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  1. Content type: Review

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is defined by the excessive accumulation of toxic peptides, such as beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). The risk factors associated with AD inclu...

    Authors: Juhyun Song, Daniel J. Whitcomb and Byeong C. Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:35

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2017 10:59

  2. Content type: Research

    Post-translational modification on protein Ser/Thr residues by O-linked attachment of ß-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a key mechanism integrating redox signaling, metabolism and stress responses. O...

    Authors: Willayat Y. Wani, Xiaosen Ouyang, Gloria A. Benavides, Matthew Redmann, Stacey S. Cofield, John J. Shacka, John C. Chatham, Victor Darley-Usmar and Jianhua Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:32

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  3. Content type: Research

    A hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is hippocampal neuronal demise and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, unrestrained neuronal activity in TLE patients induces gene expression including immed...

    Authors: Pascal Lösing, Cristina Elena Niturad, Merle Harrer, Christopher Meyer zu Reckendorf, Theresa Schatz, Daniela Sinske, Holger Lerche, Snezana Maljevic and Bernd Knöll

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:30

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  4. Content type: Research

    Reliable and reproducible assessment of animal learning and behavior is a central aim of basic and translational neuroscience research. Recent developments in automated operant chamber technology have led to t...

    Authors: Eun Woo Kim, Benjamin U. Phillips, Christopher J. Heath, So Yeon Cho, Hyunjeong Kim, Jemeen Sreedharan, Ho-Taek Song, Jong Eun Lee, Timothy J. Bussey, Chul Hoon Kim, Eosu Kim and Lisa M. Saksida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:31

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  5. Content type: Research

    Mechano growth factor (MGF) is a splice variant of IGF-1 first described in skeletal muscle. MGF induces muscle cell proliferation in response to muscle stress and injury. In control mice we found endogenous e...

    Authors: Jason J. Tang, Jewel L. Podratz, Miranda Lange, Heidi J. Scrable, Mi-Hyeon Jang and Anthony J. Windebank

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:23

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  6. Content type: Short report

    Studies have implied that the circadian oscillation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways is crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. NF1 mouse models (Nf1 heterozygous null mutants; Nf1 ...

    Authors: Lei Chen, Tatiana Serdyuk, Beimeng Yang, Shuai Wang, Shiqing Chen, Xixia Chu, Xu Zhang, Jinjing Song, Hechen Bao, Chengbin Zhou, Xiang Wang, Shuangle Dong, Lulu Song, Fujun Chen, Guang He, Lin He…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:29

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  7. Content type: Short report

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was recently shown to contribute to secondary brain damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), although the molecular mechanisms of this contribution are elusive. In this study, w...

    Authors: Hyunjung Min, Boomin Choi, Yong Ho Jang, Ik-Hyun Cho and Sung Joong Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:27

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  8. Content type: Review

    Depression is a polygenic and highly complex psychiatric disorder that remains a major burden on society. Antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are some of the most commonly...

    Authors: Christine N. Yohn, Mark M. Gergues and Benjamin Adam Samuels

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:28

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  9. Content type: Review

    Mounting evidence suggests that the nervous and immune systems are intricately linked. Many proteins first identified in the immune system have since been detected at synapses, playing different roles in norma...

    Authors: Robert Nisticò, Eric Salter, Celine Nicolas, Marco Feligioni, Dalila Mango, Zuner A. Bortolotto, Pierre Gressens, Graham L. Collingridge and Stephane Peineau

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:26

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  10. Content type: Research

    The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is ...

    Authors: Qi Wang, Feng-yan Shen, Rong Zou, Jing-jing Zheng, Xiang Yu and Ying-wei Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:24

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  11. Content type: Research

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a devastating neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons and the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates. The latter suggests impai...

    Authors: Martin Madill, Katya McDonagh, Jun Ma, Alice Vajda, Paul McLoughlin, Timothy O’Brien, Orla Hardiman and Sanbing Shen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:22

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  12. Content type: Research

    Excitatory synaptic transmission in central synapses is modulated by serotonin (5-HT). The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important cortical region for pain perception and emotion. ACC neurons receive i...

    Authors: Zhen Tian, Manabu Yamanaka, Matteo Bernabucci, Ming-gao Zhao and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:21

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  13. Content type: Research

    Although post-ischemic inflammation induced by the innate immune response is considered an essential step in the progression of cerebral ischemia injury, the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid ce...

