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  1. Areca nut, the seed of Areca catechu L., is one of the most widely consumed addictive substances in the world after nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine. The major effective constituent of A. catechu, arecoline, ha...

    Authors: Qi-Yu Chen, Yuxiang Zhang, Yujie Ma and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:39
  2. Memory retrieval can become difficult over time, but it is important to note that memories that appear to be forgotten might still be stored in the brain, as shown by their occasional spontaneous retrieval. Hi...

    Authors: Yuto Yokoi, Ayame Kubo, Kyoka Nishimura, Yuki Takamura, Yoshikazu Morishita, Masabumi Minami and Hiroshi Nomura
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:38
  3. The potential role of the ghrelin receptor, also known as the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in regulating drug addiction and feeding has been documented; howe...

    Authors: Seohyeon Lee, Wen Ting Cai, Hyung Shin Yoon and Jeong-Hoon Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:37
  4. Chronic perturbations of neuronal activity can evoke homeostatic and new setpoints for neurotransmission. Using chemogenetics to probe the relationship between neuronal cell types and behavior, we recently fou...

    Authors: Muhammad O. Chohan, Amy B. Lewandowski, Rebecca N. Siegel, Kally C. O’Reilly and Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:36
  5. The brain responds to experience through modulation of synaptic transmission, that is synaptic plasticity. An increase in the strength of synaptic transmission is manifested as long-term potentiation (LTP), wh...

    Authors: Roberta Cagnetta, Jean-Claude Lacaille and Nahum Sonenberg
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:35
  6. Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene are an autosomal dominant cause of Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD). These mutations typically result in haploinsufficiency of the progranulin protein. Grn+/–

    Authors: Anna K. Cook, Kelsey M. Greathouse, Phaedra N. Manuel, Noelle H. Cooper, Juliana M. Eberhardt, Cameron D. Freeman, Audrey J. Weber, Jeremy H. Herskowitz and Andrew E. Arrant
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:33
  7. The Hypothalmic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis also known as the HPA axis is central to stress response. It also acts as the relay center between the body and the brain. We analysed hypothalamic proteome from mice sub...

    Authors: Shiladitya Mitra, Ghantasala S. Sameer Kumar, Anumita Samanta, Mathias V. Schmidt and Suman S. Thakur
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:30
  8. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that causes widespread pain, fatigue, and other symptoms that significantly affect quality of life. The underlying mechanisms of fibromyalgia involve both the immune sy...

    Authors: María Teresa Vega-Ramírez, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, José Luis Maldonado-García, Lenin Pavón and Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:29
  9. The aggregated alpha-synuclein (αsyn) in oligodendrocytes (OLGs) is one of the pathological hallmarks in multiple system atrophy (MSA). We have previously reported that αsyn accumulates not only in neurons but...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Ishimoto, Miki Oono, Seiji Kaji, Takashi Ayaki, Katsuya Nishida, Itaru Funakawa, Takakuni Maki, Shu-ichi Matsuzawa, Ryosuke Takahashi and Hodaka Yamakado
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:28
  10. Itch is a protective/defensive function with divalent motivational drives. Itch itself elicits an unpleasant experience, which triggers the urge to scratch, relieving the itchiness. Still, it can also result i...

    Authors: Sanae Inokuchi-Sakata, Ryo Narita, Yukari Takahashi, Yozo Ishiuji, Akihiko Asahina and Fusao Kato
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:27
  11. Aggregation of misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn) is a key characteristic feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related synucleinopathies. The nature of these aggregates and their contribution to cellular dysfunc...

    Authors: Casey J. Lumpkin, Hiral Patel, Gregory K. Potts, Shilpi Chaurasia, Lauren Gibilisco, Gyan P. Srivastava, Janice Y. Lee, Nathan J. Brown, Patricia Amarante, Jon D. Williams, Eric Karran, Matthew Townsend, Dori Woods and Brinda Ravikumar
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:26
  12. CD11c-positive (CD11c+) microglia have attracted considerable attention because of their potential implications in central nervous system (CNS) development, homeostasis, and disease. However, the spatiotemporal d...

    Authors: Kohei Nomaki, Risako Fujikawa, Takahiro Masuda and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:24
  13. This study aimed to unveil the central mechanism of moxibustion treating chronic inflammatory visceral pain (CIVP) from the angle of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks in the spinal cord. The rat CIVP model was estab...

    Authors: Dan Zhang, Xiaoqing Dong, Xiaoying Li, Yanting Yang, Hongna Li, Yue Hong, Guang Yang, Xiehe Kong, Xuejun Wang and Xiaopeng Ma
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:23
  14. We previously reported that enhanced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) caused the aversive responses during acute pain and suppressed the brain re...

    Authors: Ryoko Uchida, Yasutaka Mukai, Taiju Amano, Kenji Sakimura, Keiichi Itoi, Akihiro Yamanaka and Masabumi Minami
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:22
  15. Dopamine plays important roles in cognitive function and inflammation and therefore is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Drugs that increase or mai...

