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  1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a critical tool for gene delivery through its durable transgene expression and safety profile. Among many serotypes, AAV2-retro is typically utilized for dissecting neura...

    Authors: Ryota Nakahama, Aika Saito, Sensho Nobe, Kazuya Togashi, Ikuo K. Suzuki, Akira Uematsu and Kazuo Emoto
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:70
  2. HIV is a major global public threat burdening society, yet the exact mechanism of HIV pathogenesis needs to be elucidated. In the era of epigenetic therapy, N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) changes indu...

    Authors: Vaishnavi Sundar, Jay P. McLaughlin and Thangavel Samikkannu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:69
  3. Protein kinases are responsible for protein phosphorylation and are involved in important signal transduction pathways; however, a considerable number of poorly characterized kinases may be involved in neurona...

    Authors: Jun Egawa, Reza K. Arta, Vance P. Lemmon, Melissa Muños-Barrero, Yan Shi, Michihiro Igarashi and Toshiyuki Someya
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:68
  4. As in neurons, CNS myelin expresses N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors (NMDARs) that subserve physiological roles, but have the potential to induce injury to this vital element. Using 2-photon imaging of myelinic...

    Authors: Shigeki Tsutsui, Megan Morgan, Hugo Tedford, Haitao You, Gerald W. Zamponi and Peter K. Stys
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:67
  5. Psychiatric disorders and neuroticism are closely associated with central nervous system, whose proper functioning depends on efficient protein renewal. This study aims to systematically analyze the associatio...

    Authors: Bolun Cheng, Xuena Yang, Shiqiang Cheng, Chun’e Li, Huijie Zhang, Li Liu, Peilin Meng, Yumeng Jia, Yan Wen and Feng Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:66
  6. Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by bilateral calcified deposits in the brain. We previously identified that MYORG as the first pathogenic gene for autosomal re...

    Authors: Miao Zhao, Xiao-Hong Lin, Yi-Heng Zeng, Hui-Zhen Su, Chong Wang, Kang Yang, Yi-Kun Chen, Bi-Wei Lin, Xiang-Ping Yao and Wan-Jin Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:65
  7. The cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil is used to improve Aβ pathology and cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the impact of donepezil on tau pathology is unclear. Thus, we e...

    Authors: Hee-Jeong Choi, Jin-Hee Park, Yoo Joo Jeong, Jeong-Woo Hwang, Soojung Lee, Heeyong Lee, Eunyoung Seol, Ik-whi Kim, Byung-Yoon Cha, Jinsoo Seo, Minho Moon and Hyang-Sook Hoe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:63
  8. Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) is the most widespread type of brain trauma worldwide. The cumulative injury effect triggers long-lasting pathological and molecular changes that may increase ri...

    Authors: Alexander Morin, Roderick Davis, Teresa Darcey, Michael Mullan, Benoit Mouzon and Fiona Crawford
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:62
  9. Cell senescence is a basic aging mechanism. Previous studies have found that the cellular senescence in adipose tissue and other tissues, such as the pancreas, muscle and liver, is associated with the pathogen...

    Authors: Wen-Jiao Xue, Cheng-Feng He, Ren-Yuan Zhou, Xiao-Die Xu, Lv-Xuan Xiang, Jian-Tao Wang, Xin-Ru Wang, Hou-Guang Zhou and Jing-Chun Guo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:61
  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) is a lipid second messenger that is crucial for the synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory in pyramidal neurons in the brain. Our previous study unco...

    Authors: Yoshibumi Ueda, Naotoshi Sugimoto and Takeaki Ozawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:59
  11. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament light chain (NFL), tau and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) are five neuroglial proteins that are used as CSF or...

    Authors: Karl Sjölin, Kim Kultima, Anders Larsson, Eva Freyhult, Christina Zjukovskaja, Kanar Alkass and Joachim Burman
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:52
  12. Cerebral malaria is the most serious complication of malaria infection, with 26% of surviving children having neurological sequelae, which may be caused by neuron damage, but the mechanism is not clear. Ferrop...

