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  1. Affective disorders, which include anxiety and depression, are highly prevalent and have overwhelming emotional and physical symptoms. Despite human brain imaging studies, which have implicated the prefrontal ...

    Authors: Susan S Kim, Hansen Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Tao Chen, Valentina Mercaldo, Giannina Descalzi, Long-Jun Wu and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:6
  2. Animals constantly receive and respond to external or internal stimuli, and these experiences are learned and memorized in their brains. In animals, this is a crucial feature for survival, by making it possibl...

    Authors: Nam-Kyung Yu, Sung Hee Baek and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:5
  3. Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have...

    Authors: Yue Zhang, Hotaka Fukushima and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:4
  4. An important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of aggregations of small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ). ...

    Authors: Yun-wu Zhang, Robert Thompson, Han Zhang and Huaxi Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:3
  5. Directed evolution of biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins containing high diversity has emerged as an effective method to obtain molecules for various purposes. In the recent past, proteins from non-imm...

    Authors: Mohammed Naimuddin, Suzuko Kobayashi, Chihiro Tsutsui, Masayuki Machida, Naoto Nemoto, Takafumi Sakai and Tai Kubo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:2
  6. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) loads GABA and glycine from the neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles. To address functional importance of VGAT during embryonic development, we generated global VGAT ...

    Authors: Kenzi Saito, Toshikazu Kakizaki, Ryotaro Hayashi, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Tomonori Furukawa, Yoichi Nakazato, Shigeo Takamori, Satoe Ebihara, Masakazu Uematsu, Masayoshi Mishina, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Minesuke Yokoyama, Shiro Konishi, Koichi Inoue, Atsuo Fukuda, Manabu Fukumoto…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:40
  7. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the major ASIC subunit determining acid-activated currents in brain neurons. Recent studies show that ASIC1a play critical roles in acid-induced cell toxicity. While the...

    Authors: Wenying Jin, Chong Shen, Lan Jing, Xiang-ming Zha and Jun Xia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:39
  8. Concentrations of extracellular divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) fall substantially during intensive synaptic transmission as well as during some pathophysiological conditions such as epilepsy and brain ischemia....

    Authors: Xuanmao Chen, Tomohiro Numata, Minghua Li, Yasuo Mori, Beverley A Orser, Michael F Jackson, Zhi-Gang Xiong and John F MacDonald
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:38
  9. Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence implicating the glutamate system in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety disorders, thou...

    Authors: Mina Delawary, Tohru Tezuka, Yuji Kiyama, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Takeshi Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Ryota Hashimoto, Hisashi Umemori, Toshiya Manabe, Tadashi Yamamoto and Takanobu Nakazawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:37
  10. Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage c...

    Authors: Liang Feng, Zheng-hua Xie, Qian Ding, Xiaoling Xie, Richard T Libby and Lin Gan
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:36
  11. In recent years, several lines of evidence have shown an increase in Parkinson's disease prevalence in rural environments where pesticides are heavily used. Although, the underlying mechanism for neuronal dege...

    Authors: Binukumar BK, Amanjit Bal, Ramesh JL Kandimalla and Kiran Dip Gill
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:35
  12. It is hypothesized that complex interactions between multiple environmental factors and genetic factors are implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly unders...

    Authors: Latha Devi, Melissa J Alldred, Stephen D Ginsberg and Masuo Ohno
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:34
  13. Huntington's disease results from expansion of a glutamine repeat (>36 glutamines) in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (htt) and is characterized by preferential neurodegeneration in the striatum of the bra...

    Authors: Chuan-En Wang, Shihua Li and Xiao-Jiang Li
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:33
  14. Aβ peptides derived from the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein are widely believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. A common way to study the impact of these molecul...

    Authors: Jonathan Witton, Jon T Brown, Matthew W Jones and Andrew D Randall
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:32
  15. While several mouse strains have recently been developed for tracing neural crest or oligodendrocyte lineages, each strain has inherent limitations. The connection between human SOX10 mutations and neural crest c...

