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  1. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms, including constipation, sensory neuropathy, depression, dementia and sleep disorder. Somatostatin (SST) is considered to be a modu...

    Authors: Chizuru Iwasawa, Naoko Kuzumaki, Yukari Suda, Reiko Kagawa, Yuko Oka, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano and Minoru Narita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:5

    Content type: Short report

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  2. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes serious disruption of neuronal circuits that leads to motor functional deficits. Regeneration of disrupted circuits back to their original target is necessary for the ...

    Authors: Kazuya Yokota, Kensuke Kubota, Kazu Kobayakawa, Takeyuki Saito, Masamitsu Hara, Ken Kijima, Takeshi Maeda, Hiroyuki Katoh, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Yasuharu Nakashima and Seiji Okada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:4

    Content type: Research

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  3. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in cell metabolism, growth, and proliferation. The overactivation of mTOR has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic au...

    Authors: Hiroko Kotajima-Murakami, Toshiyuki Kobayashi, Hirofumi Kashii, Atsushi Sato, Yoko Hagino, Miho Tanaka, Yasumasa Nishito, Yukio Takamatsu, Shigeo Uchino and Kazutaka Ikeda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:3

    Content type: Research

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  4. Previous gain-of-function studies using an optogenetic technique showed that manipulation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus or CA1 cell ensembles is important for memory reactivation and to generate synthetic o...

    Authors: Naoya Oishi, Masanori Nomoto, Noriaki Ohkawa, Yoshito Saitoh, Yoshitake Sano, Shuhei Tsujimura, Hirofumi Nishizono, Mina Matsuo, Shin-ichi Muramatsu and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:2

    Content type: Research

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  5. Natural aggressiveness is commonly observed in all animal species, and is displayed frequently when animals compete for food, territory and mating. Aggression is an innate behaviour, and is influenced by both ...

    Authors: Mahmoudreza Ramin, Yueyang Li, Wen-Tzu Chang, Hunter Shaw and Yong Rao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:1

    Content type: Research

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  6. Shortly before he died in October 2017, John Lisman submitted an invited review to Molecular Brain on ‘Criteria for identifying the molecular basis of the engram (CaMKII, PKMζ)’. John had no opportunity to rea...

    Authors: Mark F. Bear, Sam F. Cooke, Karl Peter Giese, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Mary B. Kennedy, Ji-il Kim, Richard G. M. Morris and Pojeong Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:76

    Content type: Commentary

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  7. Accumulating evidence indicates that microglia activation is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). With the progressive and selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neur...

    Authors: Fangfang Dou, Xinkun Chu, Bei Zhang, Liang Liang, Guoqiang Lu, Jianqing Ding and Shengdi Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:75

    Content type: Research

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  8. Higher dietary intakes of saturated fatty acid increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, and even in people without diabetes higher glucose levels may be a risk factor for dementia. The...

    Authors: Young-Suk Choi, Somang Kang, Sang-Yoon Ko, Saeram Lee, Jae Young Kim, Hansol Lee, Jae Eun Song, Dong-Hyun Kim, Eosu Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Lisa Saksida, Ho-Taek Song and Jong Eun Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:74

    Content type: Research

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  9. Various mutations in the SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) gene are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus far, synaptic abnormalities in multiple brain regions, ...

    Authors: Chunmei Jin, Hyojin Kang, Shinhyun Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Yeunkum Lee, Yoonhee Kim and Kihoon Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:71

    Content type: Micro report

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  10. Recent development of FRET-PAINT microscopy significantly improved the imaging speed of DNA-PAINT, the previously reported super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with no photobleaching problem. Here we try t...

    Authors: Jongjin Lee, Sangjun Park and Sungchul Hohng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:70

    Content type: Research

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  11. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic atrophy is an early feature of glaucoma, and the recovery of retinal ganglion cell dendrites is a viable option for vision improvement in glaucoma. Retinal ganglion cell neurite...

    Authors: James R. Tribble, Pete A. Williams, Bruce Caterson, Frank Sengpiel and James E. Morgan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:69

    Content type: Micro report

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  12. Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex pathology related to multiple causes including oxidative stress. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neutrotrophic factor essential for the survival and differenti...

