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  1. Understanding the connecting structure of brain network is the basis to reveal the principle of the brain function and elucidate the mechanism of brain diseases. Trans-synaptic tracing with neurotropic viruses...

    Authors: Kunzhang Lin, Xin Zhong, Min Ying, Lei Li, Sijue Tao, Xutao Zhu, Xiaobin He and Fuqiang Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:45

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is one of the most common forms of hereditary cerebral small vessel diseases and is caused by mutations in NOTC...

    Authors: Yumi Yamamoto, Katsutoshi Kojima, Daisuke Taura, Masakatsu Sone, Kazuo Washida, Naohiro Egawa, Takayuki Kondo, Eiko N. Minakawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Toshiki Mizuno, Raj N. Kalaria, Nobuya Inagaki, Ryosuke Takahashi, Mariko Harada-Shiba…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:38

    Content type: Research

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  3. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signalling contributes to the formation, maturation and plasticity of Central Nervous System (CNS) synapses. Acute exposure of cultured brain circuits to BDNF leads to ...

    Authors: Rossana Rauti, Giada Cellot, Paola D’Andrea, Andrea Colliva, Denis Scaini, Enrico Tongiorgi and Laura Ballerini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:43

    Content type: Research

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  4. Active changes in neuronal DNA methylation and demethylation appear to act as controllers of synaptic scaling and glutamate receptor trafficking in learning and memory formation. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)...

    Authors: Qingnuan Kong, Ming Yu, Meng Zhang, Chuang Wei, Huating Gu, Shaoyang Yu, Wei Sun, Nan Li and Yu Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:42

    Content type: Micro report

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  5. Retinal Müller cells are highly polarized macroglial cells with accumulation of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 at specialized endfoot membrane domains ab...

    Authors: Shirin Katoozi, Shreyas B. Rao, Nadia Skauli, Stanley C. Froehner, Ole Petter Ottersen, Marvin E. Adams and Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:40

    Content type: Research

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  6. Information processing and memory formation in the brain relies on release of the main excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from presynaptic axonal specialisations. The classical Hebbian paradigm of synaptic ...

    Authors: Olga Kopach, Kaiyu Zheng and Dmitri A. Rusakov

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:39

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2020 13:48

  7. In the white matter of the human cerebrum, the majority of cortico-cortical fibers are of short range, connecting neighboring cortical areas. U-fibers represent connections between neighboring areas and are lo...

    Authors: Mayuko Yoshino, Kengo Saito, Kanji Kawasaki, Toshihide Horiike, Yohei Shinmyo and Hiroshi Kawasaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:37

    Content type: Research

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  8. Recent studies demonstrate that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays critical roles in migraine. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies have shown that CGRP and its receptors are expres...

    Authors: Yinglu Liu, Qi-Yu Chen, Jung Hyun Lee, Xu-Hui Li, Shengyuan Yu and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:36

    Content type: Research

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  9. Calstabin2, also named FK506 binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6), is a subunit of ryanodine receptor subtype 2 (RyR2) macromolecular complex, an intracellular calcium channel. Studies from our and other’s lab have...

    Authors: Ren-wen Han, Zhi-peng Liu, Hong-ru Lin, Ao-wen Tian, Yun-fei Xiao, Jie Wei, Ke-yu Deng, Bing-xing Pan and Hong-bo Xin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:35

    Content type: Research

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  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of cortical, brain stem and spinal motor neurons that leads to muscle weakness and death. A previous st...

    Authors: Robin N. Stringer, Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Sun Huang, Omid Haji-Ghassemi, Romane Idoux, Anna Liashenko, Ivana A. Souza, Yuriy Rzhepetskyy, Lubica Lacinova, Filip Van Petegem, Gerald W. Zamponi, Roger Pamphlett and Norbert Weiss

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:33

    Content type: Research

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  11. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes that contribute to excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. The presence of specific variants of GluN2 subunits in these complexes enables diversity in NMDA rec...

    Authors: Hadir Mahmoud, Newton Martin and Michael E. Hildebrand

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:31

    Content type: Micro report

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  12. Amyloid beta is a major constituent of the plaques found in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A growing body of research work suggests that neuroinflammation plays important roles...

    Authors: Deepali Singh, Apurva Agrawal, Chitra Mohinder Singh Singal, Hriday Shanker Pandey, Pankaj Seth and Shiv Kumar Sharma

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:30

    Content type: Research

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  13. Tsukushi (TSK)—a small, secreted, leucine-rich-repeat proteoglycan—interacts with and regulates essential cellular signaling cascades. However, its functions in the mouse inner ear are unknown. In this study, ...

    Authors: Toru Miwa, Kunimasa Ohta, Naofumi Ito, Satoko Hattori, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Wen-Jie Song and Ryosei Minoda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:29

    Content type: Research

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  14. Primary cilia are centriole-derived sensory organelles that are present in most mammalian cells, including astrocytes and neurons. Evidence is emerging that astrocyte and neuronal primary cilia demonstrate a d...

