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  1. Although dyslipidemia in the brain has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis have been largely unclear. PDZD8 is a lipid transfer protein and mice...

    Authors: Yuji Kurihara, Kotone Mitsunari, Nagi Mukae, Hirotaka Shoji, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Michiko Shirane
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:11
  2. The consolidation of learned information into long-lasting memories requires the strengthening of synaptic connections through de novo protein synthesis. Translation initiation factors play a cardinal role in ...

    Authors: Shane Wiebe, Ziying Huang, Reese Jalal Ladak, Agnieszka Skalecka, Roberta Cagnetta, Jean-Claude Lacaille, Argel Aguilar-Valles and Nahum Sonenberg
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:9
  3. Saltatory conduction is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated nerves, which enables fast propagation through the node of Ranvier. Recently, we demonstrated that K2P channels, TWIK-related K+ chann...

    Authors: Hirosato Kanda, Koichi Noguchi and Yi Dai
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:8
  4. Studies of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) is involved in AD pathology. However, the effects of NOS2 on the pathology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) ...

    Authors: Jieun Kim, Jung-Youn Han, Yujeong Lee, Kipom Kim, Young Pyo Choi, Sehyun Chae and Hyang-Sook Hoe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:7
  5. Synaptic degeneration is a precursor of synaptic and neuronal loss in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia with tau pathology (FTD-tau), a group of primary ta...

    Authors: Deonne Taylor, Andrew Kneynsberg, Marloes van Roijen and Jürgen Götz
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:6
  6. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a key cellular mechanism for learning and memory, and recent studies in the hippocampus found that LTP was impaired in aged animals. Previous studies of cortical LTP have focuse...

    Authors: Si-Bo Zhou, Man Xue, Weiqi Liu, Yu-Xin Chen, Qi-Yu Chen, Jing-Shan Lu, Jinjun Wang, Keqiang Ye, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:4
  7. Pain is known to have sensory and affective components. The sensory pain component is encoded by neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), whereas the emotional or affective pain experience is in large...

    Authors: Guanghao Sun, Michael McCartin, Weizhuo Liu, Qiaosheng Zhang, George Kenefati, Zhe Sage Chen and Jing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:3
  8. The 14-3-3 protein family with seven isoforms found in mammals is widely expressed in the brain and plays various roles in cellular processes. Several studies have reported that 14-3-3γ, one of the 14-3-3 prot...

    Authors: Eunsil Cho, Jinsil Park, Eun Mi Hwang, Hyung Wook Kim and Jae-Yong Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:2
  9. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by knee cartilage degeneration and secondary bone hyperplasia, resulting in pain, stiffness, and gait disturbance. The relationship between knee OA and neurodegenerati...

    Authors: Deepak Prasad Gupta, Young-Sun Lee, Youngshik Choe, Kun-Tae Kim, Gyun Jee Song and Sun-Chul Hwang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2023 16:1
  10. Recent evidence indicates that ultraviolet (UV) exposure of the skin can affect brain functions such as learning and memory, addictive behavior, and hippocampal neurogenesis. These changes are closely associat...

    Authors: Kyeong-No Yoon, Yujin Kim, Yidan Cui, Jungeun Ji, Gunhyuk Park, Jin Ho Chung, Yong-Seok Lee, Joon-Yong An and Dong Hun Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:102
  11. Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory originate from long-term synaptic changes in hippocampal networks. The activity of CA1 somatostatin interneurons (SOM-INs) during aversive stimulation is necessary for...

    Authors: Eve Honoré and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:101
  12. We recently reported that a neuronal population in the claustrum (CLA) identified under exposure to psychological stressors plays a key role in stress response processing. Upon stress exposure, the main inputs...

    Authors: Masato Tanuma, Misaki Niu, Jin Ohkubo, Hiroki Ueno, Yuka Nakai, Yoshihisa Yokoyama, Kaoru Seiriki, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Atsushi Kasai
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:100
  13. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura. Traditional CSD models are invasive and often cause injuries. The aim of the study was to establish a minimally in...

    Authors: Chenghui Pi, Wenjing Tang, Zhishuai Li, Yang Liu, Qi Jing, Wei Dai, Tao Wang, Chunxiao Yang and Shengyuan Yu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:99
  14. The mechanism of assembly of RNA polymerase III (Pol III), the 17-subunit enzyme that synthesizes tRNAs, 5 S rRNA, and other small-nuclear (sn) RNAs in eukaryotes, is not clearly understood. The recent discove...

    Authors: Maxime Pinard, Samaneh Dastpeyman, Christian Poitras, Geneviève Bernard, Marie-Soleil Gauthier and Benoit Coulombe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:98
  15. Intercellular communication between vascular and nerve cells mediated by diffusible proteins has recently emerged as a critical intrinsic program for neural development. However, whether the vascular smooth mu...

