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  1. Dopamine-deficient (DD) mice exhibit psychomotor hyperactivity that might be related to a decrease in muscarinic signaling. In the present study, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) density decreased ...

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yukiko Ochiai, Yoko Hagino, Kazuto Kobayashi, Geoffrey Pavey, Brian Dean and Kazutaka Ikeda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:96
  2. Activation of nociceptin opioid peptide receptors (NOP, a.k.a. opioid-like receptor-1, ORL-1) by the ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ, leads to G protein-dependent regulation of Cav2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated calc...

    Authors: Emanuelle Sistherenn Caminski, Flavia Tasmin Techera Antunes, Ivana Assis Souza, Eliane Dallegrave and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:95
  3. Calcineurin (Cn), a phosphatase important for synaptic plasticity and neuronal development, has been implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, intel...

    Authors: Hideo Hagihara, Hirotaka Shoji, Mahomi Kuroiwa, Isabella A. Graef, Gerald R. Crabtree, Akinori Nishi and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:94
  4. The development, maturation, and plasticity of neural circuits are strongly influenced by experience and the interaction of an individual with their environment can have a long-lasting effect on cognitive func...

    Authors: Pacifique Rukundo, Ting Feng, Vincent Pham and Simon Pieraut
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:92
  5. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare form of chronic neuropathic pain characterized by spontaneous or elicited paroxysms of electric shock-like or stabbing pain in a region of the face. While most cases occur i...

    Authors: Emilio R. Mustafá, Eder Gambeta, Robin N. Stringer, Ivana A. Souza, Gerald W. Zamponi and Norbert Weiss
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:91
  6. Dopamine (DA) plays a vital role in brain physiology and pathology such as learning and memory, motor control, neurological diseases, and psychiatric diseases. In neurons, it has been well established that DA ...

    Authors: Sunpil Kim, Jea Kwon, Mingu Gordon Park and C. Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:90
  7. Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a cytosolic protein expressed in mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). OMP modulates cAMP signalling and regulates olfactory sensation and axonal targeting. OMP is a small...

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakashima, Akiko Nakashima, Kie Nakashima and Makoto Takano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:89
  8. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a heterogeneous midbrain structure involved in various brain functions, such as motor control, learning, reward, and sleep. Previous studies using conventional tracers hav...

    Authors: Qiao-Qiong Liu, Yu-Xiao Cheng, Qi Jing, Ke-Ming Zhang, Lu-Feng Ding, Xiao-Wei Fan, Chun-Hui Jia, Fang Xu, Guo-Qiang Bi and Pak-Ming Lau
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:88
  9. Olfactory maturation marker protein (OMP) is expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and hypothalamic neurons. OMP is a nested gene located in the intron of calpain 5 (CAPN5), a Ca2+-dep...

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakashima, Kie Nakashima, Akiko Nakashima and Makoto Takano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:87
  10. Microglia are highly dynamic immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglial processes interact with neuronal elements constantly on the order of minutes. The functional significance of this acute...

    Authors: Nan Gu, Min-Hee Yi, Madhuvika Murugan, Manling Xie, Sebastian Parusel, Jiyun Peng, Ukpong B. Eyo, Christine L. Hunt, Hailong Dong and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:86
  11. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is mainly expressed on the surface of myeloid cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. ...

    Authors: Chunyan Zhang, Xugang Kan, Baole Zhang, Haibo Ni and Jianfeng Shao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:84
  12. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) manifested before age 65 is commonly referred to as early-onset AD (EOAD) (Reitz et al. Neurol Genet. 2020;6:e512). While the majority (> 90%) of EOAD cases are not caused by autosomal...

    Authors: Andrew B. Caldwell, Balaji G. Anantharaman, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Phuong Nguyen, Qing Liu, Ivy Trinh, Douglas R. Galasko, Paula A. Desplats, Steven L. Wagner and Shankar Subramaniam
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:83
  13. Multisensory integration is vital for animals to make optimal decisions in a complicated sensory environment. However, the neural mechanisms for flexible multisensory behaviors are not well understood. Here, w...

    Authors: Ilsong Choi and Seung-Hee Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:82
  14. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs) are a major subpopulation of GABAergic cells in CA1 hippocampus that receive excitation from pyramidal cells (PCs) and provide feedback control of synaptic inputs...

    Authors: Ève Honoré, Inês Belo do Nascimento, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:81
  15. Tubby mice exhibit hearing impairment due to the loss of stereocilin from the tip regions that connect the tallest stereocilia of the outer hair cells (OHCs) to the tectorial membrane. Stereocilin is an essentia...

    Authors: Song Yi Youn, Hyehyun Min, Se Rok Jeong, Jiahn Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Jinwoong Bok and Chul Hoon Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:80
  16. The accumulation of beta amyloid in the brain has a complex and poorly understood impact on the progression of Parkinson’s disease pathology and much controversy remains regarding its role, specifically in cog...