    Authors: Shinsuke Shibata, Akimasa Yasuda, Francois Renault-Mihara, Satoshi Suyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Takayoshi Inoue, Yukiko U Inoue, Narihito Nagoshi, Momoka Sato, Masaya Nakamura, Chihiro Akazawa and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:31
  16. Zinc dyshomeostasis has been recognized as an important mechanism for cell death in acute brain injury. An increase in the level of free or histochemically reactive zinc in astrocytes and neurons is considered...

    Authors: Sook-Jeong Lee and Jae-Young Koh
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:30
  17. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylates the major transcription factor, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which plays key roles in synaptic plasticity and memory cons...

    Authors: Hiroki Toyoda, Ming-Gao Zhao, Valentina Mercaldo, Tao Chen, Giannina Descalzi, Satoshi Kida and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:27
  18. New granule cells are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. During granule cell maturation, the mechanisms that differentiate new cells not only describe the degree of cell diff...

    Authors: Koji Ohira,, Hideo Hagihara,, Keiko Toyama,, Keizo Takao, Masaaki Kanai, Hiroshi Funakoshi, Toshikazu Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:26
  19. All antipsychotics work via dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), suggesting a critical role for D2Rs in psychosis; however, there is little evidence for a change in receptor number or pharmacological nature of D2Rs. ...

    Authors: Min Wang, Lin Pei, Paul J Fletcher, Shitij Kapur, Philip Seeman and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:25
  20. K+ channel interacting protein 1 (KChIP1) is a neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein that interacts with multiple intracellular molecules. Its physiological function, however, remains largely unknown. We report ....

    Authors: Kun Xia, Hui Xiong, Yeonsook Shin, Danling Wang, Tom Deerinck, Hiroto Takahashi, Mark H Ellisman, Stuart A Lipton, Gang Tong, Giannina Descalzi, Dongxian Zhang, Min Zhuo and Zhuohua Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:23
  21. Growth factor-induced receptor dimerization and cross-phosphorylation are hallmarks of signal transduction via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can activate RTKs through a ...

    Authors: Sum Shing Chi, Sandra M Vetiska, Robin S Gill, Marilyn S Hsiung, Fang Liu and Hubert HM Van Tol
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:22
  22. Synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices have been studied during ageing of a double transgenic mouse strain relevant to early-onset familial Alzheimer's d...

    Authors: Stephen M Fitzjohn, Frederick Kuenzi, Robin A Morton, Thomas W Rosahl, Huw Lewis, David Smith, Guy R Seabrook and Graham L Collingridge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:21
  23. Interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the prefrontal cortex are essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor functions by dopamine D...

    Authors: Jian-Li Hu, Gang Liu, Yan-Chun Li, Wen-Jun Gao and Yue-Qiao Huang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:20
  24. The establishment of tissue architecture in the nervous system requires the proper migration and positioning of newly born neurons during embryonic development. Defects in nuclear translocation, a key process ...

    Authors: Tarek Houalla, Lei Shi, Donald J van Meyel and Yong Rao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:19
  25. Huntingtin (htt) is a multi-domain protein of 350 kDa that is mutated in Huntington's disease (HD) but whose function is yet to be fully understood. This absence of information is due in part to the difficulty...

    Authors: Raúl Pardo, Maria Molina-Calavita, Ghislaine Poizat, Guy Keryer, Sandrine Humbert and Frédéric Saudou
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:17
  26. Mounting evidence suggests that neural oscillations are related to the learning and consolidation of newly formed memory in the mammalian brain. Four to seven Hertz (4-7 Hz) oscillations in the prefrontal cort...

    Authors: Hendrik W Steenland, Vincent Wu, Hotaka Fukushima, Satoshi Kida and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:16
  27. The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sp...

    Authors: Solomon Raju Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Xiu Luo, Dola Das, Ajay Singh and Neena Singh
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:14
  28. Neurogenesis occurs in the adult hippocampus of various animal species. A substantial fraction of newly generated neurons die before they mature, and the survival rate of new neurons are regulated in an experi...

