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  1. α2-Antiplasmin (α2AP), a principal physiological plasmin inhibitor, is mainly produced by the liver and kidneys, but it is also expressed in several parts of the brain, including the hippocampus and cerebral c...

    Authors: Eri Kawashita, Keiichi Ishihara, Haruko Miyaji, Yu Tanishima, Akiko Kiriyama, Osamu Matsuo and Satoshi Akiba

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:140

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The comorbidities of depression and chronic pain have long been recognized in the clinic, and several preclinical studies have demonstrated depression-like behaviors in animal models of chronic pain. These fin...

    Authors: Ryuto Hara, Daiki Takahashi, Tatsuhiro Takehara, Taiju Amano and Masabumi Minami

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:139

    Content type: Micro report

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  3. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs), particularly those that permit efficient gene transfer to neurons from axonal terminals or across the blood–brain barrier, are useful vehicles for structural and f...

    Authors: Kunzhang Lin, Xin Zhong, Lei Li, Min Ying, Tian Yang, Zhijian Zhang, Xiaobin He and Fuqiang Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:138

    Content type: Methodology

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  4. Mutations in the Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) gene have been linked to familial Parkinson’s disease (PD), PARK17. VPS35 is a key component of the retromer complex, which plays a central role in endosomal t...

    Authors: Keiko Bono, Chikako Hara-Miyauchi, Shunsuke Sumi, Hisayoshi Oka, Yasuyuki Iguchi and Hirotaka James Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:137

    Content type: Research

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  5. Cerebral microinfarcts (MIs) lead to progressive cognitive impairments in the elderly, and there is currently no effective preventative strategy due to uncertainty about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. O...

    Authors: Xiao-fei He, Ge Li, Li-li Li, Ming-yue Li, Feng-yin Liang, Xi Chen and Xi-quan Hu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:135

    Content type: Research

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  6. Most individuals undergo traumatic stresses at some points in their life, but only a small proportion develop stress-related disorders such as anxiety diseases and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Althoug...

    Authors: Min-Jae Jeong, Changhee Lee, Kibong Sung, Jung Hoon Jung, Jung Hyun Pyo and Joung-Hun Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:134

    Content type: Research

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  7. Increased neural activities reduced pH at the synaptic cleft and interstitial spaces. Recent studies have shown that protons function as a neurotransmitter. However, it remains unclear whether protons signal t...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Xu, Mike T. Lin and Xiang-ming Zha

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:132

    Content type: Micro report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:40

  8. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by Aβ accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation. Epidemiological evidence for a negative correlation between cancer and AD...

    Authors: Seong Gak Jeon, Hyun-ju Lee, HyunHee Park, Kyung-Min Han and Hyang-Sook Hoe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:131

    Content type: Micro report

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  9. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (lncRNA MALAT1) promotes inflammation in Parkinson’s disease (PD...

    Authors: Li-Jun Cai, Li Tu, Xiao-Mo Huang, Jia Huang, Nan Qiu, Guang-Hong Xie, Jian-Xiong Liao, Wei Du, Ying-Yue Zhang and Jin-Yong Tian

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:130

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Chronic pain alters cortical and subcortical plasticity, causing enhanced sensory and affective responses to peripheral nociceptive inputs. Previous studies have shown that ketamine had the potential to inhibi...

    Authors: Isabel D. Friesner, Erik Martinez, Haocheng Zhou, Jonathan Douglas Gould, Anna Li, Zhe Sage Chen, Qiaosheng Zhang and Jing Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:129

    Content type: Research

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  11. The amygdala plays an important role in the emotional-affective aspects of behaviors and pain, but can also modulate sensory aspect of pain (“nociception”), likely through coupling to descending modulatory sys...

    Authors: Guangchen Ji and Volker Neugebauer

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:128

    Content type: Short report

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  12. In the central nervous system, hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1–4) channels have been implicated in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. It has been reported that HCN chan...

    Authors: Taku Nakagawa, Toshiharu Yasaka, Noriyuki Nakashima, Mitsue Takeya, Kensuke Oshita, Makoto Tsuda, Ken Yamaura and Makoto Takano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:127

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Dopamine is involved in many important brain functions, including voluntary motor movement. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system can induce motor impairments, including Parkinson’s disease. We previously fou...

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yukiko Ochiai, Taishi-Clark Takeda, Yoko Hagino, Kazuto Kobayashi and Kazutaka Ikeda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:126

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:51

  14. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is amongst the most prevalent early onset dementias and even though it is clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous, a crucial involvement of metabolic perturbation...