    Authors: Alexander S. Mihaescu, Mikaeel Valli, Carme Uribe, Maria Diez-Cirarda, Mario Masellis, Ariel Graff-Guerrero and Antonio P. Strafella
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:79
  17. Our world is full of uncertainty. Animals, including humans, need to behave flexibly to adjust to ever-changing environments. Reversal learning tasks have been used to assess behavioral flexibility in many spe...

    Authors: Kohei Yamamoto, Kota Yamada, Saya Yatagai, Yusuke Ujihara and Koji Toda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:78
  18. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are thought to be associated with a wide range of phenomena, such as movement, learning, memory, attention, and addiction. However, the causal relationship between nicotinic r...

    Authors: Shohei Kaneko, Yasuyuki Niki, Kota Yamada, Daiki Nasukawa, Yusuke Ujihara and Koji Toda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:77
  19. Loss of function mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a postnatal neurological disorder. The loss of motor function is an important clinical f...

    Authors: Yuanlei Yue, Ryan T. Ash, Natalie Boyle, Anna Kinter, Yipeng Li, Chen Zeng and Hui Lu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:76
  20. Fibroblast growth factor 11 (FGF11) is a member of the intracellular fibroblast growth factor family. Here, we report the central role of FGF11 in the regulation of metabolism. Lentiviral injection of Fgf11 shRNA...

    Authors: Jae Hyun Cho, Kyungchan Kim, Han Chae Cho, Jaemeun Lee and Eun-Kyoung Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:75
  21. Accumulating evidence has shown that intestinal inflammations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also drive pathological responses in organs outside the intestine, including the brain. Previous studies using ...

    Authors: Chia-Shan Wu and Valerie Endres
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:74
  22. Migraine is a complex neurological disease of unknown etiology involving both genetic and environmental factors. It has previously been reported that persistent pain may be mediated by the immune and inflammat...

    Authors: Xuejiao Liu, Wenping Yang, Chenlu Zhu, Songtang Sun, Shouyi Wu, Longde Wang, Yonggang Wang and Zhaoming Ge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:73
  23. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that has caused a global pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, there are no effective treatments specifica...

    Authors: Ping Su, Dongxu Zhai, Albert H. C. Wong and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:71
  24. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a critical tool for gene delivery through its durable transgene expression and safety profile. Among many serotypes, AAV2-retro is typically utilized for dissecting neura...

    Authors: Ryota Nakahama, Aika Saito, Sensho Nobe, Kazuya Togashi, Ikuo K. Suzuki, Akira Uematsu and Kazuo Emoto
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:70
  25. HIV is a major global public threat burdening society, yet the exact mechanism of HIV pathogenesis needs to be elucidated. In the era of epigenetic therapy, N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) changes indu...

    Authors: Vaishnavi Sundar, Jay P. McLaughlin and Thangavel Samikkannu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:69
  26. Protein kinases are responsible for protein phosphorylation and are involved in important signal transduction pathways; however, a considerable number of poorly characterized kinases may be involved in neurona...

    Authors: Jun Egawa, Reza K. Arta, Vance P. Lemmon, Melissa Muños-Barrero, Yan Shi, Michihiro Igarashi and Toshiyuki Someya
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:68
  27. As in neurons, CNS myelin expresses N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors (NMDARs) that subserve physiological roles, but have the potential to induce injury to this vital element. Using 2-photon imaging of myelinic...

    Authors: Shigeki Tsutsui, Megan Morgan, Hugo Tedford, Haitao You, Gerald W. Zamponi and Peter K. Stys
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:67
  28. Psychiatric disorders and neuroticism are closely associated with central nervous system, whose proper functioning depends on efficient protein renewal. This study aims to systematically analyze the associatio...

    Authors: Bolun Cheng, Xuena Yang, Shiqiang Cheng, Chun’e Li, Huijie Zhang, Li Liu, Peilin Meng, Yumeng Jia, Yan Wen and Feng Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:66
  29. Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by bilateral calcified deposits in the brain. We previously identified that MYORG as the first pathogenic gene for autosomal re...

    Authors: Miao Zhao, Xiao-Hong Lin, Yi-Heng Zeng, Hui-Zhen Su, Chong Wang, Kang Yang, Yi-Kun Chen, Bi-Wei Lin, Xiang-Ping Yao and Wan-Jin Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:65
  30. The cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil is used to improve Aβ pathology and cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the impact of donepezil on tau pathology is unclear. Thus, we e...

