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  1. The defining features of a neuron are its functional and anatomical connections with thousands of other neurons in the brain. Together, these neurons form functional networks that direct animal behavior. Curre...

    Authors: Audrey Tze Ting Khoo, Paul Jong Kim, Ho Min Kim and H. Shawn Je

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:101

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying how chronic pain induces maladaptive alterations to local circuits in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while emerging, remain unresolved. Consistent evidence sho...

    Authors: John Cheriyan and Patrick L. Sheets

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:100

    Content type: Micro report

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  3. The serotonin (5-HT) system is the target of multiple anxiolytics, including Buspirone, which is a partial agonist of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A). Similarly, ligands of the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A...

    Authors: Anes Ju, Beatriz Fernandez-Arroyo, Yifan Wu, Débora Jacky and Anna Beyeler

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:99

    Content type: Research

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  4. Members of the leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (LAR-RPTP) family, comprising PTPσ, PTPδ and LAR, are key hubs for presynaptic assembly and differentiation in vertebrate n...

    Authors: Kyung Ah Han, Hee-Yoon Lee, Dongseok Lim, Jungsu Shin, Taek Han Yoon, Xinran Liu, Ji Won Um, Se-Young Choi and Jaewon Ko

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:94

    Content type: Research

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  5. Viral infection during pregnancy has been suggested to increase the probability of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring via the phenomenon of maternal immune activation (MIA). This has been modeled in r...

    Authors: Tetsuya Sasaki, Saki Tome and Yosuke Takei

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:93

    Content type: Short report

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  6. Accumulating evidence implicates dysregulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the effects of ketamine on synaptic plasticity and their contribution to its mec...

    Authors: Lily R. Aleksandrova, Yu Tian Wang and Anthony G. Phillips

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:92

    Content type: Research

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  7. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious psychiatric disorder, affecting not only the childbearing women but also the health of their offsprings. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene is an important ...

    Authors: Jing Liu, Fantao Meng, Juanjuan Dai, Min Wu, Wentao Wang, Cuilan Liu, Di Zhao, Hongcai Wang, Jingyan Zhang and Chen Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:91

    Content type: Research

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  8. Drp1 is widely expressed in the mouse central nervous system and plays a role in inducing the mitochondrial fission process. Many diseases are associated with Drp1 and mitochondria. However, since the exact di...

    Authors: Ting-Ting Luo, Chun-Qiu Dai, Jia-Qi Wang, Zheng-Mei Wang, Yi Yang, Kun-Long Zhang, Fei-Fei Wu, Yan-Ling Yang and Ya-Yun Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:90

    Content type: Research

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  9. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive cognitive decline and the loss of neurons in the central nervous system; many are also characterized by abnormal aggregation of misfolded proteins. U...

    Authors: Chul-Woo Park, Byung-Kwon Jung and Kwon-Yul Ryu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:89

    Content type: Micro report

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  10. Genetic and epigenetic factors contribute to the development of the spinal cord. Failure in correct exertion of the developmental programs, including neurulation, neural tube closure and neurogenesis of the di...

    Authors: Angelica Gray de Cristoforis, Francesco Ferrari, Frédéric Clotman and Tanja Vogel

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:85

    Content type: Research

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  11. Clozapine is thought to induce obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenic patients. However, because OCS are often comorbid with schizophrenia regardless of clozapine treatment, it remains unclear wh...

    Authors: Shinwon Kang, Hyun Jong Noh, Soo Hyeon Bae, Yong-Seok Kim, Hogun Lew, Jisoo Lim, Se Joo Kim, Kyung Sue Hong, Jong-Cheol Rah and Chul Hoon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:84

    Content type: Micro report

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  12. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Ocular hypertension is a major risk factor for glaucoma and recent work has demonstrated critical early neuroinflammatory insults occur in the optic n...

    Authors: James R. Tribble, Jeffrey M. Harder, Pete A. Williams and Simon W. M. John

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:81

    Content type: Research

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  13. Zhu-Tokita-Takenouchi-Kim (ZTTK) syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, brain malformation, facial dysmorphism, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and some visceral ...

    Authors: Masashi Ueda, Tohru Matsuki, Masahide Fukada, Shima Eda, Akie Toya, Akio Iio, Hidenori Tabata and Atsuo Nakayama

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:80

    Content type: Research

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  14. The synapse is typically viewed as a single compartment, which acts as a linear gain controller on incoming input. Traditional plasticity rules enable this gain control to be dynamically optimized by Hebbian a...