    Authors: Blanca I. Aldana, Yu Zhang, Pia Jensen, Abinaya Chandrasekaran, Sofie K. Christensen, Troels T. Nielsen, Jørgen E. Nielsen, Poul Hyttel, Martin R. Larsen, Helle S. Waagepetersen and Kristine K. Freude

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:125

    Content type: Research

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  15. Glutamate toxicity is a pathomechanism that contributes to neuronal cell death in a wide range of acute and chronic neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-...

    Authors: Simon F. Merz, C. Peter Bengtson, Clara Tepohl, Anna M. Hagenston, Hilmar Bading and Carlos Bas-Orth

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:124

    Content type: Research

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  16. Variants of the cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein (CYFIP) gene family, CYFIP1 and CYFIP2, are associated with numerous neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. According to several studies, CYFIP1 re...

    Authors: Gyu Hyun Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Hyae Rim Kang, Seung-Hyun Lee, Jiwon Shin, Chan Hee Lee, Hyojin Kang, Ruiying Ma, Chunmei Jin, Yoonhee Kim, Su Yeon Kim, Seok-Kyu Kwon, Se-Young Choi, Kea Joo Lee and Kihoon Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:123

    Content type: Micro report

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  17. Altered levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been reported in neurologically diseased human brains. Therefore, it is important to understand how the expression of BDNF is controlled under pa...

    Authors: Mamoru Fukuchi, Ryohei Saito, Shojiro Maki, Nami Hagiwara, Yumena Nakajima, Satoru Mitazaki, Hironori Izumi and Hisashi Mori

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:122

    Content type: Research

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  18. The release of dopamine (DA) into target brain areas is considered an essential event for the modulation of many physiological effects. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in pain rel...

    Authors: Soroush Darvish-Ghane, Clémentine Quintana, Jean-Martin Beaulieu and Loren J. Martin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:121

    Content type: Research

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  19. The transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has beneficial effects on spinal cord injury (SCI). However, while there are many subtypes of NPC...

    Authors: Keita Kajikawa, Kent Imaizumi, Munehisa Shinozaki, Shinsuke Shibata, Tomoko Shindo, Takahiro Kitagawa, Reo Shibata, Yasuhiro Kamata, Kota Kojima, Narihito Nagoshi, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:120

    Content type: Research

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  20. Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels are important mediators of nociceptive signaling, but their roles in the transmission of itch remains poorly understood. Here we report a key involvement of these channels as key...

    Authors: Vinicius M. Gadotti, Joanna M. Kreitinger, Nicholas B. Wageling, Dylan Budke, Philippe Diaz and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:119

    Content type: Research

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  21. Repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a transcription repressor and its expression is regulated by the Wnt pathway through β-catenin. Metabotropic...

    Authors: Jéssica M. de Souza, Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman, Fabiola M. Ribeiro and Stephen S. G. Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:118

    Content type: Research

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  22. Serotonin (5-HT) is a well-known modulator of behavioral, physiological, and emotional functions of the forebrain region. We recently discovered alterations of serotonergic synaptic modulations in both, the pr...

    Authors: Fumihito Saitow, Toru Takumi and Hidenori Suzuki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:115

    Content type: Short report

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  23. MicroRNAs perform important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sequencing as well as functional studies using antisense oligonucleotides indicate important roles for microRNAs dur...

    Authors: Luiz F. Almeida Silva, Cristina R. Reschke, Ngoc T. Nguyen, Elena Langa, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Rogerio R. Gerbatin, Fernanda R. Temp, Mayara L. de Freitas, Ronan M. Conroy, Gary P. Brennan, Tobias Engel and David C. Henshall

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:114

    Content type: Research

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  24. As the main organelles for the clearance of damaged proteins and damaged organelles, the function of lysosomes is crucial for maintaining the intracellular homeostasis of long-lived neurons. A stable acidic en...

    Authors: Mengling Zhang, Haifeng Lu, Xueshun Xie, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Yunhai Zhang, Jiang Wu, Jianqiang Ni, Haiying Li and Gang Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:113

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. The dopamine (DA) system has a profound impact on reward-motivated behavior and is critically involved in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although DA defects are found in ...

    Authors: Owen Y. Chao, Salil S. Pathak, Hao Zhang, Nathan Dunaway, Jay-Shake Li, Claudia Mattern, Susanne Nikolaus, Joseph P. Huston and Yi-Mei Yang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:111

    Content type: Research

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  26. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviours. Multiple ASD-associated mutations have been identified in the Shank family of proteins that play ...

    Authors: Yukti Vyas, Kevin Lee, Yewon Jung and Johanna M. Montgomery

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:110

    Content type: Research

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  27. Leptin, secreted by peripheral adipocytes, binds the leptin receptor (Lepr) in the hypothalamus, thereby contributing to the regulation of satiety and body weight. Lepr is expressed in the embryonic brain as e...