    Authors: Rong Wu, Xiangpen Li, Pengfei Xu, Likui Huang, Jinping Cheng, Xiaolong Huang, Jingru Jiang, Long-Jun Wu and Yamei Tang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:20

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  14. Content type: Review

    Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau aggregates form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagat...

    Authors: Michel Goedert and Maria Grazia Spillantini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:18

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  15. Content type: Review

    The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo ...

    Authors: Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:16

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  16. Content type: Research

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that are sharply increasing in prevalence worldwide. Intriguingly, ASD is often accompanied by an array of systemic aberrations includ...

    Authors: Joon Seo Lim, Mi Young Lim, Yongbin Choi and GwangPyo Ko

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:14

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  17. Content type: Short report

    Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A gene cause one of the most frequent forms of childhood-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (HLD): POLR3-HLD. POLR3A encodes the largest subunit of RNA Pol...

    Authors: Karine Choquet, Sharon Yang, Robyn D. Moir, Diane Forget, Roxanne Larivière, Annie Bouchard, Christian Poitras, Nicolas Sgarioto, Marie-Josée Dicaire, Forough Noohi, Timothy E. Kennedy, Joseph Rochford, Geneviève Bernard, Martin Teichmann, Benoit Coulombe, Ian M. Willis…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:13

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  18. Content type: Research

    Human studies demonstrate that sleep impairment is a concurrent comorbidity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but its etiology remains largely uncertain. One of the prominent theories of ASD suggests that an...

    Authors: Jackie J. Liu, Kevin P. Grace, Richard L. Horner, Miguel A. Cortez, Yiwen Shao and Zhengping Jia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:10

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  19. Content type: Research

    A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the re...

    Authors: Richard T. O’Neil, Xiaojing Wang, Michael V. Morabito and Ronald B. Emeson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:11

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  20. Content type: Review

    Microglia are dynamic immune cells with diverse roles in maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of microglia has been critically implicated in the genesis of neuropathic pain. Per...

    Authors: Josiane C. S. Mapplebeck, Simon Beggs and Michael W. Salter

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:9

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  21. Content type: Research

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and fast-acting treatment for depression. Despite a long history of clinical use, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Recently, a novel cell...

    Authors: Yuki Imoto, Eri Segi-Nishida, Hidenori Suzuki and Katsunori Kobayashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:8

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  22. Content type: Research

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized ...

    Authors: Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji and Haruhisa Inoue

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:7

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  23. Content type: Short report

    Deregulation of α-synuclein encoding gene (SNCA) is one of the important facets of Parkinson’s disease (PD) research. DNA methylation status of SNCA-intron1 has been shown to regulate the α-synuclein expression. ...

    Authors: Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Baggio A. Evangelista, Susmita Ghosh, Sambuddha Basu and Yoon-Seong Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:6

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  24. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Recent evidence suggests that soluble Aβ oligomers elic...

    Authors: Daisuke Tanokashira, Naomi Mamada, Fumiko Yamamoto, Kaori Taniguchi, Akira Tamaoka, Madepalli K. Lakshmana and Wataru Araki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:4

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  25. Content type: Research

    Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are ...

    Authors: Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin and Bing-Xing Pan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:3

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  26. Content type: Research

    Sleep-disordered breathing produces cognitive impairments, and is possibly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Intermittent hypoxia treatment (IHT), an experimental model for sleep-disordered breathing, re...

    Authors: Sosuke Yagishita, Seiya Suzuki, Keisuke Yoshikawa, Keiko Iida, Ayako Hirata, Masahiko Suzuki, Akihiko Takashima, Kei Maruyama, Akira Hirasawa and Takeo Awaji

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:2

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  27. Content type: Research

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of various neuronal diseases including ischemia. Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22) is known to protect cells against oxidative stress. However, the prote...

    Authors: Hyo Sang Jo, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Su Bin Cho, Jung Hwan Park, Chi Hern Lee, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Jeong Sohn, Ora Son, Sung-Woo Cho, Duk-Soo Kim, Yeon Hee Yu, Keun Wook Lee, Jinseu Park…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:1

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  28. Content type: Research

    The transition from wakefulness to a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep state at the onset of sleep involves a transition from low-voltage, high-frequency irregular electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms to la...