    Authors: Rudi Tong, Nigel J. Emptage and Zahid Padamsey

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:79

    Content type: Review

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  15. Neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) play an essential role in homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Considering their ability to differentiate into specific lineages, their manipulation and control coul...

    Authors: Matteo Manzati, Teresa Sorbo, Michele Giugliano and Laura Ballerini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:78

    Content type: Micro report

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  16. Mutations in the FUS gene cause a subset of ALS cases (ALS-FUS). The majority of FUS mutations are missense mutations affecting the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of FUS. In addition, a number of frameshift mu...

    Authors: Haiyan An, Camille Rabesahala de Meritens, Vladimir L. Buchman and Tatyana A. Shelkovnikova

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:77

    Content type: Micro report

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  17. Mutations in SLC6A1, encoding γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT-1), have been recently associated with a spectrum of epilepsy syndromes, intellectual disability and autism in clinic. However, the path...

    Authors: Jie Wang, Sarah Poliquin, Felicia Mermer, Jaclyn Eissman, Eric Delpire, Juexin Wang, Wangzhen Shen, Kefu Cai, Bing-Mei Li, Zong-Yan Li, Dong Xu, Gerald Nwosu, Carson Flamm, Wei-Ping Liao, Yi-Wu Shi and Jing-Qiong Kang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:76

    Content type: Research

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  18. Previous studies of the alpha-synuclein null mutant mice on the C57Bl6 genetic background have revealed reduced number of dopaminergic neurons in their substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). However, the prese...

    Authors: Valeria V. Goloborshcheva, Kirill D. Chaprov, Ekaterina V. Teterina, Ruslan Ovchinnikov and Vladimir L. Buchman

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:75

    Content type: Micro report

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  19. Psychoneuroimmunological studies have clearly demonstrated that both cellular and humoral immunity are related to major depression. Soluble ST2 is regarded as a key molecule regulating immune system as well as...

    Authors: Motoshi Kikuchi, Kenkichi Takase, Morisada Hayakawa, Hiroko Hayakawa, Shin-ichi Tominaga and Tsukasa Ohmori

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:74

    Content type: Research

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  20. Chronic pain can be the result of an underlying disease or condition, medical treatment, inflammation, or injury. The number of persons experiencing this type of pain is substantial, affecting upwards of 50 mi...

    Authors: Yuan Zhou, Song Cai, Kimberly Gomez, E. M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, Yingshi Ji, Shreya S. Bellampalli, Shizhen Luo, Aubin Moutal, A. A. Leslie Gunatilaka and Rajesh Khanna

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:73

    Content type: Research

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  21. Inositol phosphate metabolism has emerged as one of the key players in synaptic transmission. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1), which is responsible f...

    Authors: Min-Gyu Kim, Seungjae Zhang, Hoyong Park, Seung Ju Park, Seyun Kim and ChiHye Chung

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:72

    Content type: Micro report

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  22. Prion diseases and prion-like disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, are characterized by gliosis and accumulation of misfolded aggregated host proteins. Ablating microglia in prion-...

    Authors: James A. Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Williams, James Striebel and Bruce Chesebro

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:71

    Content type: Research

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  23. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder found in children. It is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxe...

    Authors: Shiho Suzuki, Ryo Kimura, Shingo Maegawa, Masatoshi Nakata and Masatoshi Hagiwara

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:70

    Content type: Micro report

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  24. Significant clinical symptoms of Cohen syndrome (CS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, include intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, postnatal microcephaly, retinal dystrophy, and intermittent neutr...

    Authors: You-Kyung Lee, Soo-Kyeong Lee, Suin Choi, Yang Hoon Huh, Ji-Hye Kwak, Yong-Seok Lee, Deok-Jin Jang, Jae-Hyung Lee, Kyungmin Lee, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Chae-Seok Lim and Jin-A Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:69

    Content type: Micro report

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  25. The linear nucleus (Li) was identified in 1978 from its projections to the cerebellum. However, there is no systematic study of its connections with other areas of the central nervous system possibly due to th...

    Authors: Huazheng Liang and George Paxinos

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:67

    Content type: Research

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  26. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), which carries lipids in the brain in the form of lipoproteins, plays an undisputed role...

    Authors: Wenchen Zhao, Jianjia Fan, Iva Kulic, Cheryl Koh, Amanda Clark, Johan Meuller, Ola Engkvist, Samantha Barichievy, Carina Raynoschek, Ryan Hicks, Marcello Maresca, Qi Wang, Dean G. Brown, Alvin Lok, Cameron Parro, Jerome Robert…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:66

    Content type: Research

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  27. It remains controversial whether circulating monocytes expressing CCR2 infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to pathogenicity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A previous report used...