    Authors: Catherine Fleitas, Gerard Piñol-Ripoll, Pau Marfull, Daniel Rocandio, Isidro Ferrer, Claire Rampon, Joaquim Egea and Carme Espinet

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:68

    Content type: Research

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  13. Timing and temporal precision of action potential generation are thought to be important for encoding of information in the brain. The ability of single neurons to transform their input into output action pote...

    Authors: Weonjin Yu, Jong-Woo Sohn, Jaehan Kwon, Suk-Ho Lee, Sooyun Kim and Won-Kyung Ho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:67

    Content type: Research

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  14. Direct or indirect exposure to an explosion can induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) of various severity levels. Primary TBI from blast exposure is commonly characterized by internal injuries, such as vascular ...

    Authors: Adan Hernandez, Chunfeng Tan, Florian Plattner, Aric F. Logsdon, Karine Pozo, Mohammad A. Yousuf, Tanvir Singh, Ryan C. Turner, Brandon P. Luke-Wold, Jason D. Huber, Charles L. Rosen and James A. Bibb

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:64

    Content type: Research

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  15. Visual cortical areas show enhanced tactile responses in blind individuals, resulting in improved behavioral performance. Induction of unilateral vision loss in adult mice, by monocular enucleation (ME), is a ...

    Authors: Nathalie Lombaert, Maroussia Hennes, Sara Gilissen, Giel Schevenels, Laetitia Aerts, Ria Vanlaer, Lieve Geenen, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Julie Nys and Lutgarde Arckens

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:65

    Content type: Research

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  16. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK)-interacting protein 1 (Caskin1) is a direct binding partner of the synaptic adaptor protein CASK. Because Caskin1 forms homo-multimers and binds not on...

    Authors: Tayo Katano, Keizo Takao, Manabu Abe, Maya Yamazaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Kenji Sakimura and Seiji Ito

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:63

    Content type: Research

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  17. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are two major types of ionotropic glutamate receptors involved in synaptic transmission. Howe...

    Authors: Sun Huang, Lina Chen, Chris Bladen, Peter K. Stys and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:62

    Content type: Short report

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  18. The deposition of Amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) is detected at an earlier stage in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Thus, the approach toward Aβ metabolism is considered to play a critical role in the onset an...

    Authors: Yasuha Noda, Akira Kuzuya, Kyousuke Tanigawa, Mitsugu Araki, Ryoko Kawai, Biao Ma, Yoko Sasakura, Masato Maesako, Yoshitaka Tashiro, Masakazu Miyamoto, Kengo Uemura, Yasushi Okuno and Ayae Kinoshita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:61

    Content type: Research

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  19. Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels are important for the signaling of nociceptive information in the primary afferent pain pathway. During neuropathy and peripheral inflammation, Cav3.2 channels are upregulated du...

    Authors: Vinicius M. Gadotti and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:60

    Content type: Micro report

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  20. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the authors’ names is spelled incorrectly.

    Authors: Jing Liu, Lili Tong, Shuangshuang Song, Yue Niu, Jun Li, Xiu Wu, Jie Zhang, Clement C Zai, Fang Luo, Jian Wu, Haiyin Li, Albert H C Wong, Ruopeng Sun, Fang Liu and Baomin Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:59

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2018 11:48

  21. The SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) gene encodes core scaffolds in neuronal excitatory postsynapses. SHANK3 duplications have been identified in patients with hyperkinetic disorders and early-o...

    Authors: Chunmei Jin, Yinhua Zhang, Shinhyun Kim, Yoonhee Kim, Yeunkum Lee and Kihoon Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:57

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  22. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus has been implicated in the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. We have identified several mouse models of neuropsychiatric disor...

    Authors: Katsunori Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Shunsuke Ishii, Hidenori Suzuki and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:56

    Content type: Micro report

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  23. Neuropathic pain is a major worldwide health problem. Although central sensitization has been reported in well-established neuropathic conditions, information on the acute brain activation patterns in response...

    Authors: Tzu-Hao Harry Chao, Jyh-Horng Chen and Chen-Tung Yen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:55

    Content type: Research

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  24. Genetic studies of major depressive disorder and its associated endophenotypes are useful for the identification of candidate genes. In recent years, variations in non-coding RNA genes, such as miRNAs, have be...

    Authors: Karen M. Jiménez, Angela J. Pereira-Morales, Ana Adan, Sandra Lopez-Leon and Diego A. Forero

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:53

    Content type: Research

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  25. Sleep disorders are comorbid with most psychiatric disorders, but the link between these is not well understood. Neuroligin-2 (NLGN2) is a cell adhesion molecule that plays roles in synapse formation and neuro...