    Authors: Hee-Jeong Choi, Jin-Hee Park, Yoo Joo Jeong, Jeong-Woo Hwang, Soojung Lee, Heeyong Lee, Eunyoung Seol, Ik-whi Kim, Byung-Yoon Cha, Jinsoo Seo, Minho Moon and Hyang-Sook Hoe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:63
  31. Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) is the most widespread type of brain trauma worldwide. The cumulative injury effect triggers long-lasting pathological and molecular changes that may increase ri...

    Authors: Alexander Morin, Roderick Davis, Teresa Darcey, Michael Mullan, Benoit Mouzon and Fiona Crawford
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:62
  32. Cell senescence is a basic aging mechanism. Previous studies have found that the cellular senescence in adipose tissue and other tissues, such as the pancreas, muscle and liver, is associated with the pathogen...

    Authors: Wen-Jiao Xue, Cheng-Feng He, Ren-Yuan Zhou, Xiao-Die Xu, Lv-Xuan Xiang, Jian-Tao Wang, Xin-Ru Wang, Hou-Guang Zhou and Jing-Chun Guo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:61
  33. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) is a lipid second messenger that is crucial for the synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory in pyramidal neurons in the brain. Our previous study unco...

    Authors: Yoshibumi Ueda, Naotoshi Sugimoto and Takeaki Ozawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:59
  34. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament light chain (NFL), tau and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) are five neuroglial proteins that are used as CSF or...

    Authors: Karl Sjölin, Kim Kultima, Anders Larsson, Eva Freyhult, Christina Zjukovskaja, Kanar Alkass and Joachim Burman
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:52
  35. Cerebral malaria is the most serious complication of malaria infection, with 26% of surviving children having neurological sequelae, which may be caused by neuron damage, but the mechanism is not clear. Ferrop...

    Authors: Jiao Liang, Yan Shen, Yi Wang, Yuxiao Huang, Jun Wang, Qinghao Zhu, Guodong Tong, Kangjie Yu, Wei Cao, Qi Wang, Yinghui Li and Ya Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:57
  36. Hippocampal CA1 parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV INs) play a central role in controlling principal cell activity and orchestrating network oscillations. PV INs receive excitatory inputs from CA3 Schaffe...

    Authors: Abdessattar Khlaifia, Eve Honoré, Julien Artinian, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:56
  37. During neuronal differentiation, neuroprogenitor cells become polarized, change shape, extend axons, and form complex dendritic trees. While growing, axons are guided by molecular cues to their final destinati...

    Authors: Érico Moreto Lins, Natássia Cristina Martins Oliveira, Osvaldo Reis, Adriano Ferrasa, Roberto Herai, Alysson R. Muotri, Katlin Brauer Massirer and Mário Henrique Bengtson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:55
  38. Parkinson’s disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. FBXO7 (F-box protein only 7) (PARK15) mutations cause early-onset Parkinson’...

    Authors: Sachiko Noda, Shigeto Sato, Takahiro Fukuda, Shinichi Ueno, Norihiro Tada and Nobutaka Hattori
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:54
  39. Dysfunction of striatal dopaminergic circuits has been implicated in motor impairment and Parkinson’s disease (PD)-related circadian perturbations that may represent an early prodromal marker of PD. Cyclin-dep...

    Authors: Hu Zhou, Jingxin Zhang, Huaxiang Shi, Pengfei Li, Xin Sui, Yongan Wang and Liyun Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:53
  40. Alzheimer's disease is associated with various brain dysfunctions, including memory impairment, neuronal loss, astrocyte activation, amyloid-β plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Transgenic animal models of ...

    Authors: Sung Hyun Tag, Baeksun Kim, Jinhee Bae, Keun-A Chang and Heh-In Im
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:51
  41. Theta is one of the most prominent extracellular synchronous oscillations in the mammalian brain. Hippocampal theta relies on an intact medial septum (MS) and has been consistently recorded during the training...

    Authors: Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Andressa Radiske, Janine I. Rossato, Sergio Conde-Ocazionez, Lia R. M. Bevilaqua and Martín Cammarota
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:50
  42. The integrity of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is essential for normal central nervous system (CNS) functioning. Considering the significance of BBB in maintaining homeostasis and the neural environment, we ai...

    Authors: Hema Kumari Alajangi, Mandeep Kaur, Akanksha Sharma, Sumedh Rana, Shipali Thakur, Mary Chatterjee, Neha Singla, Pradeep Kumar Jaiswal, Gurpal Singh and Ravi Pratap Barnwal
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:49
  43. The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure that links multiple forebrain areas with the mid/hindbrain monoaminergic systems. As an anti-reward center, it has been implicated in the etiology of various neuro...

    Authors: Hyun Jung Kim, Hyeijung Yoo, Ji Yeon Kim, Soo Hyun Yang, Hyun Woo Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee, Gi Hoon Son and Hyun Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:48

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