    Authors: Jiao Liang, Yan Shen, Yi Wang, Yuxiao Huang, Jun Wang, Qinghao Zhu, Guodong Tong, Kangjie Yu, Wei Cao, Qi Wang, Yinghui Li and Ya Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:57
  13. Hippocampal CA1 parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV INs) play a central role in controlling principal cell activity and orchestrating network oscillations. PV INs receive excitatory inputs from CA3 Schaffe...

    Authors: Abdessattar Khlaifia, Eve Honoré, Julien Artinian, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:56
  14. During neuronal differentiation, neuroprogenitor cells become polarized, change shape, extend axons, and form complex dendritic trees. While growing, axons are guided by molecular cues to their final destinati...

    Authors: Érico Moreto Lins, Natássia Cristina Martins Oliveira, Osvaldo Reis, Adriano Ferrasa, Roberto Herai, Alysson R. Muotri, Katlin Brauer Massirer and Mário Henrique Bengtson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:55
  15. Parkinson’s disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. FBXO7 (F-box protein only 7) (PARK15) mutations cause early-onset Parkinson’...

    Authors: Sachiko Noda, Shigeto Sato, Takahiro Fukuda, Shinichi Ueno, Norihiro Tada and Nobutaka Hattori
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:54
  16. Dysfunction of striatal dopaminergic circuits has been implicated in motor impairment and Parkinson’s disease (PD)-related circadian perturbations that may represent an early prodromal marker of PD. Cyclin-dep...

    Authors: Hu Zhou, Jingxin Zhang, Huaxiang Shi, Pengfei Li, Xin Sui, Yongan Wang and Liyun Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:53
  17. Alzheimer's disease is associated with various brain dysfunctions, including memory impairment, neuronal loss, astrocyte activation, amyloid-β plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Transgenic animal models of ...

    Authors: Sung Hyun Tag, Baeksun Kim, Jinhee Bae, Keun-A Chang and Heh-In Im
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:51
  18. Theta is one of the most prominent extracellular synchronous oscillations in the mammalian brain. Hippocampal theta relies on an intact medial septum (MS) and has been consistently recorded during the training...

    Authors: Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Andressa Radiske, Janine I. Rossato, Sergio Conde-Ocazionez, Lia R. M. Bevilaqua and Martín Cammarota
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:50
  19. The integrity of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is essential for normal central nervous system (CNS) functioning. Considering the significance of BBB in maintaining homeostasis and the neural environment, we ai...

    Authors: Hema Kumari Alajangi, Mandeep Kaur, Akanksha Sharma, Sumedh Rana, Shipali Thakur, Mary Chatterjee, Neha Singla, Pradeep Kumar Jaiswal, Gurpal Singh and Ravi Pratap Barnwal
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:49
  20. The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure that links multiple forebrain areas with the mid/hindbrain monoaminergic systems. As an anti-reward center, it has been implicated in the etiology of various neuro...

    Authors: Hyun Jung Kim, Hyeijung Yoo, Ji Yeon Kim, Soo Hyun Yang, Hyun Woo Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee, Gi Hoon Son and Hyun Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:48
  21. The cerebral organoid (CO) model has been used in the study of various neurodegenerative diseases owing to its physiological implications. However, the CO model may only be representative of certain clinical f...

    Authors: Ju-Hyun Lee, Geon Yoo, Juhyun Choi, Si-Hyung Park, Hyogeun Shin, Renuka Prasad, Yeunehee Lee, Mee Ryung Ahn, Il-Joo Cho and Woong Sun
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:46
  22. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein-2 (SV2) is a family of proteins consisting of SV2A, SV2B, and SV2C. This protein family has attracted attention in recent years after SV2A was shown to be an epileptic drug target...

    Authors: Burcu A. Pazarlar, Sanjay S. Aripaka, Viktor Petukhov, Lars Pinborg, Konstantin Khodosevich and Jens D. Mikkelsen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:45
  23. Although dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have been so far classified according to the difference in their fibers (Aβ, Aδ, and C), this classification should be further subdivided according to gene expressio...