    Authors: Hyun-ju Lee, JinHan Nam, Jeong-Woo Hwang, Jin-Hee Park, Yoo Joo Jeong, Ji-Yeong Jang, Su-Jeong Kim, A-Ran Jo and Hyang-Sook Hoe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:21
  16. While the excessive inflammation in cancer cachexia is well-known to be induced by the overproduction of inflammatory mediators in the periphery, microflora disruption and brain dysfunction are also considered...

    Authors: Yukari Suda, Keiko Nakamura, Fukiko Matsuyama, Yusuke Hamada, Hitoshi Makabe, Michiko Narita, Yasuyuki Nagumo, Tomohisa Mori, Naoko Kuzumaki and Minoru Narita
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:20
  17. One of the main burdens in the treatment of diseases is imputable to the delay between the appearance of molecular dysfunctions in the first affected disease cells and their presence in sufficient number for d...

    Authors: Benoit Coulombe, Thomas M. Durcan, Geneviève Bernard, Asmae Moursli, Christian Poitras, Denis Faubert and Maxime Pinard
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:18
  18. Synaptopodin (SP), an actin-associated protein found in telencephalic neurons, affects activity-dependant synaptic plasticity and dynamic changes of dendritic spines. While being required for long-term depress...

    Authors: Yanis Inglebert, Pei You Wu, Julia Tourbina-Kolomiets, Cong Loc Dang and R. Anne McKinney
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:17
  19. Neuroligin (NLGN) 3 is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein organizing synapse formation through two different types of transsynaptic interactions, canonical interaction with neurexins (NRXNs) and a recently i...

    Authors: Lin-Yu Li, Ayako Imai, Hironori Izumi, Ran Inoue, Yumie Koshidaka, Keizo Takao, Hisashi Mori and Tomoyuki Yoshida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:16
  20. Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes loss of balance and motor co-ordination, eventually leading to paralysis. It is cause...

    Authors: Maxinne Watchon, Amanda L. Wright, Holly I. Ahel, Katherine J. Robinson, Stuart K. Plenderleith, Andrea Kuriakose, Kristy C. Yuan and Angela S. Laird
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:15
  21. Synucleinopathies refer to a group of disorders characterized by SNCA/α-synuclein (α-Syn)-containing cytoplasmic inclusions and neuronal cell loss in the nervous system including the cortex, a common feature b...

    Authors: Hidefumi Suzuki, Naohiro Egawa, Keiko Imamura, Takayuki Kondo, Takako Enami, Kayoko Tsukita, Mika Suga, Yuichiro Yada, Ran Shibukawa, Ryosuke Takahashi and Haruhisa Inoue
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:14
  22. The AP-2 transcription factors are crucial for regulating sleep in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. In mice, loss of function of the transcription factor AP-2β (TFAP2B) reduces non-rapid eye movement ...

    Authors: Ayaka Nakai, Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Tomoyuki Fujiyama, Kanako Iwasaki, Arisa Hirano, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa, Takeshi Sakurai and Yu Hayashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:13
  23. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the precise underlying pathogenesis remains elusive. This study aim to explore the potential mechanism of TREM2 i...

    Authors: Yi Tian, Xiao Xiao, Weiliang Liu, Shanqing Cheng, Na Qian, Ling Wang, Yang Liu, Rong Ai and Xiaoping Zhu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:12
  24. Adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) is a selective subtype of ACs, which is selectively expressed in neurons. The activation of AC1 is activity-dependent, and AC1 plays an important role in cortical excitation that contr...

    Authors: Wantong Shi, Qi-Yu Chen, Yujie Ma, Jinjin Wan, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:11
  25. The anatomical organization of the rodent claustrum remains obscure due to lack of clear borders that distinguish it from neighboring forebrain structures. Defining what constitutes the claustrum is imperative...

    Authors: Tarek Shaker, Gwyneth J. Dagpa, Vanessa Cattaud, Brian A. Marriott, Mariam Sultan, Mohammed Almokdad and Jesse Jackson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:10
  26. Inositol pyrophosphates are key signaling molecules that regulate diverse neurobiological processes. We previously reported that the inositol pyrophosphate 5-InsP7, generated by inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1...

    Authors: Hongfu Jin, Aili Liu, Alfred C. Chin, Chenglai Fu, Hui Shen and Weiwei Cheng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:8
  27. Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that is regulated by post-translational modifications. The most studied of these modifications is phosphorylation, which affects Tau’s aggregation and loss- and gain-of-...

    Authors: Pranesh Padmanabhan, Andrew Kneynsberg, Esteban Cruz, Adam Briner and Jürgen Götz
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:7
  28. Entorhinal cortical (EC)-hippocampal (HPC) circuits are crucial for learning and memory. Although it was traditionally believed that superficial layers (II/III) of the EC mainly project to the HPC and deep lay...