    Authors: Hiroyasu Komiya, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuki Ogawa, Yuki Hatooka, Keita Takahashi, Atsuko Katsumoto, Shun Kubota, Haruko Nakamura, Misako Kunii, Mikiko Tada, Hiroshi Doi and Fumiaki Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:64

    Content type: Micro report

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  28. Neuroinflammation is a secondary response following ischemia stroke. Arginine is a non-essential amino acid that has been shown to inhibit acute inflammatory reaction. In this study we show that arginine treat...

    Authors: Song-Feng Chen, Meng-Xian Pan, Jun-Chun Tang, Jing Cheng, Dan Zhao, Ya Zhang, Hua-Bao Liao, Rui Liu, Yang Zhuang, Zhi-Feng Zhang, Juan Chen, Rui-Xue Lei, Shi-Fang Li, Huan-Ting Li, Ze-Fen Wang and Qi Wan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:63

    Content type: Research

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  29. Physical activity impacts brain functions, but the direct mechanisms of this effect are not fully recognized or understood. Among multidimensional changes induced by physical activity, brain fatty acids (FA) a...

    Authors: Arkadiusz Liśkiewicz, Marta Przybyła, Anna Wojakowska, Łukasz Marczak, Katarzyna Bogus, Marta Nowacka-Chmielewska, Daniela Liśkiewicz, Andrzej Małecki, Jarosław Barski, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik and Michal Toborek

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:62

    Content type: Research

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  30. Postoperative shivering and cold hypersensitivity are major side effects of acute and chronic opioid treatments respectively. TRPM8 is a cold and menthol-sensitive channel found in a subset of dorsal root gang...

    Authors: Mircea Iftinca, Lilian Basso, Robyn Flynn, Charlie Kwok, Corinne Roland, Ahmed Hassan, Manon Defaye, Rithwik Ramachandran, Tuan Trang and Christophe Altier

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:61

    Content type: Research

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  31. The roles of serotonergic and noradrenergic signaling in nociceptive processing in the central nervous system are well known. However, dopaminergic signaling is also relevant to various physical functions, inc...

    Authors: Shunpei Moriya, Akira Yamashita, Daiki Masukawa, Honami Setoyama, Yunsu Hwang, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:60

    Content type: Micro report

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  32. Sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 2 (SENP2) is a member of SENPs family involved in maturation of SUMO precursors and deSUMOylation of specific target, and is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS)....

    Authors: Dehua Huang, Huiqing Liu, Aoxue Zhu, Yi Zhou and Yong Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:59

    Content type: Research

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  33. Calcium dysregulation is a key pathological event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In studying approaches to mitigate this calcium overload, we identified the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), an axon...

    Authors: Baochang Qi, Yu Yang, Yingying Cheng, Di Sun, Xu Wang, Rajesh Khanna and Weina Ju

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:58

    Content type: Research

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  34. The neuroinflammation in the ischemic brain could occur as sterile inflammation in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, its long-term dynamic transcriptional changes remain poorly...

    Authors: Atsushi Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Jitsuishi, Takashi Hozumi, Jun Iwanami, Keiko Kitajo, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Yasutake Mori, Masaki Mogi and Setsu Sawai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:57

    Content type: Research

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  35. The receptor deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and its ligand netrin-1 are essential for axon guidance during development and are expressed by neurons in the mature brain. Netrin-1 recruits GluA1-containing α...

    Authors: Stephen D. Glasgow, Edwin W. Wong, Greta Thompson-Steckel, Nathalie Marcal, Philippe Séguéla, Edward S. Ruthazer and Timothy E. Kennedy

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:56

    Content type: Research

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  36. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are highly heterogeneous in clinical symptoms as well as etiologies. Mutations in SHANK2 are associated with ASD and accordingly, Sha...

    Authors: Yong-Seok Lee, Nam-Kyung Yu, Jeewan Chun, Jung-eun Yang, Chae-Seok Lim, Hyopil Kim, Gaeun Park, Jin-A Lee, Kyungmin Lee, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Jae-Hyung Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:54

    Content type: Short report

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  37. Pathogenic variants in the gene encoding the small GTPase Ras analogue in Brain 39b (RAB39B) are associated with early-onset parkinsonism. In this study we investigated the expression and localization of RAB39...

    Authors: Yujing Gao, Gabrielle R. Wilson, Sarah E. M. Stephenson, Mustapha Oulad-Abdelghani, Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Catriona A. McLean, Paul Q. Thomas, David I. Finkelstein and Paul J. Lockhart

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:52

    Content type: Short report

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