    Authors: Taisei Noguri, Dai Hatakeyama, Takashi Kitahashi, Kotaro Oka and Etsuro Ito
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:44
  24. Auxiliary CaVβ subunits interact with the pore forming CaVα1 subunit to promote the plasma membrane expression of high voltage-activated calcium channels and to modulate the biophysical properties of Ca2+ current...

    Authors: Laurent Ferron, Sydney D. Guderyan, Ethan J. Smith and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:43
  25. Neuropeptides act mostly on a class of G-protein coupled receptors, and play a fundamental role in the functions of neural circuits underlying behaviors. However, physiological functions of some neuropeptide r...

    Authors: Guo Zhang, Shi-Qi Guo, Si-Yuan Yin, Wang-Ding Yuan, Ping Chen, Ji-il Kim, Hui-Ying Wang, Hai-Bo Zhou, Abraham J. Susswein, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Jian Jing
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:42
  26. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors have been investigated for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Here, we assessed the antiallodynic effects of a novel MAO-B inhibitor, KDS2010, on paclitaxel (PTX)-induced mec...

    Authors: Su Eun Park, Chiranjivi Neupane, Chan Noh, Ramesh Sharma, Hyun Jin Shin, Thuy Linh Pham, Gyu-Seung Lee, Ki Duk Park, C. Justin Lee, Dong-Wook Kang, So Yeong Lee, Hyun-Woo Kim and Jin Bong Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:41
  27. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem worldwide which causes high mortality and disability. Functioning as microRNA (miRNA) sponges, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) regulates the expressio...

    Authors: Siqi Wang, Yiyu Sun, Shaobo Hu, Cen Lou and Yuan-Bo Pan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:40

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2022 15:60

  28. Adult neurogenesis, the proliferation and integration of newly generated neurons, has been observed in the adult mammalian hippocampus of many species. Numerous studies have also found adult neurogenesis in th...

    Authors: Dylan J. Terstege, Kwaku Addo-Osafo, G. Campbell Teskey and Jonathan R. Epp
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:38
  29. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) /p35 is involved in many developmental processes of the central nervous system. Cdk5/p35 is also implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Several lines of condit...

    Authors: Miyuki Takahashi, Takeru Nakabayashi, Naoki Mita, Xiaohua Jin, Yuta Aikawa, Kodai Sasamoto, Goichi Miyoshi, Mariko Miyata, Takafumi Inoue and Toshio Ohshima
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:37
  30. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) induced by perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neurological disability among infants. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), derived from artemisinin, well known as an anti...

    Authors: Qian Xiong, Xiaohuan Li, Lei Xia, Zhengyu Yao, Xiuyu Shi and Zhifang Dong
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:36
  31. RUN and FYVE domain-containing 3 (Rufy3) is a well-known adapter protein of a small GTPase protein family and is bound to the activated Ras family protein to maintain neuronal polarity. However, in experimenta...

    Authors: Yang Wang, Jianguo Xu, Wanchun You, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Zhengquan Yu, Haiying Li and Gang Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:35
  32. Authors: Tomoya Takemoto, Masayuki Baba, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Kohei Kitagawa, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Kaoru Seiriki, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Atsushi Kasai, Daisuke Mori, Norio Ozaki, Kazuhiro Takuma, Ryota Hashimoto, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:34

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2022 15:26

  33. Abnormal white matter is a common neurobiological change in bipolar disorder, and dysregulation of myelination in oligodendrocytes (OLs) is the cause. Transmembrane protein 108 (Tmem108), as a susceptible gene of...

    Authors: Yongqiang Wu, Yanzi Zhong, Xufeng Liao, Xiangguang Miao, Jianbo Yu, Xinsheng Lai, Yu Zhang, Chaolin Ma, Haili Pan and Shunqi Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:33
  34. As the proportion of elderly in society increases, so do the number of older patients undergoing surgical procedures. This is concerning as exposure to anesthesia has been identified as a risk factor for Alzhe...