    Authors: Naoki Yamamoto, Jun Yokose, Kritika Ramesh, Takashi Kitamura and Sachie K. Ogawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:5
  29. The central nervous system (CNS) is finely protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Immune soluble factors such as cytokines (CKs) are normally produced in the CNS, contributing to physiological immunosurve...

    Authors: Roberta Amoriello, Christian Memo, Laura Ballerini and Clara Ballerini
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:4
  30. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the loss of memory due to aggregation of misphosphorylated tau and amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques in the brain, elevated release of inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-ami...

    Authors: Mridula Bhalla and C. Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:3
  31. In the human and Drosophila color vision system, each photoreceptor neuron (cone cell in humans and R7/R8 photoreceptor cell in Drosophila) makes a stochastic decision to express a single photopigment of the same...

    Authors: Gabrielle Lim-Kian-Siang, Arianna R. Izawa-Ishiguro and Yong Rao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:2
  32. O-GlcNAcylation is a posttranslational modification where N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is attached and detached from a serine/threonine position by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase. In addit...

    Authors: Seunghyo Han, Jun-Nyeong Kim, Chan Ho Park, Jin-Seok Byun, Do-Yeon Kim and Hyoung-Gon Ko
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2024 17:1
  33. Unraveling the intricate relationship between mechanical factors and brain activity is a pivotal endeavor, yet the underlying mechanistic model of signaling pathways in brain mechanotransduction remains enigma...

    Authors: Arjun Raha, Yuning Wu, Lily Zhong, Jatheeshan Raveenthiran, Minji Hong, Aftab Taiyab, Li Wang, Bill Wang and Fei Geng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:83
  34. Cognitive dysfunction increases as menopause progresses. We previously found that estrogen receptors (ERs) contribute to dyslipidemia, but the specific relationship between ERs, dyslipidemia and cognitive dysf...

    Authors: Qinghai Meng, Ying Chao, Shurui Zhang, Xue Ding, Han Feng, Chenyan Zhang, Bowen Liu, Weijie Zhu, Yu Li, Qichun Zhang, Huangjin Tong, Lixing Wu and Huimin Bian
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:80
  35. Protein kinases are responsible for protein phosphorylation and are involved in important intracellular signal transduction pathways in various cells, including neurons; however, a considerable number of poorl...

    Authors: Di Ja Lasham, Reza K. Arta, Abdul Fuad Hadi, Jun Egawa, Vance P. Lemmon, Toshiyuki Takasugi, Michihiro Igarashi and Toshiyuki Someya
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:79
  36. A critical feature of episodic memory formation is to associate temporally segregated events as an episode, called temporal association learning. The medial entorhinal cortical-hippocampal (EC-HPC) networks is...

    Authors: Jun Yokose, Naoki Yamamoto, Sachie K. Ogawa and Takashi Kitamura
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:78
  37. Optogenetics has revolutionised neuroscience research, but at the same time has brought a plethora of new variables to consider when designing an experiment with AAV-based targeted gene delivery. Some concerns...

    Authors: Sanaz Ansarifar, Gabija Andreikė, Milad Nazari, Rodrigo Labouriau, Sadegh Nabavi and Andrea Moreno
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:77
  38. Familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1) is a form of migraine with aura caused by mutations in the P/Q-type (Cav2.1) voltage-gated calcium channel. Pregabalin, used clinically in the treatment of chronic p...

    Authors: Stuart M. Cain, Sascha R. A. Alles, Ray Gopaul, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Andrew C. Yung, Andrew Bauman, Yi Yang, Glen B. Baker, Piotr Kozlowski, Brian A. MacVicar and Terrance P. Snutch
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:76
  39. Non-familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) occurring before 65 years of age is commonly referred to as early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) and constitutes ~ 5–6% of all AD cases (Mendez et al. in Continuum 25:34...

    Authors: Phoebe Valdes, Kenneth W. Henry, Michael Q. Fitzgerald, Koushik Muralidharan, Andrew B. Caldwell, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Lawrence S. B. Goldstein, William C. Mobley, Douglas R. Galasko and Shankar Subramaniam
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:75
  40. Necroptosis is known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia; however, its role in the occurrence of secondary thalamic injury after focal cerebral infarction and the mechanism ab...

    Authors: Yanyan Tang, Quanhong Chu, Guanfeng Xie, Yafu Tan, Ziming Ye and Chao Qin
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:74
  41. Calcium ions (Ca2+) play pivotal roles in regulating diverse brain functions, including cognition, emotion, locomotion, and learning and memory. These functions are intricately regulated by a variety of Ca2+-depe...

    Authors: Yeon Hee Kook, Hyoin Lee, Jinsu Lee, Yeonji Jeong, Jaerang Rho, Won Do Heo and Sangkyu Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:73

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