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  1. Content type: Research

    Postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions were isolated from rat forebrain and sonicated. Pellets from sonicated samples examined by electron microscopy revealed particles with an electron density similar to PSDs t...

    Authors: Ayse Dosemeci, Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng, Valerie Bakly and Thomas S. Reese

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:72

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  2. Content type: Research

    The P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) is a purinoceptor that is selectively expressed in microglia in the central nervous system. As a signature receptor, microglial P2Y12R mediates process chemotaxis towards ADP/ATP gr...

    Authors: Jiyun Peng, Yong Liu, Anthony D. Umpierre, Manling Xie, Dai-Shi Tian, Jason R. Richardson and Long-Jun Wu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:71

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  3. Content type: Research

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is widely used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. Chronic FLX treatment reportedly induces cellular responses in the brain, including increas...

    Authors: Koji Ohira, Hideo Hagihara, Miki Miwa, Katsuki Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:69

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  4. Content type: Short report

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder associated with memories of traumatic experiences. Recent studies have shown that the forgetting of contextual fear memory is promoted via increa...

    Authors: Rie Ishikawa, Chiaki Uchida, Shiho Kitaoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:68

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  5. Content type: Research

    LIMK1 and LIMK2 are key downstream targets to mediate the effects of the Rho family small GTPases and p21-activated kinases (PAK) in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. LIMKs are also critical for synapt...

    Authors: Rui Mao, Rui Deng, Yan Wei, Lifang Han, Yanghong Meng, Wei Xie and Zhengping Jia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:67

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  6. Content type: Research

    Poly-arginine peptide-18 (R18) has recently emerged as a highly effective neuroprotective agent in experimental stroke models, and is particularly efficacious in protecting cortical neurons against glutamic ac...

    Authors: Gabriella MacDougall, Ryan S. Anderton, Frank L. Mastaglia, Neville W. Knuckey and Bruno P. Meloni

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:66

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  7. Content type: Research

    Protein synthesis is crucial for maintaining synaptic plasticity and synaptic signalling. Here we have attempted to understand the role of RNA binding proteins, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) and ...

    Authors: Preeti Madhav Kute, Sarayu Ramakrishna, Nagammal Neelagandan, Sumantra Chattarji and Ravi. S. Muddashetty

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:65

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  8. Content type: Short report

    Glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) family are coincident detectors of pre- and postsynaptic activity, allowing Ca2+ influx into neurons. These properties are central to neurological disease me...

    Authors: Hannah Warming, Chrysia-Maria Pegasiou, Aleksandra P. Pitera, Hanna Kariis, Steven D. Houghton, Ksenia Kurbatskaya, Aminul Ahmed, Paul Grundy, Girish Vajramani, Diederik Bulters, Xavier Altafaj, Katrin Deinhardt and Mariana Vargas-Caballero

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:64

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  9. Content type: Research

    The transcription factor Foxg1 is known to be continuously expressed at a high level in mature neurons in the telencephalon, but little is known about its role in neural plasticity. Mutations in human FOXG1 cause...

    Authors: Baocong Yu, Junhua Liu, Mingzhao Su, Chunlian Wang, Huanxin Chen and Chunjie Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:63

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  10. Content type: Short report

    This study describes the interaction between Cav2 calcium channels and Rabconnectin-3, a di-subunit protein that is associated with synaptic vesicles. Immunostaining reveals that both Rabconnectin-3α (RB-3α) a...

    Authors: Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Jing Fan, Katherine Li, Decheng Wang and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:62

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  11. Content type: Micro report

    The human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 promotes synaptic damage similar to that observed in people living with HIV who have neurocognitive disorders. The neurotoxic effect of gp120 appea...

    Authors: Valeria Avdoshina, Francesca Taraballi, Ennio Tasciotti, Aykut Üren and Italo Mocchetti

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:61

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  12. Content type: Short report

    Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A and POLR3B genes are the most common cause of POLR3-related hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), a rare childhood-onset disorder characterized by de...

    Authors: Karine Choquet, Maxime Pinard, Sharon Yang, Robyn D. Moir, Christian Poitras, Marie-Josée Dicaire, Nicolas Sgarioto, Roxanne Larivière, Claudia L. Kleinman, Ian M. Willis, Marie-Soleil Gauthier, Benoit Coulombe and Bernard Brais

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:59

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  13. Content type: Research

    Go is a member of the pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o family. Despite its abundance in the central nervous system, the precise role of Go remains largely unknown compared to other G proteins. In the present study,...

    Authors: Hye Lim Cha, Jung-Mi Choi, Huy-Hyen Oh, Narayan Bashyal, Sung-Soo Kim, Lutz Birnbaumer and Haeyoung Suh-Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:57

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  14. Content type: Research

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene and subsequent loss of its protein product, fragile X retardation protein (FMRP). One of the most robust neuropatholo...