    Authors: Xuzhao Li, Lili Zhou, Xiaoxuan Zhang, Yuxiao Jin, Bingrui Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Chengjie Xi, Jiayu Ruan, Zhu Zhu and Jie-Min Jia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:97
  16. Dopamine-deficient (DD) mice exhibit psychomotor hyperactivity that might be related to a decrease in muscarinic signaling. In the present study, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) density decreased ...

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yukiko Ochiai, Yoko Hagino, Kazuto Kobayashi, Geoffrey Pavey, Brian Dean and Kazutaka Ikeda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:96
  17. Activation of nociceptin opioid peptide receptors (NOP, a.k.a. opioid-like receptor-1, ORL-1) by the ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ, leads to G protein-dependent regulation of Cav2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated calc...

    Authors: Emanuelle Sistherenn Caminski, Flavia Tasmin Techera Antunes, Ivana Assis Souza, Eliane Dallegrave and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:95
  18. Calcineurin (Cn), a phosphatase important for synaptic plasticity and neuronal development, has been implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, intel...

    Authors: Hideo Hagihara, Hirotaka Shoji, Mahomi Kuroiwa, Isabella A. Graef, Gerald R. Crabtree, Akinori Nishi and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:94
  19. The development, maturation, and plasticity of neural circuits are strongly influenced by experience and the interaction of an individual with their environment can have a long-lasting effect on cognitive func...

    Authors: Pacifique Rukundo, Ting Feng, Vincent Pham and Simon Pieraut
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:92
  20. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare form of chronic neuropathic pain characterized by spontaneous or elicited paroxysms of electric shock-like or stabbing pain in a region of the face. While most cases occur i...

    Authors: Emilio R. Mustafá, Eder Gambeta, Robin N. Stringer, Ivana A. Souza, Gerald W. Zamponi and Norbert Weiss
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:91
  21. Dopamine (DA) plays a vital role in brain physiology and pathology such as learning and memory, motor control, neurological diseases, and psychiatric diseases. In neurons, it has been well established that DA ...

    Authors: Sunpil Kim, Jea Kwon, Mingu Gordon Park and C. Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:90
  22. Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a cytosolic protein expressed in mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). OMP modulates cAMP signalling and regulates olfactory sensation and axonal targeting. OMP is a small...

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakashima, Akiko Nakashima, Kie Nakashima and Makoto Takano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:89
  23. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a heterogeneous midbrain structure involved in various brain functions, such as motor control, learning, reward, and sleep. Previous studies using conventional tracers hav...

    Authors: Qiao-Qiong Liu, Yu-Xiao Cheng, Qi Jing, Ke-Ming Zhang, Lu-Feng Ding, Xiao-Wei Fan, Chun-Hui Jia, Fang Xu, Guo-Qiang Bi and Pak-Ming Lau
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:88
  24. Olfactory maturation marker protein (OMP) is expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and hypothalamic neurons. OMP is a nested gene located in the intron of calpain 5 (CAPN5), a Ca2+-dep...

    Authors: Noriyuki Nakashima, Kie Nakashima, Akiko Nakashima and Makoto Takano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:87
  25. Microglia are highly dynamic immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglial processes interact with neuronal elements constantly on the order of minutes. The functional significance of this acute...

    Authors: Nan Gu, Min-Hee Yi, Madhuvika Murugan, Manling Xie, Sebastian Parusel, Jiyun Peng, Ukpong B. Eyo, Christine L. Hunt, Hailong Dong and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:86
  26. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is mainly expressed on the surface of myeloid cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. ...

    Authors: Chunyan Zhang, Xugang Kan, Baole Zhang, Haibo Ni and Jianfeng Shao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:84
  27. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) manifested before age 65 is commonly referred to as early-onset AD (EOAD) (Reitz et al. Neurol Genet. 2020;6:e512). While the majority (> 90%) of EOAD cases are not caused by autosomal...

    Authors: Andrew B. Caldwell, Balaji G. Anantharaman, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Phuong Nguyen, Qing Liu, Ivy Trinh, Douglas R. Galasko, Paula A. Desplats, Steven L. Wagner and Shankar Subramaniam
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:83
  28. Multisensory integration is vital for animals to make optimal decisions in a complicated sensory environment. However, the neural mechanisms for flexible multisensory behaviors are not well understood. Here, w...

    Authors: Ilsong Choi and Seung-Hee Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:82
  29. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs) are a major subpopulation of GABAergic cells in CA1 hippocampus that receive excitation from pyramidal cells (PCs) and provide feedback control of synaptic inputs...

    Authors: Ève Honoré, Inês Belo do Nascimento, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:81
  30. Tubby mice exhibit hearing impairment due to the loss of stereocilin from the tip regions that connect the tallest stereocilia of the outer hair cells (OHCs) to the tectorial membrane. Stereocilin is an essentia...