    Authors: Joohyeon Hong, Jungryun Lee, Kiyeong Song, Go Eun Ha, Yong Ryoul Yang, Ji Su Ma, Masahiro Yamamoto, Hee-Sup Shin, Pann-Ghill Suh and Eunji Cheong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:100

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  29. Content type: Research

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a ubiquitous multipurpose protein, is also known as redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1). It is involved in DNA repair and redox signaling and, in turn, oxidative stress...

    Authors: Hyunjung Baek, Chae Seong Lim, Hee Sun Byun, Hyun Sil Cho, Yu Ran Lee, Yong Sup Shin, Hyun-Woo Kim, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Dong Woon Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Gang Min Hur and Jin Bong Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:99

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  30. Content type: Research

    Early-life sensory input plays a crucial role in brain development. Although deprivation of orofacial sensory input at perinatal stages disrupts the establishment of the barrel cortex and relevant callosal con...

    Authors: Jin-Bao Zhang, Ling Chen, Zhu-Man Lv, Xue-Yuan Niu, Can-Can Shao, Chan Zhang, Michal Pruski, Ying Huang, Cong-Cong Qi, Ning-Ning Song, Bing Lang and Yu-Qiang Ding

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:98

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  31. Content type: Research

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in supporting the proliferation and/or survival of murine neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs); however, the downstream effectors of this fa...

    Authors: Shigeki Ohta, Tomonori Yaguchi, Hironobu Okuno, Hervé Chneiweiss, Yutaka Kawakami and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:96

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  32. Content type: Research

    Alternate splicing of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) pre-RNA is negatively regulated by the small nucleolar RNA, Snord115, loss of which is observed in nearly all individuals with Pra...

    Authors: Alastair S. Garfield, Jennifer R. Davies, Luke K. Burke, Hannah V. Furby, Lawrence S. Wilkinson, Lora K. Heisler and Anthony R. Isles

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:95

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  33. Content type: Research

    Heantos-4 is a refined combination of plant extracts currently approved to treat opiate addiction in Vietnam. In addition to its beneficial effects on withdrawal and prevention of relapse, reports of sedation ...

    Authors: Stuart M. Cain, Soyon Ahn, Esperanza Garcia, Yiming Zhang, Zeina Waheed, John R. Tyson, Yi Yang, Tran Van Sung, Anthony G. Phillips and Terrance P. Snutch

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:94

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  34. Content type: Research

    ABAT deficiency (OMIM 613163) is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by recessive variants in the gene 4-aminobutyric acid transaminase (ABAT), which is responsible for both the catalysis of GABA and main...

    Authors: A. Besse, A. K. Petersen, J. V. Hunter, V. Appadurai, S. R. Lalani and P. E. Bonnen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:93

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  35. Content type: Research

    Two pharmacologically distinct types of local protein synthesis are required for synapse- specific long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia: one for initiation and the other for maintenance. ApCPEB, a rap...

    Authors: Seung-Hee Lee, Jaehoon Shim, Ye-Hwang Cheong, Sun-Lim Choi, Yong-Woo Jun, Sue-Hyun Lee, Yeon-Su Chae, Jin-Hee Han, Yong-Seok Lee, Jin-A Lee, Chae-Seok Lim, Kausik Si, Stefan Kassabov, Igor Antonov, Eric R. Kandel, Bong-Kiun Kaang…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:91

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  36. Content type: Research

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1(DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses that share cognitive impairments in common, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and m...

    Authors: Lin Cui, Wei Sun, Ming Yu, Nan Li, Li Guo, Huating Gu and Yu Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:89

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  37. Content type: Research

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitate understanding of the etiology of diseases, discovery of new drugs and development of novel therapeutic interventions. A frequently used starti...

    Authors: Koki Fujimori, Toshiki Tezuka, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Hirobumi Tada, Takuya Matsumoto, Miho Isoda, Ryota Hashimoto, Nubutaka Hattori, Takuya Takahashi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Wado Akamatsu and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:88

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  38. Content type: Research

    PERK (EIF2AK3) is an ER-resident eIF2α kinase required for behavioral flexibility and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression via its translational control. Motivated by the recent disco...

    Authors: Siying Zhu, Barbara C. McGrath, Yuting Bai, Xin Tang and Douglas R. Cavener

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:87

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