    Authors: Frankie H. F. Lee, Terence K. Y. Lai, Ping Su and Fang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:56

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  15. Content type: Micro report

    Synaptic abnormalities, perturbed endosomal recycling mediated by loss of the small GTPase RAB11, and neuroinflammatory signaling have been associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases including the mot...

    Authors: Joy Mitra, Pavana M. Hegde and Muralidhar L. Hegde

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:55

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  16. Content type: Short report

    Gene expression is highly regulated to functionally diversify cells. Genes that cooperate in the same physiological processes occasionally reside within nearby regions in a chromosome. Olfactory marker protein...

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakashima, Kie Nakashima, Akiko Takaku-Nakashima and Makoto Takano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:54

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  17. Content type: Micro report

    The growth cone is essential for nerve growth and axon regeneration, which directly form and rearrange the neural network. Recently, to clarify the molecular signaling pathways in the growth cone that utilize ...

    Authors: Michihiro Igarashi and Shujiro Okuda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:53

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  18. Content type: Research

    Mushroom body (MB) is a prominent structure essential for olfactory learning and memory in the Drosophila brain. The development of the MB involves the appropriate guidance of axon lobes and sister axon branch...

    Authors: Huaixing Kang, Juan Zhao, Xuan Jiang, Guangxu Li, Wen Huang, Huili Cheng and Ranhui Duan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:52

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  19. Content type: Research

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in learning and memory. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in the regulation of neural synaptic plasticity. Here, to determ...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Ran Xie, Xiaolin Kou, Yu Liu, Cui Qi, Rui Liu, Weiyan You, Jun Gao and Xiang Gao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:51

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  20. Content type: Research

    Neonatal seizures are different from adult seizures, and many antiepileptic drugs that are effective in adults often fail to treat neonates. Here, we report that gluconate inhibits neonatal seizure by inhibiti...

    Authors: Zheng Wu, Qingwei Huo, Liang Ren, Fengping Dong, Mengyang Feng, Yue Wang, Yuting Bai, Bernhard Lüscher, Sheng-Tian Li, Guan-Lei Wang, Cheng Long, Yun Wang, Gangyi Wu and Gong Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:50

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  21. Content type: Research

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small (18–25 nt), single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that play key roles in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. The expression profiles of miRNAs in biofluids and t...

    Authors: Hisashi Uwatoko, Yuka Hama, Ikuko Takahashi Iwata, Shinichi Shirai, Masaaki Matsushima, Ichiro Yabe, Jun Utsumi and Hidenao Sasaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:49

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  22. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the authors’ names was spelled incorrectly.

    Authors: Mikiei Tanaka, Hongyun Li, Xijun Zhang, Jatinder Singh, Clifton L. Dalgard, Matthew Wilkerson and Yumin Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:47

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    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2019 12:25

  23. Content type: Micro report

    The microgravity environment in space can impact astronauts’ cognitive and behavioral activities. However, due to the limitations of research conditions, studies of biological changes in the primate brain, suc...

    Authors: Xu Zhang, Xixia Chu, Lei Chen, Juan Fu, Shuai Wang, Jinjing Song, Guanghan Kan, Weizhong Jiang, Guang He, Xiaoping Chen and Weidong Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:46

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  24. Content type: Research

    Glioblastoma exhibits phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, aggressive invasiveness, therapeutic resistance, and tumor recurrence, which can be explained by the existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In this s...

    Authors: Ryota Tamura, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Oltea Sampetrean, Munehisa Shinozaki, Yukina Morimoto, Chizuru Iwasawa, Raita Fukaya, Yutaka Mine, Hirotaka Masuda, Tetsuo Maruyama, Minoru Narita, Hideyuki Saya, Kazunari Yoshida, Hideyuki Okano and Masahiro Toda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:45

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  25. Content type: Micro report

    To prevent or ameliorate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) we must understand its molecular basis. AD develops over decades but detailed molecular analysis of AD brains is limited to postmortem tissue where the stresse...

    Authors: Morgan Newman, Nhi Hin, Stephen Pederson and Michael Lardelli

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:43

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  26. Content type: Research

    Results of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) highlighted type II cadherins as risk genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To determine whether these cadherins ...

    Authors: Chunlei Wang, Yi-Hsuan Pan, Yue Wang, Gene Blatt and Xiao-Bing Yuan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:40

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  27. Content type: Research

    TMP21, a type I transmembrane protein of thep24 protein family, mediates protein trafficking and maturation. Dysregulation of TMP21 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, under...

    Authors: Xiaojie Zhang, Yili Wu, Fang Cai and Weihong Song

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:39

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  28. Content type: Research

    Itch contagion has been reported in human when people watch someone scratching in a video. The basic mechanism of contagious itch induced by scratching video is still being investigated. A recent study has rep...