    Authors: Bong Soo Seok, Erika Bélanger-Nelson, Chloé Provost, Steve Gibbs and Valérie Mongrain

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:52

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2019 12:9

  26. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, exhibits therapeutic potential for various human diseases, including chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alz...

    Authors: María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Yara Onetti, Elsa Cortés-Montero, Javier Garzón and Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:51

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Postsynaptic density – 95 kDa protein (PSD95) is an important molecule on the postsynaptic membrane. It interacts with many other proteins and plays a pivotal role in learning and memory formation. Its distrib...

    Authors: Huazheng Liang, Hongqin Wang, Shaoshi Wang, Richard Francis, George Paxinos and Xufeng Huang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:50

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  28. Pediatric refractory epilepsy is a broad phenotypic spectrum with great genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) combined with Sanger sequencing could help to understand the genetic diversity an...

    Authors: Jing Liu, Lili Tong, Shuangshuang Song, Yue Niu, Jun Li, Xiu Wu, Jie Zhang, Clement C. Zai, Fang Luo, Jian Wu, Haiyin Li, Albert H. C. Wong, Ruopeng Sun, Fang Liu and Baomin Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:48

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2018 11:59

  29. Ischemic perinatal stroke (IPS) is common, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. In such cases, the incidence of unilateral arterial cerebral infarction is often occluded in the middle cerebral art...

    Authors: Jie-Min Jia, Chuanqi Peng, Yihui Wang, Jie Zheng and Woo-Ping Ge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:47

    Content type: Methodology

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  30. The analysis of behavior requires that the underlying neuronal circuits are identified and genetically isolated. In several major model species—most notably Drosophila—neurogeneticists identify and isolate neural...

    Authors: Shamprasad Varija Raghu, Farhan Mohammad, Jia Yi Chua, Joanne Shi Woon Lam, Mavis Loberas, Sadhna Sahani, Claudia S. Barros and Adam Claridge-Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:46

    Content type: Methodology

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  31. Transient receptor potential melastatin member 4 (TRPM4), a Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channel, has been found to mediate cell membrane depolarization in immune response, insulin secretion, cardiovascular...

    Authors: Beatrice Bianchi, Paul A. Smith and Hugues Abriel

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:41

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  32. Leak K+ currents are mediated by two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels and are involved in controlling neuronal excitability. Of 15 members of K2P channels cloned so far, TRAAK, TREK-1, and TREK-2 are temperature sen...

    Authors: Viacheslav Viatchenko-Karpinski, Jennifer Ling and Jianguo G. Gu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:40

    Content type: Research

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  33. Maturation abnormalities of the brain cells have been suggested in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and epilepsy. In this study, we exam...

    Authors: Hideo Hagihara, Masayo Fujita, Juzoh Umemori, Makoto Hashimoto and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:38

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  34. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a key mediator of inflammation and stress in the central nervous system (CNS), and is highly expressed in the developing brain. In this study, we investi...

    Authors: Shin-Young Park, Min-Jeong Kang and Joong-Soo Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Chronic stress is a psychologically significant factor that impairs learning and memory in the hippocampus. Insulin signaling is important for the development and cognitive function of the hippocampus. However...

    Authors: Hanwoong Woo, Caroline Jeeyeon Hong, Seonghee Jung, Seongwon Choe and Seong-Woon Yu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:37

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Major Histocompability Complex I (MHC-I) molecules present cellularly derived peptides to the adaptive immune system. Generally MHC-I is not expressed on healthy post-mitotic neurons in the central nervous sys...

    Authors: Julie Ry Gustafsson, Georgia Katsioudi, Matilda Degn, Patrick Ejlerskov, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas and Birgitte Rahbek Kornum

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:36

    Content type: Research

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  37. Microglia have been shown to be of critical importance to the progression of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the broad transcriptional changes that these cells undergo following seizure induction is not well ...

    Authors: Dale B. Bosco, Jiaying Zheng, Zhiyan Xu, Jiyun Peng, Ukpong B. Eyo, Ke Tang, Cheng Yan, Jun Huang, Lijie Feng, Gongxiong Wu, Jason R. Richardson, Hui Wang and Long-Jun Wu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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