks, but principal molecular mechanisms required for or modified by homeostatic plasticity are not well unde...

    Authors: Pernille Bülow, Stephanie A. Zlatic, Peter A. Wenner, Gary J. Bassell and Victor Faundez
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:75
  27. Neuroinflammation by activated microglia and astrocytes plays a critical role in progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a negative-feedback regulator that limits pro-infl...

    Authors: Hiroyasu Komiya, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuki Ogawa, Kosuke Suzuki, Akihiro Ogasawara, Keita Takahashi, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Hiroshi Doi and Fumiaki Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:74
  28. Loss-of-function mutations in the human oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) gene cause intellectual disability, a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition. However, the role OPHN1 plays during neuronal development is not well ...

    Authors: Sungdae Kim, Joohyung Kim, Sunyoung Park, Joong-Jean Park and Seungbok Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:73
  29. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is expressed dominantly in the astrocytes and exerts either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in the brain. Although PRDX6 can modulate several signaling cascades involving cognitiv...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Sureka Jasmin, Tanita Pairojana, Hsueh-Kai Chang, Kai-Chi Liang and Ingrid Y. Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:72
  30. Insular cortex is a critical brain region that participates in the interoceptive sensations. Here, we combined the iDISCO + method and Fos immunostaining to confirm that the middle part of the right-side, but ...

    Authors: Kai Qian, Jiaqi Liu, Yiqing Cao, Jing Yang and Shuang Qiu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:71
  31. We have previously reported that cambinol (DDL-112), a known inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2), suppressed extracellular vesicle (EV)/exosome production in vitro in a cell model and reduced tau...

    Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:108

  32. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Pan Wang, Ke Tu, Peng Cao, Yuefan Yang, Hao Zhang, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Hui Yang and Tao Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:69

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:49

  33. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by the segmental deletion of human chromosome 22. This chromosomal deletion is known as high genetic risk factors for various psychiatric disorders. T...

    Authors: Ryo Saito, Chika Miyoshi, Michinori Koebis, Itaru Kushima, Kazuki Nakao, Daisuke Mori, Norio Ozaki, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa and Atsu Aiba
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:68
  34. The rodent whisker-barrel cortex system has been established as an ideal model for studying sensory information integration. The barrel cortex consists of barrel and septa columns that receive information inpu...

    Authors: Mingzhao Su, Junhua Liu, Baocong Yu, Kaixing Zhou, Congli Sun, Mengjie Yang and Chunjie Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:67
  35. GAP-43 is a vertebrate neuron-specific protein and that is strongly related to axon growth and regeneration; thus, this protein has been utilized as a classical molecular marker of these events and growth cone...

    Authors: Masayasu Okada, Yosuke Kawagoe, Yuta Sato, Motohiro Nozumi, Yuya Ishikawa, Atsushi Tamada, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yonehiro Kanemura, Yohei Shinmyo, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Yukihiko Fujii and Michihiro Igarashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:66
  36. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Monica Iannotta, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Rosmara Infantino, Flavia Ricciardi, Claudia Cristiano, Rosa Maria Vitale, Pietro Amodeo, Ida Marabese, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Salvatore Paino, Enza Palazzo, Antonio Calignano, Vincenzo Di Marzo…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:64

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:28

  37. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes memory loss. Most AD researches have focused on neurodegeneration mechanisms. Considering that neurodegenerative changes are not...

    Authors: Kyung-Ran Kim, Yoonsub Kim, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Jong-Sun Kang, Sang Hun Lee, Yujin Kim, Suk-Ho Lee and Won-Kyung Ho
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:62
  38. The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders that is caused by the deletion of a region containing 7 genes on chromosome 15 (MTMR10, FAN1, TRP...

    Authors: Tesshu Hori, Shohei Ikuta, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Chieko Koike
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:61
  39. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in different forms of plasticity in the central nervous system. NMDARs are always assembled in tetrameric form, in which two GluN1 subunits and two ...

    Authors: Qi-Yu Chen, Xu-Hui Li, Jing-Shan Lu, Yinglu Liu, Jung-Hyun Alex Lee, Yu-Xin Chen, Wantong Shi, Kexin Fan and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:60
  40. Intracellular aggregates are a common pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple sys...

    Authors: Shun Kubota, Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Kenichi Tanaka, Hiroyasu Komiya, Atsuko Katsumoto, Shingo Ikeda, Shunta Hashiguchi, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Keita Takahashi, Misako Kunii, Mikiko Tada, Hideyuki Takeuchi and Fumiaki Tanaka
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:59
  41. Mitochondrial structural changes are associated with the regulation of mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. PRKN is known to be involved with various mechanisms of mitochondrial qual...

    Authors: Mutsumi Yokota, Soichiro Kakuta, Takahiro Shiga, Kei-ichi Ishikawa, Hideyuki Okano, Nobutaka Hattori, Wado Akamatsu and Masato Koike
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:58
  42. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder resulting from an aberrant expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the ataxin-3 protein and subsequent neuronal death. The underlying i...

    Authors: Anna S. Sowa, Taissia G. Popova, Tina Harmuth, Jonasz J. Weber, Priscila Pereira Sena, Jana Schmidt, Jeannette Hübener-Schmid and Thorsten Schmidt
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:57
  43. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of impaired social behavior and communication. Recent studies have suggested that the oxytocin sy...

    Authors: Kohei Kitagawa, Kensuke Matsumura, Masayuki Baba, Momoka Kondo, Tomoya Takemoto, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Kaoru Seiriki, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Atsushi Kasai, Kazuhiro Takuma, Ryota Hashimoto, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:56
  44. Our previous study showed the intrinsic ability of descending noradrenergic neurons projecting from the locus coeruleus to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) to suppress itch-related behaviors. Noradrenaline and α1A-ad...

    Authors: Yuto Shiraishi, Keisuke Koga, Ryo Yamagata, Izuho Hatada, Miho Shiratori-Hayashi and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:55
  45. TMEM132D is a human gene identified with multiple risk alleles for panic disorders, anxiety and major depressive disorders. Defining a conserved family of transmembrane proteins, TMEM132D and its homologs are sti...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Wei Jiang, Shuo Luo, Xiaoyu Yang, Changnan Wang, Bingying Wang, Yongjun Dang, Yin Shen and Dengke K. Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:54
  46. The HapMap Project is a major international research effort to construct a resource to facilitate the discovery of relationships between human genetic variations and health and disease. The Ser19Stop single nu...

    Authors: Hisako Sugimoto, Takuro Horii, Jun-Na Hirota, Yoshitake Sano, Yo Shinoda, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Yasuki Ishizaki, Hajime Hirase, Izuho Hatada, Teiichi Furuichi and Tetsushi Sadakata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:52

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