    Authors: Ryo Niikura, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Kenkichi Takase, Hiroki Sasaguri, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido and Takahisa Goto
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:32
  35. NeuroD1-induced microglia-to-neuron conversion is hotly debated. Recently, we published a paper in Neuron demonstrating that NeuroD1 cannot induce microglia-to-neuron cross-lineage conversion. In the same issue o...

    Authors: Yanxia Rao and Bo Peng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:31
  36. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a regulator of chromatin organization and has direct effects on gene transcription. Mutations in CTCF have been identified in individuals with neurodevelopmental conditions. Ther...

    Authors: Liron Davis, Prudhvi Raj Rayi, Dmitriy Getselter, Hanoch Kaphzan and Evan Elliott
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:30
  37. Olfactory receptors have been detected in extraolfactory organs. Olfactory receptor 78 (Olfr78), proposed to respond to small organic acids, is widely expressed in the kidney, arterioles, colon, and prostate. ...

    Authors: Akiko Nakashima, Noriyuki Nakashima, Kie Nakashima and Makoto Takano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:29
  38. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (Hif1α) plays a crucial role in brain development. To study the function of Hif1α in early brain development, we generated neuroepithelial cell-specific Hif1α-knockout mice. Hif1α-kno...

    Authors: Daisuke Sakai, Takeru Sugawara, Tomonori Kurokawa, Yuki Murakami, Mitsuhiro Tomosugi, Hiroko Masuta, Hiromi Sakata-Haga, Toshihisa Hatta and Hiroki Shoji
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:28
  39. Abnormal deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites is the hallmark lesion in Parkinson’s disease (PD). These aggregates, thought to be the culprit of disease pathogenesis, spread th...

    Authors: Joo-Ok Min, Timo Strohäker, Byung-Chul Jeong, Markus Zweckstetter and Seung-Jae Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:27
  40. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by specific social symptoms, restricted interests, stereotyped repetitive behaviors, and delayed language development. The 3q29 mi...

    Authors: Tomoya Takemoto, Masayuki Baba, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Kohei Kitagawa, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Kaoru Seiriki, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Atsushi Kasai, Daisuke Mori, Norio Ozaki, Kazuhiro Takuma, Ryota Hashimoto, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:26

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2022 15:34

  41. The activation and dysregulation of retrotransposons has been identified in the CNS of individuals with the fatal neurodegenerative disorder Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This includes elements from mul...

    Authors: Abigail L. Pfaff, Vivien J. Bubb, John P. Quinn and Sulev Koks
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:25
  42. Alterations in long-range functional connectivity between distinct brain regions are thought to contribute to the encoding of memory. However, little is known about how the activation of an existing network of...

    Authors: Tomonori Takeuchi, Makoto Tamura, Dorothy Tse, Yasushi Kajii, Guillén Fernández and Richard G. M. Morris
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:24
  43. Calsyntenins (CLSTNs) are important synaptic molecules whose molecular functions are not fully understood. Although mutations in calsyntenin (CLSTN) genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders in humans...

    Authors: Keita Mori, Michinori Koebis, Kazuki Nakao, Shizuka Kobayashi, Yuji Kiyama, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshiya Manabe, Yuichi Iino and Atsu Aiba
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:23
  44. The accumulation of neurotoxic proteins characteristic of age-related neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases is associated with the perturbation of metabolism, bioenergetics...

    Authors: Van N. Huynh, Gloria A. Benavides, Michelle S. Johnson, Xiaosen Ouyang, Balu K. Chacko, Edie Osuma, Toni Mueller, John Chatham, Victor M. Darley-Usmar and Jianhua Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:22
  45. It is unclear why orexin-deficient animals, but not wild-type mice, show cataplexy. The current hypothesis predicts simultaneous excitation of cataplexy-inhibiting orexin neurons and cataplexy-inducing amygdal...

    Authors: Shi Zhou, Akira Yamashita, Jingyang Su, Yang Zhang, Wuyang Wang, Liying Hao, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:21

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