    Authors: Ashley Sterpka, Juan Yang, Matthew Strobel, Yuxin Zhou, Connor Pauplis and Xuanmao Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:28

    Content type: Research

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  15. Calcium (Ca2+)-permeable AMPA receptors may, in certain circumstances, contribute to normal synaptic plasticity or to neurodegeneration. AMPA receptors are Ca2+-permeable if they lack the GluA2 subunit or if GluA...

    Authors: Lyndsey M. Konen, Amanda L. Wright, Gordon A. Royle, Gary P. Morris, Benjamin K. Lau, Patrick W. Seow, Raphael Zinn, Luke T. Milham, Christopher W. Vaughan and Bryce Vissel

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:27

    Content type: Research

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  16. The astrocyte brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) gene expression cycles globally throughout mammalian brain, and is known to regulate sleep in multiple species, including humans. The mechanisms that co...

    Authors: Jason R. Gerstner and Georgios K. Paschos

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:26

    Content type: Micro report

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  17. Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, slowly progressive motor neuron disease caused by abnormal CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Although ligand (testosterone)-depen...

    Authors: Kazunari Onodera, Daisuke Shimojo, Yasuharu Ishihara, Masato Yano, Fuyuki Miya, Haruhiko Banno, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takuji Ito, Rina Okada, Bruno de Araújo Herculano, Manabu Ohyama, Mari Yoshida, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Masahisa Katsuno, Manabu Doyu, Gen Sobue…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:18

    Content type: Research

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  18. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are excitatory glutamatergic receptors that are fundamental for many neuronal processes, including synaptic plasticity. NMDARs are comprised of four subunits derived from h...

    Authors: Vishaal Rajani, Ameet S. Sengar and Michael W. Salter

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:23

    Content type: Review

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  19. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) serves as a critical hub for the anxiety and pain perception. The large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels, or BKCa channels, are ubiquitously expressed throughout t...

    Authors: Huan Zhao, Qian Xue, Cong Li, Qingchuan Wang, Shichao Han, Yongsheng Zhou, Tao Yang, Yingli Xie, Hao Fu, Changbo Lu, Fancheng Meng, Ming Zhang, Yan Zhang, Xianglong Wu, Shengxi Wu, Min Zhuo…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:22

    Content type: Research

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  20. Amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition was demonstrated to be elevated in the brains of HIV-infected patients and associated with neurocognitive decline; however, the mechanisms of these processes are poorly understood....

    Authors: Ibolya E. András, Marta Garcia-Contreras, Christopher Yanick, Paola Perez, Brice Sewell, Leonardo Durand and Michal Toborek

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:21

    Content type: Research

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  21. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in neuroinflammation and apoptotic neuronal death, and increasing evidences indicated that β2-microglobulin (B2M) is thought to be a major contributor to age-r...

    Authors: Qi Zhong, Yufeng Zou, Hongchao Liu, Ting Chen, Feng Zheng, Yifei Huang, Chang Chen and Zongze Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:20

    Content type: Research

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  22. Synaptic proteins play an important role for the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Numerous studies have identified and revealed individual synaptic protein functions using protein overexpression or deletion....

    Authors: Hyoung-Gon Ko, Dong Ik Park, Ji Hyun Lee, Christoph W. Turck and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:19

    Content type: Micro report

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  23. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss and the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the patients’ brains. In this study, we inv...

    Authors: Hyunju Kim, Bora Kim, Hye-Sun Kim and Joo-Youn Cho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:17

    Content type: Research

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  24. Anxiety disorder is highly prevalent worldwide and represents a chronic and functionally disabling condition, with high levels of psychological stress characterized by cognitive and physiological symptoms. Sco...

    Authors: Li Luo, Ting Sun, Le Yang, An Liu, Qing-qing Liu, Qin-qin Tian, Yan Wang, Ming-gao Zhao and Qi Yang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:15

    Content type: Research

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  25. Nociception is important perception that has harmful influence on daily life of humans. As to main pain management system, some descending pathways are called descending antinociceptive systems (DAS). As main ...

    Authors: Shunpei Moriya, Akira Yamashita, Daiki Masukawa, Yuki Kambe, Junichi Sakaguchi, Honami Setoyama, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:14

    Content type: Research

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  26. Presynaptic active zone cytomatrix proteins are essential elements of neurotransmitter release machinery that govern neural transmission. Among active zone proteins, cytomatrix at the active zone-associated st...

    Authors: Akari Hagiwara, Shun Hamada, Yamato Hida and Toshihisa Ohtsuka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:13

    Content type: Short report

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  27. Hippocampal GABAergic interneurons play key roles in regulating principal cell activity and plasticity. Interneurons located in stratum oriens/alveus (O/A INs) receive excitatory inputs from CA1 pyramidal cells a...

    Authors: André Kougioumoutzakis, Joe Guillaume Pelletier, Isabel Laplante, Abdessattar Khlaifia and Jean-Claude Lacaille

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:12

    Content type: Research

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  28. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent post-transcriptional modification of eukaryotic mRNA. It has been reported that there is a stimulus-dependent regulation of m6A in the mammalian central nervous s...