    Authors: Zhonggan Ren, Yitong Liu, Wentong Hong, Xinjie Pan, Pifang Gong, Qiong Liu, Guomin Zhou and Song Qin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:109

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the formation of toxic, fibrillar form alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) protein aggregates in dopaminergic neurons. Accumulating evidence has shown a multifactorial interpla...

    Authors: Alysia Ross, Viktoria Xing, Ting Ting Wang, Samantha C. Bureau, Giovana A. Link, Teresa Fortin, Hui Zhang, Shawn Hayley and Hongyu Sun

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:108

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  29. The insular cortex (IC) is the primary gustatory cortex, and it is a critical structure for encoding and retrieving the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory. In the CTA, consumption of an appetitive tastant...

    Authors: Konami Abe, Marin Kuroda, Yosuke Narumi, Yuki Kobayashi, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Teiichi Furuichi and Yoshitake Sano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:107

    Content type: Research

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  30. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is commonly comorbid with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The incidence of these pain conditions is prevalent in women and prone to mental stress. Chronic pain symptoms in patient...

    Authors: Jia-Heng Li, Jia-Le Yang, Si-Qi Wei, Zhuo-Lin Li, Anna A. Collins, Min Zou, Feng Wei and Dong-Yuan Cao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:106

    Content type: Research

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  31. Proper dendrite morphogenesis and neuronal migration are crucial for cerebral cortex development and neural circuit formation. In this study, we sought to determine if the histone deacetylase HDAC6 plays a rol...

    Authors: Ji-ye Kim, Hee-Gon Hwang, Joo-Yong Lee, Minkyu Kim and Jeong-Yoon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:105

    Content type: Research

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  32. Brain injury causes astrocytes to become reactive (astrogliosis). In this study, we compared astrogliosis in acutely injured cortex and striatum of adult FVB/N mice induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP, a c...

    Authors: Haijie Yang, Jiawei An, Insup Choi, Kihwang Lee, Sang-Myun Park, Ilo Jou and Eun-Hye Joe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:103

    Content type: Research

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  33. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-established risk factor for the development of dementia in PD. A growing body of evid...

    Authors: Zhiqiang Jiang, Yilin Huang, Piao Zhang, Chongyin Han, Yueer Lu, Zongchao Mo, Zhanyu Zhang, Xin Li, Sisi Zhao, Fuqiang Cai, Lizhen Huang, Chunbo Chen, Zhihong Shi, Yuhu Zhang and Fei Ling

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:102

    Content type: Research

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  34. The defining features of a neuron are its functional and anatomical connections with thousands of other neurons in the brain. Together, these neurons form functional networks that direct animal behavior. Curre...

    Authors: Audrey Tze Ting Khoo, Paul Jong Kim, Ho Min Kim and H. Shawn Je

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:101

    Content type: Methodology

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  35. Cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying how chronic pain induces maladaptive alterations to local circuits in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while emerging, remain unresolved. Consistent evidence sho...

    Authors: John Cheriyan and Patrick L. Sheets

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:100

    Content type: Micro report

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  36. The serotonin (5-HT) system is the target of multiple anxiolytics, including Buspirone, which is a partial agonist of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A). Similarly, ligands of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A...

    Authors: Anes Ju, Beatriz Fernandez-Arroyo, Yifan Wu, Débora Jacky and Anna Beyeler

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:99

    Content type: Research

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  37. Members of the leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (LAR-RPTP) family, comprising PTPσ, PTPδ and LAR, are key hubs for presynaptic assembly and differentiation in vertebrate n...

    Authors: Kyung Ah Han, Hee-Yoon Lee, Dongseok Lim, Jungsu Shin, Taek Han Yoon, Xinran Liu, Ji Won Um, Se-Young Choi and Jaewon Ko

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:94

    Content type: Research

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  38. Viral infection during pregnancy has been suggested to increase the probability of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring via the phenomenon of maternal immune activation (MIA). This has been modeled in r...

    Authors: Tetsuya Sasaki, Saki Tome and Yosuke Takei

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:93

    Content type: Short report

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  39. Accumulating evidence implicates dysregulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the effects of ketamine on synaptic plasticity and their contribution to its mec...

    Authors: Lily R. Aleksandrova, Yu Tian Wang and Anthony G. Phillips

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:92

    Content type: Research

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  40. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious psychiatric disorder, affecting not only the childbearing women but also the health of their offsprings. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene is an important ...

    Authors: Jing Liu, Fantao Meng, Juanjuan Dai, Min Wu, Wentao Wang, Cuilan Liu, Di Zhao, Hongcai Wang, Jingyan Zhang and Chen Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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