    Authors: Takashi Kitamura, Yoshito Saitoh, Akiko Murayama, Hiroyuki Sugiyama and Kaoru Inokuchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:13
  29. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder. While neuronal deposition of α-synuclein serves as a pathological hallmark of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies, α-synuclein-positive protein aggre...

    Authors: Xing-Long Gu, Cai-Xia Long, Lixin Sun, Chengsong Xie, Xian Lin and Huaibin Cai
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:12
  30. A central feature of Alzheimer's disease is the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) by the β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. Although this has been shown to occ...

    Authors: Angela Lorenzen, Jonathan Samosh, Kenneth Vandewark, Pieter H Anborgh, Claudia Seah, Ana C Magalhaes, Sean P Cregan, Stephen SG Ferguson and Stephen H Pasternak
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:11
  31. Synaptic defects represent a major mechanism underlying altered brain functions of patients suffering Alzheimer's disease (AD) [13]. An increasing body of work indicates that the oligomeric forms of β-amyloid (A...

    Authors: Yanfang Rui, Jiaping Gu, Kuai Yu, H Criss Hartzell and James Q Zheng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:10
  32. Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve learned information. Long-term memory (LTM) formation requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins....

    Authors: David Rosenegger, Cynthia Wright and Ken Lukowiak
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:9
  33. Extensive studies have led to a variety of hypotheses for the molecular basis of depression and related mood disorders, but a definite pathogenic mechanism has yet to be defined. The monoamine hypothesis, in c...

    Authors: Saebom Lee, Jaehoon Jeong, Yongdo Kwak and Sang Ki Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:8
  34. The presenilins form part of a complex of membrane proteins that are involved in the proteolytic cleavage of cell-surface molecules. This article reviews the history of the discovery of the presenilins, their ...

    Authors: David H Small, David W Klaver and Lisa Foa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:7
  35. Direct interaction with the β subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex causes voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium channels. To further characterize the molecular determinants of this interact...

    Authors: Hugo W Tedford, Alexandra E Kisilevsky, Lucienne B Vieira, Diego Varela, Lina Chen and Gerald W Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:6
  36. The molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neuronal progenitor cells and finally into neurons are gradually being revealed. The lack of convenient means for real-ti...

    Authors: Hiroaki Kanki, Marilia Kimie Shimabukuro, Atsushi Miyawaki and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:5
  37. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled via Gαq/11 to the activation of phospholipase Cβ, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to form inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Thi...

    Authors: Alexander A Nicodemo, Macarena Pampillo, Lucimar T Ferreira, Lianne B Dale, Tamara Cregan, Fabiola M Ribeiro and Stephen SG Ferguson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:4
  38. The downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, binds specifically to DNA and several nucleoproteins regulating gene expression and with proteins outside th...

    Authors: Long-Jun Wu, Britt Mellström, Hansen Wang, Ming Ren, Sofia Domingo, Susan S Kim, Xiang-Yao Li, Tao Chen, Jose R Naranjo and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:3
  39. Studies into the mechanisms of corticosteroid action continue to be a rich bed of research, spanning the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology through to immunology and metabolism. However, the vast literat...

    Authors: Therese Riedemann, Alexandre V Patchev, Kwangwook Cho and Osborne FX Almeida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:2
  40. Although some reports indicate that protein synthesis dependent process may be induced by updating information, the role of protein synthesis and degradation in changing the content of pre-existing memory is y...

    Authors: Jun-Hyeok Choi, Jung-Eun Kim and Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:1
  41. Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells is a promising approach toward functional restoration of the damaged neural tissue, but the injured spinal cord has been shown to be an adverse environment for t...

    Authors: Fujiki Numano, Akihiro Inoue, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Kenichi Shinomiya, Atsushi Okawa and Shigeo Okabe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:37
  42. Previous studies have demonstrated tissue-specific regulation of the rhythm of circadian transcription, suggesting that transcription factor complex CLOCK/BMAL1, essential for maintaining circadian rhythm, reg...

    Authors: Hiroshi Hosoda, Kenichi kato, Hidenori Asano, Motonori Ito, Haruno Kato, Taku Iwamoto, Akinobu Suzuki, Shoichi Masushige and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2009 2:34

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