    Authors: Song Yi Youn, Hyehyun Min, Se Rok Jeong, Jiahn Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Jinwoong Bok and Chul Hoon Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:80
  31. The accumulation of beta amyloid in the brain has a complex and poorly understood impact on the progression of Parkinson’s disease pathology and much controversy remains regarding its role, specifically in cog...

    Authors: Alexander S. Mihaescu, Mikaeel Valli, Carme Uribe, Maria Diez-Cirarda, Mario Masellis, Ariel Graff-Guerrero and Antonio P. Strafella
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:79
  32. Our world is full of uncertainty. Animals, including humans, need to behave flexibly to adjust to ever-changing environments. Reversal learning tasks have been used to assess behavioral flexibility in many spe...

    Authors: Kohei Yamamoto, Kota Yamada, Saya Yatagai, Yusuke Ujihara and Koji Toda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:78
  33. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are thought to be associated with a wide range of phenomena, such as movement, learning, memory, attention, and addiction. However, the causal relationship between nicotinic r...

    Authors: Shohei Kaneko, Yasuyuki Niki, Kota Yamada, Daiki Nasukawa, Yusuke Ujihara and Koji Toda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:77
  34. Loss of function mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a postnatal neurological disorder. The loss of motor function is an important clinical f...

    Authors: Yuanlei Yue, Ryan T. Ash, Natalie Boyle, Anna Kinter, Yipeng Li, Chen Zeng and Hui Lu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:76
  35. Fibroblast growth factor 11 (FGF11) is a member of the intracellular fibroblast growth factor family. Here, we report the central role of FGF11 in the regulation of metabolism. Lentiviral injection of Fgf11 shRNA...

    Authors: Jae Hyun Cho, Kyungchan Kim, Han Chae Cho, Jaemeun Lee and Eun-Kyoung Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:75
  36. Accumulating evidence has shown that intestinal inflammations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also drive pathological responses in organs outside the intestine, including the brain. Previous studies using ...

    Authors: Chia-Shan Wu and Valerie Endres
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:74
  37. Migraine is a complex neurological disease of unknown etiology involving both genetic and environmental factors. It has previously been reported that persistent pain may be mediated by the immune and inflammat...

    Authors: Xuejiao Liu, Wenping Yang, Chenlu Zhu, Songtang Sun, Shouyi Wu, Longde Wang, Yonggang Wang and Zhaoming Ge
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:73
  38. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that has caused a global pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, there are no effective treatments specifica...

    Authors: Ping Su, Dongxu Zhai, Albert H. C. Wong and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:71
  39. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a critical tool for gene delivery through its durable transgene expression and safety profile. Among many serotypes, AAV2-retro is typically utilized for dissecting neura...

    Authors: Ryota Nakahama, Aika Saito, Sensho Nobe, Kazuya Togashi, Ikuo K. Suzuki, Akira Uematsu and Kazuo Emoto
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:70
  40. HIV is a major global public threat burdening society, yet the exact mechanism of HIV pathogenesis needs to be elucidated. In the era of epigenetic therapy, N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) changes indu...

    Authors: Vaishnavi Sundar, Jay P. McLaughlin and Thangavel Samikkannu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:69
  41. Protein kinases are responsible for protein phosphorylation and are involved in important signal transduction pathways; however, a considerable number of poorly characterized kinases may be involved in neurona...

    Authors: Jun Egawa, Reza K. Arta, Vance P. Lemmon, Melissa Muños-Barrero, Yan Shi, Michihiro Igarashi and Toshiyuki Someya
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:68
  42. As in neurons, CNS myelin expresses N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors (NMDARs) that subserve physiological roles, but have the potential to induce injury to this vital element. Using 2-photon imaging of myelinic...

    Authors: Shigeki Tsutsui, Megan Morgan, Hugo Tedford, Haitao You, Gerald W. Zamponi and Peter K. Stys
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:67
  43. Psychiatric disorders and neuroticism are closely associated with central nervous system, whose proper functioning depends on efficient protein renewal. This study aims to systematically analyze the associatio...

    Authors: Bolun Cheng, Xuena Yang, Shiqiang Cheng, Chun’e Li, Huijie Zhang, Li Liu, Peilin Meng, Yumeng Jia, Yan Wen and Feng Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:66
  44. Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by bilateral calcified deposits in the brain. We previously identified that MYORG as the first pathogenic gene for autosomal re...

    Authors: Miao Zhao, Xiao-Hong Lin, Yi-Heng Zeng, Hui-Zhen Su, Chong Wang, Kang Yang, Yi-Kun Chen, Bi-Wei Lin, Xiang-Ping Yao and Wan-Jin Chen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2022 15:65

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