    Authors: Jing-Shan Lu, Qi-Yu Chen, Si-Bo Zhou, Feng-Yi Wu, Ren-Hao Liu, Zhao-Xiang Zhou, Hua Zhang and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:38

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  29. Content type: Research

    Genetic and pharmacological manipulations targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) affect performance in behavioural paradigms that depend on cognitive flexibility. Many of these studies involved e...

    Authors: Jisoo Lim, Eosu Kim, Hyun Jong Noh, Shinwon Kang, Benjamin U. Phillips, Dong Goo Kim, Timothy J. Bussey, Lisa Saksida, Christopher J. Heath and Chul Hoon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:37

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  30. Content type: Research

    Chronic pain is commonly accompanied with anxiety disorder, which complicates treatment. In this study, we investigated the analgesic and anxiolytic effects of Formononetin (FMNT), an active component of tradi...

    Authors: Xin-shang Wang, Shao-yu Guan, An Liu, Jiao Yue, Li-ning Hu, Kun Zhang, Liu-kun Yang, Liang Lu, Zhen Tian, Ming-gao Zhao and Shui-bing Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:36

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  31. Content type: Short report

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a genetic abnormality in the huntingtin gene that leads to a polyglutamine repeat expansion of the huntingtin protein. The cleaved polyglutam...

    Authors: Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman and Stephen S. G. Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:35

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  32. Content type: Research

    The physiological functions controlled by T-type channels are intrinsically dependent on their gating properties, and alteration of T-type channel activity is linked to several human disorders. Therefore, it i...

    Authors: Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Leos Cmarko, Renata Rehak, Gerald W. Zamponi, Lubica Lacinova and Norbert Weiss

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:34

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  33. Content type: Micro report

    Autophagy allows for lysosomal cellular degradation of cytosolic components. In particular, neuronal autophagy is essential for cellular homeostasis and neuronal survival and is tightly regulated by several au...

    Authors: Pureum Jeon, Ju-Hui Park, Yong-Woo Jun, You-Kyung Lee, Deok-Jin Jang and Jin-A Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:33

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  34. Content type: Micro report

    Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a key role in the molecular mechanism of memory formation. CaMKII is known to be activated specifically in the activated spines during memory forma...

    Authors: Sanghyun Ye, Ji-il Kim, Jooyoung Kim and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:32

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  35. Content type: Micro report

    Merkel discs, located in skin touch domes and whisker hair follicles, are tactile end organs essential for environmental exploration, social interaction, and tactile discrimination. Recent studies from our gro...

    Authors: Mayumi Sonekatsu, Steven Lawrence Gu, Hirosato Kanda and Jianguo G. Gu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:31

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  36. Content type: Micro report

    Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) induces short-term potentiation (STP) plus two types of transcriptionally-independent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP), termed LTP1 and LTP2. We have compared the susceptibil...

    Authors: Pojeong Park, Thomas M. Sanderson, Zuner A. Bortolotto, John Georgiou, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Graham L. Collingridge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:30

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  37. Content type: Research

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs in pregnant women. Infants born following prenatal exposure to SSRIs have a higher risk for behavioral abnormalities...

    Authors: Weonjin Yu, Yi-Chun Yen, Young-Hwan Lee, Shawn Tan, Yixin Xiao, Hidayat Lokman, Audrey Khoo Tze Ting, Hasini Ganegala, Taejoon Kwon, Won-Kyung Ho and H. Shawn Je

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:29

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  38. Content type: Micro report

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is endoproteolytically processed to generate either the neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) or the secreted ectodomain APP alpha (sAPPα). While neurotrophic properties of s...

    Authors: Christian Tackenberg and Roger M. Nitsch

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:27

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  39. Content type: Review

    A major barrier to the effective conduct of clinical trials of new drug candidates against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to identifying patients for receiving future disease-modifying treatments is the limited ...

    Authors: Henrik Zetterberg and Samantha C. Burnham

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:26

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  40. Content type: Research

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is developed by exposure to a threatening and/or a horrifying event and characterized by the presence of anxiety, hyperarousal, avoidance, and sleep abnormality for a prolonged pe...

    Authors: Mikiei Tanaka, Hongyun Li, Xijun Zhang, Jatinder Singh, Clifton L. Dalgard, Matthew Wilkerson and Yumin Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:25

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2019 12:47

  41. Content type: Review

    It is now generally accepted that the extra-skeleton functionalities of bone are multifaceted. Its endocrine functions came first to light when it was realized that osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, maintai...

    Authors: Chang Shan, Arijit Ghosh, Xing-zhi Guo, Shu-min Wang, Yan-fang Hou, Sheng-tian Li and Jian-min Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2019 12:23

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