    Authors: Jiangtao Yu, Yuxian Zhang, Haoli Ma, Rong Zeng, Ruining Liu, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaoqing Jin and Yan Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:11

    Content type: Research

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  29. Complex diseases involve dynamic perturbations of pathophysiological processes during disease progression. Transcriptional programs underlying such perturbations are unknown in many diseases. Here, we present ...

    Authors: Taek-Kyun Kim, Inyoul Lee, Ji-Hoon Cho, Brenda Canine, Andrew Keller, Nathan D. Price, Daehee Hwang, George Carlson and Leroy Hood

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:10

    Content type: Research

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  30. Abnormal accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a DNA/RNA binding protein, is a pathological signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Missense mutations in the TARDBP gene are also found in...

    Authors: Seiji Watanabe, Kotaro Oiwa, Yuri Murata, Okiru Komine, Akira Sobue, Fumito Endo, Eiki Takahashi and Koji Yamanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:8

    Content type: Micro report

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  31. Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs), a large group of adhesion molecules, are important for axonal projections and dendritic spread, but little is known about how they influence neuronal activity. The Pcdhβ clust...

    Authors: Hirotaka Asai, Noriaki Ohkawa, Yoshito Saitoh, Khaled Ghandour, Emi Murayama, Hirofumi Nishizono, Mina Matsuo, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Takeshi Yagi and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:7

    Content type: Research

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  32. Neurotropic viral transsynaptic tracing is an increasingly powerful technique for dissecting the structure and function of neural circuits. Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain H129 has been widely used as an an...

    Authors: Peng Su, Min Ying, Zengpeng Han, Jinjin Xia, Sen Jin, Yingli Li, Huadong Wang and Fuqiang Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  33. While chronic restraint stress (CRS) results in depression-like behaviors possibly through oxidative stress in the brain, its molecular etiology and the development of therapeutic strategies remain elusive. Si...

    Authors: Ji Hyeon Kim, Ahbin Kim, Yejin Yun, Seoyoung Park, Jung Hoon Lee, Yong-Seok Lee and Min Jae Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:4

    Content type: Micro report

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  34. The cellular consequences of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) stimulation depend on the receptors’ subcellular localization. Synaptic NMDARs promote plasticity and survival whereas extrasynaptic NMDARs me...

    Authors: Carlos Bas-Orth, Mirja Koch, David Lau, Bettina Buchthal and Hilmar Bading

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:3

    Content type: Research

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  35. ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) are a family of small GTPases composed of six members (ARF1–6) that control various cellular functions, including membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, in e...

    Authors: Hyeonho Kim, Hyeji Jung, Hyunsu Jung, Seok-Kyu Kwon, Jaewon Ko and Ji Won Um

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:2

    Content type: Research

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  36. Ubiquitin Specific Peptidase 16 (USP16) has been reported to contribute to somatic stem-cell defects in Down syndrome. However, how this gene being regulated is largely unknown. To study the mechanism underlying

    Authors: Shou Yang, Juelu Wang, Shipeng Guo, Daochao Huang, Isabel Bestard Lorigados, Xing Nie, Dandan Lou, Yanhua Li, Mingjing Liu, Yu Kang, Weihui Zhou and Weihong Song

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:120

    Content type: Research

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  37. Adult fish produce new cells throughout their central nervous system during the course of their lives and maintain a tremendous capacity to repair damaged neural tissue. Much of the focus on understanding brai...

    Authors: Eleanor C. Bisese, Chandler M. Ciuba, Amelia L. Davidson, Akanksha Kaushik, Sabrina M. Mullen, Jeremy L. Barth, E. Starr Hazard, Robert C. Wilson, Gary Hardiman and David M. Hollis

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:119

    Content type: Micro report

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  38. Chronic corticosterone (CORT) stress is an anxiety and depression inducing factor that involves the dysfunction of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neuronal plasticit...

    Authors: Qin Gong, Xiao-Jin Yan, Fan Lei, Mu-Lan Wang, Lu-Ling He, Ying-Ying Luo, Hong-Wei Gao, Yu-Lin Feng, Shi-Lin Yang, Jun Li and Li-Jun Du

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:118

    Content type: Research

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  39. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that patients with Diabetic Neuropathy Pain (DNP) present with increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) serum concentration, whereas studies with diabetic anima...

    Authors: Flávio Henrique Pequeno de Macedo, Rosária Dias Aires, Esdras Guedes Fonseca, Renata Cristina Mendes Ferreira, Daniel Portela Dias Machado, Lina Chen, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Ivana A. Souza, Virgínia Soares Lemos, Thiago Roberto Lima Romero, Aubin Moutal, Rajesh Khanna, Gerald W. Zamponi and Jader S. Cruz

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:117

    Content type: Short report

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  40. Transcription factor RelB is a member of the nuclear factror-kappa B (NF-κB) family, which plays a crucial role in mediating immune responses. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that RelB actively contributes...

    Authors: Meng-ge Yang, Li Sun, Jinming Han, Chao Zheng, Hudong Liang, Jie Zhu and Tao Jin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:115

    Content type: Review

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